Benserazide dosing regimen affects the response to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College, London, UK.Behavioural pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.15). 04/2012; 23(2):126-33. DOI: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e32834f9f82
Peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitors, such as benserazide, are routinely used to potentiate the effects of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in experimental models of PD. However, there is little information available on the optimal dose or the timing of administration relative to L-DOPA treatment. We now assess the effect of dose, timing, and supplemental administration of benserazide on the rotational response induced by L-DOPA in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. L-DOPA (12.5 mg/kg, p.o.) concomitant with benserazide (3.125-15 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent increase in contraversive rotation compared with the effects of L-DOPA alone. The optimal L-DOPA response was achieved with 10 mg/kg of benserazide and this dose was used in subsequent experiments. When L-DOPA treatment was delayed for 1, 2, or 3 h after benserazide, the rotational response declined suggesting loss of AADC inhibition. Unexpectedly, there was also a progressive decline in response when benserazide and L-DOPA were given together but at increasingly later time points of 08.00, 09.00, 10.00, and 11.00 h. To assess supplemental administration of benserazide, an additional dose was given 2 h after the initial benserazide/L-DOPA treatment. This produced a further increase in the number of contralateral rotations indicating that the effect of benserazide declines while plasma levels of L-DOPA are maintained. Therefore, optimization of the dose and timing of benserazide administration is essential to achieve a consistent L-DOPA response in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These findings may have implications for the way in which peripheral AADC inhibitors are used in the treatment of PD.
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ABSTRACT: Long term treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is associated with several motor complications. Clinical improvement of this treatment is therefore needed. Lesions or high frequency stimulation of the hyperactive subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD), alleviate the motor symptoms and reduce dyskinesia, either directly and/or by allowing the reduction of the l-DOPA dose. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists might have similar actions. However it remains elusive how the neurochemistry changes in the STN after a separate or combined administration of l-DOPA and a NMDA receptor antagonist. By means of in vivo microdialysis, the effect of l-DOPA and/or MK 801, on the extracellular dopamine (DA) and glutamate (GLU) levels was investigated for the first time in the STN of sham and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. The l-DOPA-induced DA increase in the STN was significantly higher in DA-depleted rats compared to shams. MK 801 did not influence the l-DOPA-induced DA release in shams. However, MK 801 enhanced the l-DOPA-induced DA release in hemi-parkinson rats. Interestingly, the extracellular STN GLU levels remained unchanged after nigral degeneration. Furthermore, administration of MK 801 alone or combined with l-DOPA did not alter the STN GLU levels in both sham and DA-depleted rats. The present study does not support the hypothesis that DA-ergic degeneration influences the STN GLU levels neither that MK 801 alters the GLU levels in lesioned and non-lesioned rats. However, NMDA receptor antagonists could be used as a beneficial adjuvant treatment for PD by enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of l-DOPA at least in part in the STN.
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