Intracranial stenting as monotherapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage and sickle cell disease

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.77). 01/2012; 5(2). DOI: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2011-010224
Source: PubMed


Introduction Although there have been a few reports of coiling intracranial aneurysms in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), there are no reports of intracranial stent placement in this patient population. A patient in whom stent placement was utilized as monotherapy to treat a blister-like aneurysm is described and the implications of SCD and endovascular treatment are discussed.
Case report A 37-year-old man with SCD presented with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography confirmed a 2 mm irregular aneurysm on the posterior cerebral artery which was treated with an oversized Neuroform 3 stent that was placed across the aneurysm neck by the senior author (KRB). Follow-up CT angiography showed no residual aneurysmal filling. The patient was discharged home in a stable condition, and he continues to do well 4 weeks following the procedure with no recurrence of the aneurysm.
Discussion This report reviews hypercoagulability in SCD and the treatment options for intracranial aneurysms in patients with SCD. Additionally, the reported case suggests that intracranial stent placement may be a viable option for treating complex intracranial aneurysms in SCD patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Quantifiable parameters to evaluate the effectiveness of flow diverters (FDs) are desirable. We measured time-density curves (TDCs) and calculated quantifiable parameters in the rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model after stent (Neuroform [NF]) and FD (Pipeline embolisation device [PED]) treatment. Methods: Sixteen rabbit elastase-induced aneurysms were treated with FD (n = 9) or NF (n = 5). Angiography was performed before and after treatment and TDCs were created. The time to peak (TTP), the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the average slope of the curve which represent the inflow (IF) and outflow (OF) were calculated. Results: Mean values before treatment were TTP = 0.8 s, FWHM = 1.2 s, IF = 153.5 and OF = -54.9. After PED treatment, the TTP of 1.8 s and FWHM of 47.8 s were extended. The IF was 31.2 and the OF was -11.5 and therefore delayed. The values after NF treatment (TTP = 1.1 s, FWHM = 1.8 s, IF = 152.9, OF = -33.2) changed only slightly. Conclusion: It was feasible to create TDCs in the rabbit aneurysm model. Parameters describing the haemodynamic effect of PED and NF were calculated and were different according to the type of device used. These parameters could possibly serve as predictive markers for aneurysm occlusion.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ‘blister-type’ aneurysm is one of the most devastating cerebrovascular lesions. Flow diversion with stent reconstruction is an emerging treatment and has shown promising initial results. Objective To evaluate the experience of one institution using stent reconstruction for pseudoaneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and to compare with a review of the literature. Methods A retrospective review from one institution identified eight patients with ‘blister’ aneurysms over a 47-month period. The Raymond scale was used to classify the aneurysms. Clinical data were obtained using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. A literature review was performed and compared with our results. Clinical and angiographic data were obtained. Results After treatment, two aneurysms were Raymond class 1 (25%) and six were class 3 (75%). Of the class 3 aneurysms, two required retreatment, three (50%) progressed to complete occlusion and three (50%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Clinical data revealed two patients with mRS score of 0 (25%), five with mRS score of 1 (62.5%) and one with mRS score of 2 (12.5%). From the literature review, residual filling was evident in nine patients (64.3%) and complete occlusion in four (28.6%). On follow-up angiography, nine (64.3%) were occluded, two (14.3%) had residual neck filling and one (7.1%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Thirteen patients (92.9%) had an mRS score of 2 or better. Combining the available experience, patients demonstrated either improvement (n=9, 41%) or stability (n=11, 50%). Only two (9%) had progression requiring retreatment. Conclusions Endovascular stent remodeling of ‘blister-type’ aneurysms is a safe and effective strategy.
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