Prophylactic Intravenous Nimodipine Treatment in Skull Base Surgery: Pharmacokinetic Aspects

University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Halle (Saale), Germany.
Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A: Central European Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 0.61). 01/2012; 73(3):153-9. DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1313724
Source: PubMed


Nimodipine is primarily used in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical trials revealed also a beneficial effect of prophylactic nimodipine treatment on cranial nerve functions following vestibular schwannoma surgery.
The unknown pharmacokinetics of prophylactically administered nimodipine were investigated.
Samples were taken from 27 patients with skull base lesions. Prophylactic intravenous nimodipine infusion was started 5.8-25.8 h (mean 17.9 h) before surgery. Nimodipine concentrations were determined in serum (intra- and postoperatively), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (intraoperatively), and tissue samples.
Wide interindividual differences were observed. Mean concentrations for nimodipine were 46.9 ng/ml (SD: 6.4; min. 4.1 and max. 92.7 ng/ml) in intraoperative serum, 73.2 ng/ml (SD: 16.7; min. 6.6 and max. 253 ng/ml) in postoperative serum and 8.3 ng/ml (SD: 1.5; min. 1.0 und max. 29.7 ng/ml) in intraoperative CSF. The correlation between intra- and postoperative serum (p=0.004, r=0.560) and between intra-operative serum and CSF concentration (p=0.003, r=0.567) were statistically significant. Furthermore the correlation between intraoperative serum concentration and concentrations collected from vestibular nerves was high (r=0.711), but not statistically significant (p=0.178).
Interindividually, continously administered intravenous nimodipine produces considerably variable serum levels. Controls of nimodipine serum concentrations may be useful to optimize nimodipine medication in skull base surgery and in the management of SAH. The serum nimodipine level is a useful marker for CSF and intracranial nerve tissue concentrations of nimodipine.

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Available from: Christian Scheller, Jan 16, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Study Aims/ObjectOral nimodipine is recommended to reduce poor outcome related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, animal experiments and clinical trails revealed a beneficial effect of enteral and parenteral nimodipine for the regeneration of cranial nerves following skull base, laryngeal, and maxillofacial surgery. Despite these findings there is a lack of pharmacokinetic data in the literature, especially concerning its distribution in nerve tissue. Patients/Material and Methods Samples were taken from a consecutive series of 57 patients suffering from skull base lesions and treated with nimodipine prophylaxis from the day before surgery until the seventh postoperative day. Both groups received standard dosages for enteral (n=25) and parenteral (n=32) nimodipine . Nimodipine levels were measured in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue samples, including vestibular nerves. ResultsNimodipine levels were significantly higher following parenteral as compared with enteral administration for intraoperative serum (p<0.001), intraoperative CSF (p<0.001), tumor tissues (p=0.01), and postoperative serum (p<0.001). In addition, nimodipine was significantly more frequently detected in nerve tissue following parenteral administration (Fisher's exact test, p=0.015). Conclusions From a pharmacokinetic point of view, parenteral nimodipine medication leads to higher levels in serum and CSF. Furthermore, traces are more frequently found in nerve tissue following parenteral as compared with enteral nimodipine administration, at least in the early course.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS/OBJECT: Oral nimodipine improves neurologic outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In addition, the neuroprotective efficacy of nimodipine has been revealed following skull base, laryngeal, and maxillofacial surgery. Pharmacokinetic investigations showed nimodipine to reach higher serum levels following parenteral versus enteral administration. Furthermore, a correlation between nimodipine levels in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and nerve tissue could be quantified. These observations raise the question whether the proven neuroprotective effect of nimodipine is related to its serum level. Patients/material and methods: A consecutive series of 37 patients with vestibular schwannoma treated with nimodipine from the day before surgery until the seventh postoperative day was analyzed retrospectively. Both groups received standard dosages for enteral (n = 17) and parenteral (n = 20) nimodipine medication. Nimodipine levels were measured in pre- and postoperative serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Cochlear and facial nerve functions were documented before surgery, in the early postoperative course, and 1 year after surgery. Results: Facial nerve outcome was significantly better in the group with parenteral nimodipine medication (p = 0.038). Logistical regression analysis revealed a seven times smaller risk for a deterioration of facial nerve function in the group with parenteral treatment. There was no difference in hearing preservation between both groups despite tumor size tending to be larger in the parenteral group. Intraoperative (p = 0.004), postoperative (p = 0.001), and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (p = 0.024) nimodipine levels were significantly higher following parenteral administration as compared with enteral administration. Both groups were comparable regarding tumor size and extent of resection. Conclusions: These results support a dependency of nimodipine's neuroprotective efficacy on its serum levels. Parenteral nimodipine treatment produces higher serum levels and has a higher neuroprotective potency in vestibular schwannoma surgery compared with enteral treatment.
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