Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among new mothers at 8 months later of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China

School of Social Development and Public Policy, China Institute of Health, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
Archives of Women s Mental Health (Impact Factor: 2.16). 02/2012; 15(1):49-55. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-011-0255-x
Source: PubMed


On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province. Recent studies have identified mental health problems among the survivors, but little is known about the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the mental health of new mothers in the area. The main objective was to assess the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and depression of new mothers. A total of 317 new mothers were interviewed in the hospital from January 2009 to March 2009. Symptoms of PTSD were measured using the impact of event scale-revised, and symptoms of postpartum depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The prevalence rates of PTSD and postpartum depression were 19.9% and 29.0%, respectively. Women with high earthquake exposure had higher risks of PTSD (odds ratio (OR), 5.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-19.97; P < 0.001) and postpartum depression (OR, 7.28; 95% CI, 2.51-21.08; P < 0.001) than women without earthquake experience. In addition, women with low monthly family income and farm workers had a higher risk of having PTSD; women who were unemployed or with lower monthly family income and poor sleep had a higher risk of having depression. Earthquake experience increased the risks of having PTSD and depression among new mothers at 8 months later of the earthquake.

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    • "Another study on the 1988 Armenian earthquake reported that 52% of adult survivors met the criteria for depression [11]. Corresponding risk factors were identified in these studies for the different groups being surveyed [26,27]. For example, unemployed women, those with a lower monthly family income, and those who suffered from poor sleep were found to have a higher risk of depression [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population.
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    • "Among these factors, postdisaster stressors are important motivators of depression in the aftermath of devastating disasters as stated before. Previous studies suggested that relocation status (Kilic et al., 2006), unemployment (Qu et al., 2012), lower family income (Qu et al., 2012), loss of livelihood (van Griensven et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2011), and receiving the least assistance and resources to sustain livelihood (Chan and Kim, 2010) predicted depression in the aftermath of disasters. However, few studies have examined survivors' subjective perceptions pertaining to these factors, which may contribute to our understanding of underlying mechanisms of the effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study assessed the estimated rate of depression and associated risk factors among survivors 8 months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. A stratified random sample of 1514 participants was recruited from all temporary camp communities in a county town 45 km away from the epicenter. The estimated rate of depression was 35.7%. The severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with female sex, perceived livelihood security, loss of a family member, residential house damage or collapse, and not living in an urban area, whereas married status is a protector against depressive symptoms. The results suggest that community-based effective, sustainable, and culturally sensitive interventions and services are warranted and should be directed to the groups at high risk for mental health problems.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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    • "Moreover, female victims are more likely to develop PTSD compared with male victims [10]. Females exposed to earthquakes have higher risks of PTSD and postpartum depression compared with females who have not experienced earthquakes [11]. In Japan, the long-term suicide mortality rates of females increased after the earthquake, and the suicide mortality rates decreased in males [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The health of females is more at risk during disasters. Studies that focus on the comparison of males and time span are few. This article focuses on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of female victims in the post-disaster reconstruction in China. We aim to reduce gender health inequalities by comparing and analyzing gender differences in HRQOL. Moreover, we analyze the trends in HRQOL of female victims by using tracking data, and then provide reasonable suggestions to enhance the HRQOL. This article explores the HRQOL of women victims in the post-disaster reconstruction from two perspectives: a comparison between males and a time span of six-month intervals. We conducted the first survey, and the double tracking survey in 2013. This study uses data from half a year later sample surveys collected from five counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013 (N = 2000). (1)By calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the SF-12 scale, we found that that reliability of the scale and the internal consistency are good.(2)Using SF-12 instead of SF-36 to measure the HRQOL of survivors is feasible.(3)The ANOVA and non-parametric testing methods show that significant differences exist between the eight dimensions of HRQOL in different genders after the earthquake.(4)After six months, the HRQOL of female victims in the post-disaster reconstruction has also undergone a significant change.(5)Compared with male victims, we should give more attention to female victims' HRQOL issues in the post-disaster reconstruction in Sichuan. (6)The performances of victims in the post-disaster reconstruction in PCS and MCS affect each other. In terms of gender, the male and female victims' HRQOL after the disaster largely varied: (1) The HRQOL of female victims is poorer than that of male victims. (2) The PCS and MCS of victims affect each other. However, for female victims, the degree of influence of MCS on PCS is larger than that in males. (3) The MCS of female victims is more vulnerable than that of male victims. In terms of time, the following information was obtained: (1) after six months of rest, victims' HRQOL greatly improved. (2) At this stage, relative to the MCS, the PCS of females should be given more attention.
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