Irreversible EGFR Inhibitor EKB-569 Targets Low-LET γ-Radiation-Triggered Rel Orchestration and Potentiates Cell Death in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 12/2011; 6(12):e29705. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029705
Source: PubMed


EKB-569 (Pelitinib), an irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has shown potential therapeutic efficiency in solid tumors. However, cell-killing potential in combination with radiotherapy and its underlying molecular orchestration remain to be explored. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of EKB-569 on ionizing radiation (IR)-associated NFκB-dependent cell death. SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells exposed to IR (2Gy) with and without EKB-569 treatment were analyzed for transactivation of 88 NFκB pathway molecules, NFκB DNA-binding activity, translation of the NFκB downstream mediators, Birc1, 2 and 5, cell viability, metabolic activity and apoptosis. Selective targeting of IR-induced NFκB by EKB-569 and its influence on cell-fate were assessed by overexpressing (p50/p65) and silencing (ΔIκBα) NFκB. QPCR profiling after IR exposure revealed a significant induction of 74 NFκB signal transduction molecules. Of those, 72 were suppressed with EKB-569. EMSA revealed a dose dependent inhibition of NFκB by EKB-569. More importantly, EKB-569 inhibited IR-induced NFκB in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was sustained up to at least 72 h. Immunoblotting revealed a significant suppression of IR-induced Birc1, 2 and 5 by EKB-569. We observed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, metabolic activity and apoptosis with EKB-569. EKB-569 significantly enhanced IR-induced cell death and apoptosis. Blocking NFκB improved IR-induced cell death. Conversely, NFκB overexpression negates EKB-569 -induced cell-killing. Together, these pre-clinical data suggest that EKB-569 is a radiosensitizer of squamous cell carcinoma and may mechanistically involve selective targeting of IR-induced NFκB-dependent survival signaling. Further pre-clinical in-vivo studies are warranted.

Download full-text


Available from: Natarajan Aravindan, Jul 08, 2014
  • Source
    • "Radiation treatment of bladder cancer cells dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of EGFR, HER2 and Akt; in a colony formation assay, afatinib showed synergism with radiation in such cells, indicating possible radiosensitization (Tasi et al. 2012). A minor radiosensitization by afatinib had also been observed in HNSCC cell lines (Aravindan et al. 2011; Schütze et al. 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Afatinib (also known as BIBW 2992) has recently been approved in several countries for the treatment of a distinct type of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. This manuscript comprehensively reviews the preclinical data on afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB) including EGFR, HER2 and ErbB4. Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine 797 of the EGFR and the corresponding cysteines 805 and 803 in HER2 and ErbB4, respectively. Such covalent binding irreversibly inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of these receptors, resulting in reduced auto- and transphosphorylation within the ErbB dimers and inhibition of important steps in the signal transduction of all ErbB receptor family members. Afatinib inhibits cellular growth and induces apoptosis in a wide range of cells representative for non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck squamous cell cancer and several other cancer types exhibiting abnormalities of the ErbB network. This translates into tumour shrinkage in a variety of in vivo rodent models of such cancers. Afatinib retains inhibitory effects on signal transduction and in vitro and in vivo cancer cell growth in tumours resistant to reversible EGFR inhibitors, such as those exhibiting the T790M mutations. Several combination treatments have been explored to prevent and/or overcome development of resistance to afatinib, the most promising being those with EGFR- or HER2-targeted antibodies, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors or inhibitors of downstream signalling molecules.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie
  • Source
    • "Panc-1, Panc-3.27, BxPC-3 and Mia-PaCa-2 cells (5×105 cells) grown in 4-well plate (Nunc) treated with 100 µg/ml of dichloromethane (DD-DCM, SA-DCM, SM-DCM, PT-DCM, HT-DCM) or ethyl acetate (DD-EA, SA-EA, SM-EA, PT-EA, HT-EA) fractions were analyzed after 24 h for nuclear morphology as described earlier [21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27). Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol) identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent) inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation) in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our earlier studies indicated that ionizing radiation (IR) induces NF-κB-dependent clonal expansion of therapy resistant tumor cells. Herein, we investigated whether mitigation of NF-κB-dependent telomerase activation by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor can enhance IR-induced celling killing. SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells exposed to IR with or without Pelitinib were examined for NF-κB and hTERT transcription using luciferase reporter assays. NF-κB-dependent hTERT transcription was confirmed by either muting NF-κB or by using hTERT constructs lacking NF-κB binding sites. hTERT, mRNA, telomerase activity and cell survival of tumor cells were analyzed using QPCR, TRAP and clonogenic assay, respectively. Pelitinib inhibited IR-induced NF-κB, telomerase activity and hTERT transactivation. Ionizing radiation-induced telomerase activity is regulated at the transcriptional level by triggering TERT promoter activation. Functional NF-κB mediates telomerase activity by binding to the κB binding region in the promoter region of TERT. Elimination of the NF-κB recognition site on telomerase or muting NF-κB compromises IR-induced telomerase promoter activation. We found that Pelitinib inhibited IR-induced TERT transcription, transactivation and telomerase activation in IR-exposed and NF-κB-overexpressed cells. Furthermore, Pelitinib potentiates IR-induced cell killing. Our results strongly suggest that IR-induced NF-κB-mediated cell survival is supported by telomerase activation. We propose that if this pathway can be inhibited with Pelitinib treatment, one could further enhance therapeutic outcome in squamous cell carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Radiation Research
Show more