MKNK1 is a YB-1 target gene responsible for imparting trastuzumab resistance and can be blocked by RSK inhibition
Department of Pediatrics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Oncogene
(Impact Factor: 8.46).
01/2012; 31(41):4434-46. DOI: 10.1038/onc.2011.617
Trastuzumab (Herceptin) resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancers. We recently reported that the transcription factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) leads to acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab in a phosphorylation-dependent manner that relies on p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). To explore how this may occur we compared YB-1 target genes between trastuzumab-sensitive cells (BT474) and those with acquired resistance (HR5 and HR6) using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-sequencing), which identified 1391 genes uniquely bound by YB-1 in the resistant cell lines. We then examined differences in protein expression and phosphorylation between these cell lines using the Kinexus Kinex antibody microarrays. Cross-referencing these two data sets identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase (MNK) family as potentially being involved in acquired resistance downstream from YB-1. MNK1 and MNK2 were subsequently shown to be overexpressed in the resistant cell lines; however, only the former was a YB-1 target based on ChIP-PCR and small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies. Importantly, loss of MNK1 expression using siRNA enhanced sensitivity to trastuzumab. Further, MNK1 overexpression was sufficient to confer resistance to trastuzumab in cells that were previously sensitive. We then developed a de novo model of acquired resistance by exposing BT474 cells to trastuzumab for 60 days (BT474LT). Similar to the HR5/HR6 cells, the BT474LT cells had elevated MNK1 levels and were dependent on it for survival. In addition, we demonstrated that RSK phosphorylated MNK1, and that this phosphorylation was required for ability of MNK1 to mediate resistance to trastuzumab. Furthermore, inhibition of RSK with the small molecule BI-D1870 repressed the MNK1-mediated trastuzumab resistance. In conclusion, this unbiased integrated approach identified MNK1 as a player in mediating trastuzumab resistance as a consequence of YB-1 activation, and demonstrated RSK inhibition as a means to overcome recalcitrance to trastuzumab.
Available from: Donghai Huang
- "The phosphorylated Mnk1 is required for the ability of Mnk1 to mediate resistance to trastuzumab. Mnk1 inhibitor leads to reduced cyclin D1 expression and causes inhibition of cell proliferation and cell death in human brain malignant lymphoma cell line , –. The significantly abnormal over-expression of p-eIF4E protein is found in a number of tumors including non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, penile squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer and primary central nervous system lymphoma –, –. "
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ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck malignant tumor rare throughout most of the world but common in Southeast Asia, especially in Southern China. The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by MAP kinase-interacting kinases (Mnk) on Ser-209 promotes cellular proliferation, survival, malignant transformation and metastasis. However, whether the alterations of the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein are associated with clinicopathologic/prognostic implication for NPC has not been reported. The purposes of the present study are to examine the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein in NPC and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues by immunohistochemistry and evaluate the association between the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein and clinicopathological characteristics of NPC. The results showed that the positive percentage of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E proteins expression in NPC (83.5% and 75.4%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelium (40.0% and 32.9%, respectively). The positive expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 in the NPC with cervical lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than those without lymph node metastasis. Additionally, p-eIF4E expression was more pronouncedly increased in metastatic NPC than the matched primary NPC. Increase of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 expression was significantly correlated inversely with overall survival. Spearman's rank correlation test further showed that expression of p-Mnk1 was strongly positive correlated with expression of p-eIF4E in NPC. The expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E in NPC was proved to be the independent prognostic factors regardless of lymph node metastasis, clinical stages and combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, histological type, age and gender by multivariate analysis. Taken together, high expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E might be novel valuable biomarkers to predict poor prognosis of NPC and therapeutic targets for developing the valid treatment strategies.
Available from: Diletta Dolfini
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ABSTRACT: Oncogene is one of the world’s leading cancer journals. It is published weekly and covers all aspects of the structure and function of Oncogenes.
Available from: biochemj.org
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ABSTRACT: Hanahan and Weinberg have proposed the 'hallmarks of cancer' to cover the biological changes required for the development and persistence of tumours [Hanahan and Weinberg (2011) Cell 144, 646-674]. We have noted that many of these cancer hallmarks are facilitated by the multifunctional protein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein 1). In the present review we evaluate the literature and show how YB-1 modulates/regulates cellular signalling pathways within each of these hallmarks. For example, we describe how YB-1 regulates multiple proliferation pathways, overrides cell-cycle check points, promotes replicative immortality and genomic instability, may regulate angiogenesis, has a role in invasion and metastasis, and promotes inflammation. We also argue that there is strong and sufficient evidence to suggest that YB-1 is an excellent molecular marker of cancer progression that could be used in the clinic, and that YB-1 could be a useful target for cancer therapy.
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