ArticlePDF Available

Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation induced by a high-protein feed and movement restriction in beagles

  • Invivo company

Abstract and Figures

Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3 periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily, by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight, or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from chronic constipation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation induced by
a high-protein feed and movement restriction in beagles
Hong-Geun Oh1, Hak-Yong Lee1, Min-Young Seo1, Young-Rye Kang1, Jung-Hoon Kim1, Jung-Woo Park1,
Ok-Jin Kim2*, Hyang-Im Back3,4, Sun-Young Kim3,4, Mi-Ra Oh3,4, Soo-Hyun Park3,4, Min-Gul Kim3,4,
Ji-Young Jeon3,4, Min-Ho Hwang3,4, Sook-Jeong Shin3,4, Soo-Wan Chae3,4,5*
1Huvet Co., Ltd, Iksan, Korea
2Center for Animal Resources Development, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea
3Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, and Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea
4Clinical Trial Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea
5Department of Pharmacology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea
Constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints worldwide. We investigated the
laxative effects of figs (Ficus carica L) in a beagle model of constipation induced by high protein diet and
movement restriction. The experiments were consecutively conducted over 9 weeks divided into 3
periods of 3 weeks each. All 15 beagles were subjected to a non-treatment (control) period, a
constipation induction period, and a fig paste treatment period. We administered fig paste (12 g/kg daily,
by gavage) for 3 weeks following a 3-week period of constipation induction in dogs. Segmental colonic
transit time (CTT) was measured by counting radiopaque markers (Kolomark) using a radiograph
performed every 6 h after feeding Kolomark capsules, until capsules were no longer observed. Fig paste
significantly increased fecal quantity in constipated dogs, and segmental CTT was also reduced following
fig paste administration. There were no significant differences in feed intake, water intake, body weight,
or blood test results, between the constipation and fig paste administration periods. Our results
demonstrate that fig is an effective treatment for constipation in beagles. Specifically, stool weight
increased and segmental CTT decreased. Fig pastes may be useful as a complementary medicine in
humans suffering from chronic constipation.
Key words: Constipation, fig paste, segmental colonic transit time, Kolomark, beagle dog
Received 26 September 2011; Revised version received 22 October 2011; Accepted 26 October 2011
Constipation is prevalent in modern societies and is a
common gastrointestinal symptom in c linical practice, affecting
5 to 20% of the general population [1]. Constipation is typically
defined as stool frequency of less than 3 bowel movements
per week [2]. Constipation is thought to be partially caused
by psychosocial and behavioral factors, such as decreased
mobility, inadequate caloric intake, and anorectal sensation
changes. Furthermore, it has a multifactorial etiology, including
co-morbid illness and medication side effects, including those
induced by narcotic analgesics, anticonvulsants, anti-
depressants, and anticancer drugs [3-5]. In addition, repeated
use of a purgative medicine can cause chronic constipation,
diarrhea, enteritis, and colorectal dysfunction, and is a risk
factor for colorectal neoplasm [6,7].
Although constipation is a symptom, rather than a disease,
it may be the cause of severe secondary diseases resulting
from enteral fermentation, inducing toxic gas, and therefore
requires active prevention and proper treatment [8]. The most
Lab Anim Res 2011: 27(4), 275-281
*Corresponding authors: Soo-Wan Chae, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 567
Baekjaedaero, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-712, Korea
Tel: +82-63-250-2348; Fax: +82-63-250-2349; E-mail:
Okjin Kim, Center for Animal Resources Development, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
Tel: +82-63-850-6668; Fax: +82-63-850-7308; E-mail:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (
by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
276 Hong-Geun Oh et al.
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
common functional food remedy for constipation is dietary
fiber. There are various studies on the treatment of constipation
using natural substances [9.10].
The common fig (Ficus carica L) is a deciduous broadleaf
shrub belonging to the Moraceae family and is widely known
as one of the first edible fruits cultivated by humans in areas
with subtropical climate [11]. The fig originates from Carica
in Asia Minor and the primary fig producers now are America
and the Mediterranean [12]. Figs are high in natural and
simple sugars, minerals, water, and fiber. They contain
substantial levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron,
copper, manganese, and sodium, while they are low in fat
[13,14]. They are a good source of flavonoids and polyphenols
as well as being rich in the phytosterols lanosterol and
stigmasterol [12]. Several reports have shown that the leaf,
stem, and woody tissue contain antioxidants and antibiotics
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the laxative
effect of figs by measuring stool weight and colonic transit
time (CTT) after fig paste administration for 3 weeks in beagles
with constipation induced by a high protein diet and exercise
Materials and Methods
Figs were supplied by the Black Raspberry Research Institute
(Gochang, Korea) and made into a paste at the Research
Center for Industrial Development of BioFood Materials
(Chonbuk University, Jeonju, Korea).
Fifteen healthy beagle dogs (4 years old; Marshall Beijing,
Beijing, China) with a weight range of 10-13 kg were purchased
from Orient Co (Seongnam, Korea). All animals were subjec ted
to a physical examination and were quarantined. The animals
were housed individually in clean cages (H100×W120×L120
cm) placed in a well-ventilated house with a controlled
temperature (25oC), 12/12-h light/dark cycle, and illumination
of 200 lux. All experiments complied with ethical standards
and were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee at
Wonkwang University (Iksan, Korea).
Constipation model
We created a canine model of constipation with 15 beagles
who were individually housed in general cage (H100×W120×
L120 cm). In order to induce a constipation condition, the
dogs were restrained in a small cage (H38×W60×L50 cm)
for 1 week and moved to indoor kennels.
The experiment was performed in the same 15 dogs and
separated to three time sections which were control period,
constipation period (constipation induction in the small cage),
and +fig paste period (fig paste administration), for 3 weeks
each. In control period, dogs were given feed containing
23% of proteins at the rate of 3% of weight and 100 mL/
kg of water. Being changed to over 40% of high proteins
(Feline feed, Purina Korea, Seoul, Korea) in constipation and
+fig paste periods, feed was cut down to 2% of weight to
inhibit the movement of digestive duct. Water also reduced
to 80 mL/kg. Dogs during constipation and +fig paste periods
were individually housed in small cage to restrict movement.
Dogs during +fig paste period were administered 12 g/kg
of fig paste.
Measurement of body weight, fecal weight, and
feed and water intakes
We measured body weights and stool weights each week
during the experimental periods. Feed and water intakes were
measured for each 24-h period.
Blood biochemical analysis
We analyzed serum chemical parameters for the assessment
of fig pastes safety in the experimental beagles. Venous blood
was collected at the last day of each experimental period.
The whole blood was centrifuged at 2,000 g for 20 min at
4oC to obtain serum. Blood lipids including total cholesterol
(TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)
were analyzed using commercial kits (Sigma Diagnostics, St.
Louis, MO, USA). Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as hepatotoxicity
parameters were measured using automated techniques at
the Department of Diagnostic Analysis, Wonkwang University
Hospital (Iksan, Korea).
Measurement of segmental CTT
Based on preliminary tests, in which normal CTT was less
than 6 h, 1 capsule of Kolomark (20 Ring; Konsyl Pharma-
ceuticals, Easton, MD, USA) containing 20 radiopaque rings,
was ingested at 09:00, and simple abdominal radiographs
were taken with PET 325 (Medinet, Gwangju, Korea) were
taken in the ventro-dorsal position at 6-h intervals until the
Kolomark was egested. The localization of markers on
abdominal films relied on identifying bony structures as
suggested by Arhan et al. [17]. Markers located to the right
of the vertebral spinous processes above a line from the seventh
lumbar vertebra to the right pelvic outlet were assigned to
the right colon, markers to the left of the vertebral spinous
processes and above an imaginary line from the seventh lumbar
Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation 277
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
vertebra to the anterior superior iliac crest were assigned to
the left colon, and markers inferior to a line from the pelvic
brim on the right and superior iliac crest on the left were
judged to be in the rectosigmoid colon and rectum. CTT
was calculated by monitoring the Kolomark ring movement
in the entire or segmental colon [17].
Statistical analysis
Results are given as mean ±standard error (SE). Differences
were tested for significance by one-way ANOVA (Duncans
multiple-range test). Differences were considered significant
at error probabilities smaller than 0.05.
Feed and water intakes and body weights
Feed intake was 318±13, 212±16, and 235±12 g during
the control, constipation, and +fig paste periods, respectively
(Table 1). This showed a significant tendency to decrease
feed intake between the constipation and +fig paste periods
compared with the control period, although the difference
in feed intake was not statistically significant between
constipation and +fig paste periods. There were no changes
in water intake or body weight among the 3 periods (Table
1 and Figure 1).
Fecal weights
To examine the laxative effect of fig paste on constipation,
the wet weight of stools was measured and compared. Figure
2 shows that fecal weight significantly decreased during the
constipation period compared with control period, while it
was significantly increased by fig administration (Figure 2,
P<0.05). However, after 24 h of drying, there was no d ifference
in water content (data not shown).
Blood biochemistry
Serum concentrations of blood lipids and hepatotoxicity
parameters such as TC, HDL, TG, AST, and ALT were not
significantly different among the 3 experimental periods (Table
2). The results of all experimental period were within the
normal range, and no abnormal symptoms were observed.
Segmental CTT
We observed the movement of Kolomark rings to assess
intestinal activity using time-dependant radiography (Figure
3). Kolomark rings migrated from the right colon to the
rectosigmoid colon over a period of time. The transit time
of Kolomark rings in the gastrointestinal tract was shortest
over constipation period and was shorter during the +fig
paste period than during constipation period. There was no
remarkable findings on the abdominal radiography. We
counted Kolomark rings using radiography (Figure 4, P<0.05).
The numbers of Kolomark rings in the right colon were higher
during +fig paste period than during constipation period after
6 h, but the numbers of Kolomark rings in the right, left,
rectosigmoid and total colons were fewer during +fig paste
period than during constipation period after 18 h (Table 3,
P<0.05). There were no Kolomark rings in the right colon
during the control period after 12 h, and all rings had been
Table 1. Effects of fig paste in change of feed and water intakes
Period Feed intake (g) Water intake (mL)
Control 318±13a879±103
Constipation 212±16b762±58
+fig paste 235±12b894±43
Column values with different superscripts are significantly
different (P<0.05).
Figure 2. Effects of fig paste on fecal weight in each
experimental period (n=15). Bars with different letters from the
control are significantly different (P<0.05).
Figure 1. Effects of fig paste on change in body weight in each
beagle experimental period (n=15).
278 Hong-Geun Oh et al.
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
egested after 18 h. The CTT of +fig paste period was 18
h, which was shorter than 30 h during constipation period.
The final Kolomark ring was egested after 48 h during
constipation period (data not shown). The CTT in the right
colon, left colon, rectosigmoid colon, and total colon during
control period was significantly faster than during constipation
and +fig paste periods. Whereas the CTT in the left colon
and total colon during +fig paste period was significantly
shorter than during constipation period, there were no
statistically significant differences in the CTT in the right and
rectosigmoid colons between constipation and +fig paste
The Rome criteria define chronic constipation on the basis
of the presence of 2 or more of a list of 5 symptoms related
to the ability to defecate over a period of 3 months or more,
such as a frequency of 2 or less bowel movements per week,
stools of hard mass over 25%, uncomfortable feeling after
evacuation, fecal weight below 35 g, and excessive abdominal
press at defecation [18]. Chronic constipation can be caused
by peripheral neuropathy (Chagas disease or Hirschsprungs
disease), obstructive disease (colon cancer, hernia, or intestinal
stricture), endocrine disease (hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus,
or hypokalemia), drugs (morphine, anticholinergic compounds,
or calcium) and idiopathic factors [19].
Recently, the use of herbal remedies as constipation
treatments has become a common practice in many countries.
This study clearly demonstrates that fig extract or paste has
a laxative activity. Figs contain numerous components:
vitamins, minerals, cellulose, and amino acids [20,21]. They
are reported to have antioxidant effects, as well as beneficial
effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and inflammatory
diseases [22,23].
Figs contain cellulose, and beneficial effects of cellulose
have been reported for cardiac disease, hype rtension, diabetes,
obesity, gastrointestinal disease, hyperlipidemia, and immune
function [24-30]. Lee and Hwang [31] reported that cellulose
increases fecal excretion by increasing water content and bulk,
and elevating viscosity, and that both water-soluble and
insoluble cellulose increases fecal egestion [32]. Fecal water
content and volume are increased by eating fiber that does
not decompose and is not digested by coliform bacilli [33,34].
Fig paste administration significantly decreased the feed intake
both during constipation and +fig paste periods compared
with control period. Our results show a tendency to increase
during +fig paste period compared with constipation period,
but this difference was not statistically significant. There were
no changes in water intake and body weight (Table 1 and
Figure 1). All serum chemistry results were also in the normal
range following fig administration, indicating that fig paste
Table 2. Effects of fig paste on blood biochemical parameters (n=15)
Period TC (mg/dL) HDL (mg/dL) TG (mg/dL) AST (mg/dL) ALT (mg/dL)
Control 157.07±6.00 123.87±4.33 32.93±3.24 38.67±1.38 72.40±15.80
Constipation 158.13±7.82 124.67±6.06 39.00±5.76 32.27±1.83 89.60±27.96
+fig paste 164.60±7.63 128.60±5.89 53.07±5.45 36.07±3.81 82.27±25.48
TC: total cholesterol, HDL: high-density lipoproteins, TG: triglycerides, AST: aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine
Figure 3. Effects of fig paste on radiographic measurement o
Kolomark transit in each experimental period (n=15). Rt.: right,
Lt.: left, Rs.: rectosigmoid.
Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation 279
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
is safe to use (Table 2). The weight of stools significantly
decreased during constipation period compared with control
period, which was increased by fig paste administration,
although the water content of stools was not increased by
fig paste (Figure 2).
CTT is the basic test used to assess movement disorder
in the diagnosis of chronic constipation and irritable bowel
syndrome [35]. It involves the use of radiography to count
the number of markers remaining after a certain time period
following administration of a gelatin capsule that contains
20 radiopaque markers; segmental CTT is also reported by
Arhan et al. [17] and Metcalf et al. [36].
In the present study, considering that CTT in dogs is faster
than in humans, we took abdominal radiographs every 6
h until there was no remaining Kolomark in the body (Figure
3) and measured CTT by counting the number of Kolomark
rings in the intestinal tract (Table 3 and Figure 4). CTT was
shortest during the control period, of all 3 periods. CTT in
the left colon was faster during +fig paste period than during
constipation period, whereas in the right colon and rectosigmoid
colon, there was no difference between constipation period
and +fig paste period. In our study, we confirmed that total
CTT was fastest during control period followed by +fig paste
period, and this result indicates that CTT was decreased by
fig administration. Soluble cellulose accelerates peristaltic
activity by maintaining higher acidity, because fermented
cellulose results in acid production by coliform bacilli in rats
[37]. Furthermore, Gordon [38] reported that cellulose shortens
large intestine transit time, so that fecal e xcretion time decreases
accordingly. Similar to our results, Spiller et al. [39] reported
that intestinal transit time was diminished following
administration of food-mixed cellulose and 5% guar gum,
compared with rats given normal food [39]. Moreover, Jenkins
et al. [40] reported that cellulose increases fecal egestion and
reduces intestinal transit time, as well as reducing fecal sojourn
time within intestines [40-42]. The shortened CTT indicates
that fig paste stimulates intestinal peristalsis and accelerates
fecal movement. Recently, intestinal ileum peristalsis was
reported to be enhanced in rats by treatment with a low
concentration of fig extract, but reduced by a high
concentration [43]. Similarly, Baldassano et al. [44] reported
that intestinal ileum peristalsis declined in a dose-dependent
manner in the isolated mouse intestinal ileum after treatment
with 10-320 mg/mL fig extract. Although these results differ
from ours, this might be due to different experimental
conditions with regard to animal species, type of figs used,
Table 3. Effects of fig paste on radiographic measurement of Kolomark transit for each experimental period (n=15)
Time Treatment Right colon Left colon Rectosigmoid colon Total colon
6 h
Control 2.00±1.03a5.50±1.80a3.20±1.55a10.70±2.32a
Constipation 8.53±1.86b10.93±1.82b0.40±0.40b19.87±0.50b
+fig paste 14.80±1.83c4.07±1.60a0.13±0.09b19.00±1.00b
12 h
Control 0.00±0.00a2.50±1.18a5.90±1.59a8.40±1.70a
Constipation 3.87±1.78b14.00±1.74b1.67±0.87b19.53±0.35b
+fig paste 2.27±1.18b10.60±2.07b4.47±1.78a17.33±0.67b
18 h
Control 0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a
Constipation 0.67±0.37b15.33±1.60b3.40±1.56b19.40±0.48b
+fig paste 0.00±0.00a6.67±2.09c7.40±1.93b14.07±2.12c
24 h
Control 0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a
Constipation 0.53±0.32b11.40±2.25b4.47±1.88b16.40±1.95b
+fig paste 0.00±0.00a2.47±1.48c9.40±2.36b11.87±2.46b
30 h
Control 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a0.00±0.00a
Constipation 0.00±0.00 5.40±2.1b8.53±2.29b13.93±2.32b
+fig paste 0.00±0.00 0.20±0.20c2.60±1.68c2.80±1.81c
Data are numbers of markers present. Column values with different superscripts are significantly different (P<0.05).
Figure 4. Effects of fig paste on change in segmental CTT fo
each experimental period (n=15). Bars with different letters
from the control are significantly different (P<0.05). Rt.: right,
Lt.: left, Rs.: rectosigmoid.
280 Hong-Geun Oh et al.
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
and dosage.
In conclusion, feeding fi g paste increased fecal weight, which
had been decreased by diet-induced constipation, and
shortened CTT. The results of serum chemistry showed that
oral administration of fig paste is safe, and we did not observe
any abnormal symptoms in experimental animals. Therefore,
fig paste may be suitable for human patients suffering from
constipation, particularly where it is due to diet. In addition,
our findings on the use of beagles as a constipation model
could be useful in other constipation studies.
This work was supported by the Yeong-Am Figs of Food
Cluster project of the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry
and Fisheries, Republic of Korea (Grant: 2008-001).
1. Drossman DA, Richter JE, Talley NS. The Functional
Gastrointestinal Disorders. 1st ed, Brown and Company,
Boston, 1994; pp 217-263.
2. Read NW, Timms JM, Barfield LJ, Donnelly TC, Bannister JJ.
Impairment of defecation in young women with severe
constipation. Gastroenterology 1986; 90(1): 53-60.
3. Elliot DL, Watts WJ, Girard DE. Constipation. Mechanisms
and management of a common clinical problem. Postgrad
Med 1983; 74(2): 143-149.
4. Enck RE. Constipation: etiologies and management. Am J
Hosp Care 1988; 5(5): 17-19.
5. Rolig E. Diet and constipation. J Fam Pract 1985; 21(5): 337-
6. Burkitt DP. Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum.
Dis Colon Rectum 1993; 36(11): 1071-1082.
7. Di Gregorio C, Losi L, Fante R, Modica S, Ghidoni M,
Pedroni M, Tamassia MG, Gafà L, Ponz de Leon M,
Roncucci L. Histology of aberrant crypt foci in the human
colon. Histopathology 1997; 30(4): 328-334.
8. Kirjavainen PV, Ouwehand AC, Isolauri E, Salminen SJ. The
ability of probiotic bacteria to bind to human intestinal
mucus. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998; 167(2): 185-189.
9. Ewe K, Ueberschaer B, Press AG. Influence of senna, fibre,
and fibre+senna on colonic transit in loperamide-induced
constipation. Pharmacology 1993; 47(Suppl 1): 242-248.
10. Wintola OA, Sunmonu TO, Afolayan AJ. The effect of Aloe
ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced
constipation in Wistar rats. BMC Gastroenterol 2010; 10: 95.
11. Williams DC, Sgarbieri VC, Whitaker JR. Proteolytic activity
in the genus ficus. Plant Physiol 1968; 43(7): 1083-1088.
12. Vinson JA. The functional food properties of figs. Cereal Food
World. 1999; 44(2): 82-87.
13. Kim KH. Chemical components of Korean figs and its storage
stability. Kor Food Sci Technol 1981; 13(2): 165-169.
14. Kim SS, Lee CH, Oh SL, Chung DH. Chemical components
in the two cultivars of Korean figs (Ficus carica L.). J Korea
Agric Chem Soc 1992; 35(1): 51-54.
15. Moon CK, Kim YG, Kim MY. Studies on the bioactivities of
the extractives from Ficus carica. J Inst Agric Res Util 1997;
31: 69-79.
16. Ryu SR, Cho H, Jung JS, Jung ST. The study on the
separation, antitumor activity as new substances in fig. J
Applied Chem 1998; 2(2): 961-964.
17. Arhan P, Devroede G, Jehannin B, Lanza M, Faverdin C,
Dornic C, Persoz B, Tétreault L, Perey B, Pellerin D.
Segmental colonic transit time. Dis Colon Rectum 1981;
24(8): 625-629.
18. Drossman DA, Thompson WG, Talley NJ, Funch-Jensen P,
Jassens J, Whiteheal WE. Identification of functional
gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterol Int 1990; 3: 159-172.
19. Haubrich WS, Schaffner F, Berk JE. Bockus Gastroenterology,
5th ed, W.B. Saunders, Philadephia, 1995; pp 102-112.
20. Solomon A, Golubowicz S, Yablowicz Z, Grossman S,
Bergman M, Gottlieb HE, Altman A, Kerem Z, Flaishman
MA. Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of fresh
fruits of common fig (Ficus carica L.). J Agric Food Chem
2006; 54(20): 7717-7723.
21. Veberic R, Colaric M, Stampar F. Phenolic acids and
flavonoids of fig fruit Ficus carica in the northern
Mediterranean region. Food Chem 2007; 106(1): 153-157.
22. Guarrera PM. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy
(Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium). Fitoterapia 2005; 76(1): 1-
23. Jeong WS, Lachance PA. Phytosterols and fatty acids in fig
(Ficus carica, var. Mission) fruit and tree components. J Food
Sci 2001; 66(2): 278-281.
24. Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-
lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin
Nutr 1999; 69(1): 30-42.
25. Montonen J, Knekt P, Järvinen R, Aromaa A, Reunanen A.
Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2
diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(3): 622-629.
26. Lairon D, Arnault N, Bertrais S, Planells R, Clero E, Hercberg
S, Boutron-Ruault MC. Dietary fiber intake and risk factors
for cardiovascular disease in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr
2005; 82(6): 1185-1194.
27. Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Manson
JE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Whole-grain consumption
and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses'
Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70(3): 412-419.
28. Petruzziello L, Iacopini F, Bulajic M, Shah S, Costamagna G.
Review article: uncomplicated diverticular disease of the
colon. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23(10): 1379-1391.
29. Watzl B, Girrbach S, Roller M. Inulin, oligofructose and
immunomodulation. Br J Nutr 2005; 93(Suppl 1): S49-S55.
30. Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B, Yi Y, Whelton PK, He J.
Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-
analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Hypertens
2005; 23(3): 475-481.
31. Lee HJ, Hwang EH. Effects of alginic acid, cellulose and
pectin level on bowel function in rats. J Nutr 1997; 30(5):
32. Lupton JR, Morin JL, Robinson MC. Barley bran flour
accelerates gastrointestinal transit time. J Am Diet Assoc
1993; 93(8): 881-885.
33. Gordon DT. The importance of total dietary cellulose in
human nutrition and health. J Nutr 1992; 25(1): 75-76.
34. Nyman M, Schweizer TF, Tyrén S, Reimann S, Asp NG.
Fermentation of vegetable fiber in the intestinal tract of rats
and effects on fecal bulking and bile acid excretion. J Nutr
1990; 120(5): 459- 466.
35. Wald A. Colonic transit and anorectal manometry in chronic
idiopathic constipation. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146(9):
36. Metcalf AM, Phillips SF, Zinsmeister AR, MacCarty RL, Beart
RW, Wolff BG. Simplified assessment of segmental colonic
transit. Gastroenterology 1987; 92(1): 40-47.
37. Lee SI. Treatment of constipation. Kor J Gastroenterol 2002;
40: 37S-47S.
38. Gordon DT. Functional properties vs physiological action of
total dietary fiber. Cereal Foods World 1989; 34(7): 517-525.
Effects of Ficus carica paste on constipation 281
Lab Anim Res | December, 2011 | Vol. 27, No. 4
39. Spiller GA, Chernoff MC, Hill RA, Gates JE, Nassar JJ, Shipley
EA. Effect of purified cellulose, pectin, and a low-residue diet
on fecal volatile fatty acids, transit time, and fecal weight in
humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33(4): 754-759.
40. Jenkins DJ, Reynolds D, Leeds AR, Waller AL, Cummings JH.
Hypocholesterolemic action of dietary fiber unrelated to fecal
bulking effect. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32(12): 2430-2435.
41. Park EY, Lee SS. Effect of dietary fiber on the serum lipid
level and bowel function in aged rat. Kor J Nutr 1996; 29(9):
42. Vahouny GV, Kritchevsky D. Dietary Fiber in Health and
Disease. Plenum Press, New York 1982; 263-415.
43. Amos S, Binda L, Chindo B, Akah P, Abdurahman M,
Danmallam HU, Wambebe C, Gamaniel K. Evaluation of
methanolic extract of Ficus platyphylla on gastrointestinal
activity. Indian J Exp Biol 2001; 39(1): 63-67.
44. Baldassano S, Tesoriere L, Rotondo A, Serio R, Livrea MA,
Mulè F. Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum
by cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and
its pigment indicaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58(13):
... It contains a high amount of soluble dietary fiber, vitamins (thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), vitamin C, and vitamin A) [20], minerals (iron, calcium, potassium, copper, and magnesium) [21], polyphenols (gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidin, caffein, vanillin, quercetin, epicatechin, and kaempferol) [22], anthocyanins [23], alkaloids, saponins, and coumarins [24]. Several animal studies [25,26] and human trials [27,28] reported fruit paste of FC used to treat effectively against constipation. The different mechanisms of fig including high cellulose increased colon mucin, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor activity is responsible for action against constipation. ...
... In the present study, we have explored the role of fruit extract of FC in gut serotonin level and its mechanism on rat constipation models. Our preliminary phytochemical studies reported the presence of phenolic compounds, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, proteins, gums, mucilage, and quantified the total phenolic acids and flavanoids in fig extract coexist with several earlier investigations [24,25,35,36]. The present study indicated that the castor oiltreated rats showed increased gastric motility of charcoal meal. ...
... The SPS treatment showed a mild elevation in body weight and feed intake than loperamide treatment. The SPS has converted into 4, 4'-dihydroxy diphenyl-(2-pyridyl) methane as active metabolites formed by colon bacteria and enhance colon motility [25]. The EFF-treated animals attenuated the body weight and feed intake changes induced by loperamide. ...
Full-text available
Constipation is a common, long-term gastrointestinal motility problem. Because of their long-term side effects, the drugs available to treat constipation are restricted. Ficus carica belongs to the mulberry family Moraceae, commonly known as fig. It is traditionally used as an emollient, laxative, aphrodisiac, cough suppressant, hemorrhoids suppressants, antiulcer, and hypercholesterolemia. Several animal and human studies have reported the anti-constipation activity and the mechanism of ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus carica [EFF]. But, serotonin's role behind gut motility is not yet reported. Therefore the current research was conducted to evaluate the role of EFF in gut serotonin and its mechanism against constipation in animal models. The extract's total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The charcoal meal test and the loperamide-induced constipation model were used to assess EFF's anti-constipation effectiveness. The gut serotonin was measured by spectrofluorimeter and gut serotonin transporter (SERT) by ELISA. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was found as 326.9 ± 9.2 mg of GAE/g and 22.94 ± 0.4 mg of RT/g respectively. When compared to control animals, the results from these models demonstrate a significant dose-dependent increase in peristalsis index and moisture content. The EFF-treated animals showed reduced gut serotonin and SERT in the sigmoidal colon. The gut serotonin binds on the 5-HT4 receptor in colon smooth muscle and accelerates colon motility. The EFF decrease the reuptake of serotonin in enterocyte by reducing SERT. The tryptophan in EFF increases the synthesis of serotonin. More research, such as serotonin content in feces and tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in the gut, is needed to confirm the mechanism behind serotonin release. The oral administration of EFF was proven to be useful in the treatment of constipation in this trial.
... fig paste(18), which is in line with the findings of the present study where there was no relationship between weight and treatments.The results of the present study showed PEG syrup was significantly effective in treating chronic functional constipation in children compared to fig syrup; this was because it was more effective on abdominal pain, frequency of painful defecation, difficult defecation, straining during defecation, and fear of defecation. However, fig has antibiotics and antioxidants(18), and several studies approved that it has anti-constipation properties, but in this study, PEG syrup was preferable tofig syrup. ...
... fig paste(18), which is in line with the findings of the present study where there was no relationship between weight and treatments.The results of the present study showed PEG syrup was significantly effective in treating chronic functional constipation in children compared to fig syrup; this was because it was more effective on abdominal pain, frequency of painful defecation, difficult defecation, straining during defecation, and fear of defecation. However, fig has antibiotics and antioxidants(18), and several studies approved that it has anti-constipation properties, but in this study, PEG syrup was preferable tofig syrup. For example, Kim et al (13) reported the therapeutic effect of figs against constipation. ...
Background and aims: None of the available constipation treatments for children are completely successful. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution 40% and fig syrup on the treatment of chronic constipation in children. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 120 patients with chronic functional constipation were selected and divided into two groups. The first group received 5 mL of fig syrup without senna 3 times daily, and the second group took PEG 40% syrup at 1 mL/kg of body weight per day (the dose was adjustable according to the patient’s condition and need). At weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6, a checklist containing questions about children’s constipation was completed by the researcher, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 24. Results: Changes in the frequency of abdominal pain at fourth times 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks demonstrated statistically significant differences between the two groups (P=0.044), and it was significantly lower the in PEG group; however, the defecation was not statistically significant (P=0.902). After six weeks, the frequency of painful defecation, difficult defecation straining during defecation, and fear of defecation was significantly lower in the group given PEG syrup compared to the fig syrup-receiving group (P=0.001). Conclusion: Overall, PEG syrup was significantly effective in treating chronic functional constipation in children compared to the fig syrup.
... Administration of fiber in the form of fig paste increased fecal passage in constipated dogs. 127 There were no complications associated with fiber administration. 127 Another study 128 evaluated the effects of a symbiotic, using the prebiotic inulin, on fecal characteristics in healthy dogs. ...
... 127 There were no complications associated with fiber administration. 127 Another study 128 evaluated the effects of a symbiotic, using the prebiotic inulin, on fecal characteristics in healthy dogs. A laxative effect of the administered symbiotic was observed that could prove useful in constipation management. ...
Dietary fiber describes a diverse assortment of nondigestible carbohydrates that play a vital role in the health of animals and maintenance of gastrointestinal tract homeostasis. The main roles dietary fiber play in the gastrointestinal tract include physically altering the digesta, modulating appetite and satiety, regulating digestion, and acting as a microbial energy source through fermentation. These functions can have widespread systemic effects. Fiber is a vital component of nearly all commercial canine and feline diets. Key features of fiber types, such as fermentability, solubility, and viscosity, have been shown to have clinical implications as well as health benefits in dogs and cats. Practitioners should know how to evaluate a diet for fiber content and the current knowledge on fiber supplementation as it relates to common enteropathies including acute diarrhea, chronic diarrhea, constipation, and hairball management. Understanding the fundamentals of dietary fiber allows the practicing clinician to use fiber optimally as a management modality.
... Fig (Ficus carica L.), from the Moraceae family, is one of the plants mainly used for this purpose (Trifunski and Ardelean, 2012;Naghdi et al., 2016). Antioxidant compounds are an important content in the leaf, pulp and skin of fig, with a higher amount in leaf, which play a key role in the elimination of free radicals (Oliveira et al., 2009;Aghel et al., 2011;Oh et al., 2011;Samsulrizal et al., 2011). Fig tree leaves has been used as a folk remedy for curing different disorders in Iranian traditional medicine described by Avicenna (Hashemi and Abediankenari, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Infertility is one of the most prevalent health disorders in reproductive-age males and females. Ficus carica (Fc), an herbal plant, has been used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases such as infertility especially in Iranian folk medicine. This study examined the effects of Fc leaf extract on the proliferation of mice spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Phenolic, flavonoid content, major polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated respectively by Folin-Ciocateu, aluminum chloride, HPLC and the FRAP and DPPH methods. Testicular cells of neonate mice were extracted and their identity was confirmed using cytokeratin for Sertoli and Oct-4, CDHI and PLZF for SSCs. Effects of Fc (0.0875, 0.175, 0.35, 0.71 and 1.42 mg/ml) was evaluated at third, 7th, 9th and 14th days of culture by colony assay. The expression of the Mvh, GFRα1 and Oct-4 genes and the viability and proliferation of cultured cells was assessed at the end of the culture period. The extract has a rich phenolic and flavonoid content such as Rutin, Psoralen, Bergapten and Caffeoylmalic acid using HPLC analysis. It also had a potent reducing and radical scavenging activity. Morphology of colonies was similar in all groups. Higher viability, proliferation, colony number and diameter of SSCs was seen in the presence of Fc leaf extract in a dose-dependent manner so that higher number and diameter of colonies were observed in two higher doses of 0.71 and 1.42 mg/ml, separately for each time point relative to other groups. The Mvh, Oct-4 and GFRα1 genes expression had no significant differences between groups. It seems that Fc leaf extract not only had no any cytotoxic effects on the viability and proliferation of SSCs but also support their stemness state. So, this culture system can be employed for enrichment of germ stem cells for use in clinical applications.
... Figs contain large amounts of K, Mg, Cu, Fe and Na, as well as simple sugars, while their fat content is low. They also contain flavonoids, polyphenols and phytoestrogen [61]. Consumption of fig in fresh and dry form as well as syrup recommended for reproductive enhancement in Canon [8]. ...
Attention to diet was considered important issues in improvement of men infertility in Persian Medicine (PM). The purpose of this study was to extract herbal foodstuffs introduced by Avicenna, one of the greatest PM physicians to improve the semen production and to provide evidence of their impact on the basis of current studies.“Canon of Medicine”, the most important Avecinna's book, was searched with keywords equivalent to semen, fertility and infertility, main herbal foodstuffs were extracted and was searched with keywords sperm, semen, infertility, and fertility in Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus databases. Manuscripts from 1950 up to December 2019 were selected and reviewed. Almond, Onion, Chickpea, Garlic, Coconut, Palm date, Sesame, Fenugreek, Carrot, Fig, Grapes, Pistachio, Hazelnut and Walnut are among main foodstuffs which recommended by Avicenna and there is also evidence that they have positive effects on testosterone production and improvement of various sperm parameters, including count, motility and morphology. Containing large amount of different macro and micronutrients such as vitamins including vit B, C, A and E, minerals such as Mg, Se, Zn, Cu and Fe, important unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids, amino acids such as lysine and arginine and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and steroids can be considered as a main factor in the effectiveness of these foodstuffs. Designing a diet based on the fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds that Avicenna has recommended, may be effective in treating male infertility but further studies are needed to clarify this issue. Research on the effectiveness of his other recommended foodsuffs may also offer new treatments and supplements for this purpose.
... In the present study, F. carica administration before irradiation improved all hematological parameters altered by irradiation of rats. This result agrees with the findings of many researchers who have reported that F. carica improved hemopoiesis and restored normal blood composition due to its antioxidant and immune-stimulating effects in addition to being very effective as an anti-inflammatory agent (Hong et al. 2011;Suha et al. 2011;Stalin and Dineshkumar 2012;Mawa et al. 2013). We observed that, although F. carica treatment did not significantly alter the LPO level or SOD and catalase activity in the serum, liver and kidney of Fig. 6 Effect of Ficus carica administration on irradiationinduced changes of control and experimental rats regarding superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in a serum (U ml −1 ), b liver (U g −1 fresh tissue) and c kidney (U g −1 fresh tissue). ...
The fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), is a rich source of polysaccharides that possessed anti-tumour and anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of F. carica to protect against radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and hematological parameters. This was achieved by measuring different hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation; histological examination of liver and kidney was also performed. Rats used in this study were divided into four groups of 10 each- group 1: control, group 2: F. carica, group 3: irradiated rats, and group 4:F. carica pretreated irradiated rats. Ficus carica extract was prepared in water in a 1:3 w:v ratio and administered by gavage for three consecutive weeks before whole body gamma irradiation with 8 Gy (single dose). Five rats were sacrificed from each group at 24 and 72 h after radiation exposure. Irradiation resulted in marked reduction in white blood cell (WBC), platelets (PLT), lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts, whereas no significant changes were observed in red blood cells (RBCs) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), hematocrit (HCT) mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) and mean PLT volume (MPV). Radiation treatment increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and caused hepatic and renal damage. Oral administration of F. carica before irradiation significantly increased WBC, PLT, lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, along with a decrease in TBARS levels, and catalase and SOD activities in serum, liver, and kidney. These results suggested that consumption of F. carica a natural product with antioxidant capacity and capability to quench singlet oxygen could help mitigate cellular damage caused by whole-body irradiation-induced free radicals.
Full-text available
Kur'an'ın 95. Suresine adını veren incir, gözyaşı damlasına benzeyen eşsiz bir meyvedir. Yüce Yaratıcının onun üzerine yemin etmesi, çok kıymetli bir besin olduğuna işaret için olsa gerektir. Prof. Dr. Zafer AYVAZ
Full-text available
Background: Ma’jun Sana is an important and well known formulation of Unani System of Medicine, claimed to be effective for the management of diseases of stomach, intestine, brain and joints. Aim of the study: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Ma’jun Sana on the basis of pharmacological action and pharmacological studies of its ingredients. Methodology: A bibliographic database for review of literature on Ma’jun Sana was undertaken using the viz. Pub Med, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus. The information was also collected from different books of Unani literature and conventional medical science. Result: Ma’jun Sana & it’s ingredients have laxative & purgative property due to presence of anthraquinone glycoside whereas some ingredient has antioxidant property that strengthens the body organ & these activities are proved by different in vitro & experimental studies. Conclusion: Ma’jun Sana has proven to be beneficial to counter the effects of constipation. So, more scientific studies and clinical trials are needed on this compound formulation to ensure its scientific validation for clinical use in patients in general and in elderly in particular.
Full-text available
Fig tree which is also known as (Ficus Carica L) was mentioned once in Quran in surah AL-TEEN. In that same surah, God swore to figs because of its great benefits. Ficus carica L. is one of the oldest trees belonging to the family of Moraceae. Figs are not only delicious but are rich in minerals including potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and copper. It is a sweet fruit with multiple seeds and soft skin, which can be eaten when ripened or dried, and it is usually found in Asia, India. This paper aims to describe the properties of fig composition and nutrients, as well as its advantage and usage in trad medical practices in treating several health issues. The fig tree has been used as a therapy for various disease such as inflammation, gastric problems cancer, hepatoprotective, diabetes, constipation, and can also reduce Alzheimer's. Despite been rich in minerals, figs are good source of anti-ointment-inflammatory and anti-microbial which contain high amounts of phenolics, organic compound and volatile acid. Figs are also good source of fiber and vitamin A and K that contributes to healthy living. This review is to collect information about fig components and to determine the health and medical benefits of fig.
Background: Constipation is a common public health concern experienced by all individuals during their life. It is an effective factor in the quality of life. In this paper, we aimed to provide an overview of the existing evidence regarding the role of food ingredients, including bran, prune, fig, kiwifruit, flaxseed, and olive on constipation treatment. Scope and approach: We searched Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect by using “laxative foods” and “constipation” for searching studies assessing laxative food ingredients and their beneficial effects on constipation treatment and/or control. Key finding and conclusion: Lifestyle modifications such as increasing dietary fiber and fluid intake and regular daily exercise are in the first line of proposed treatments for constipation. Optimizing diet as an efficient lifestyle factor may contribute to the well-being of patients. The use of laxative food ingredients including bran, prune, fig, kiwifruit, flaxseed, probiotics, and prebiotics is a convenient alternative to laxatives to overcome constipation. According to the findings, laxative food ingredients could be considered as effective treatments for subjects suffering from constipation. Many studies have assessed the pharmacological and non-pharmacological roles of these ingredients in treating constipation; however, their importance has not been thoroughly investigated.
Full-text available
The functional gastrointestinal disorders may be defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. The frequency and chronicity of these disorders, and the associated health care burden, attest to the need to develop reliable methods of diagnosis in order to provide cost-effective treatment. Based on existing epidemiological and clinical data, our multinational committee of clinician-investigators has set out consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of 21 functional gastrointestinal disorders attributed to the oesophagus, gastroduodenum, intestines, biliary tree and anorectum. We emphasise the importance of using symptom-based criteria with a minimum of diagnostic studies. The proposed criteria provide the basis for selecting patients for future epidemiological and clinical investigation. Future studies using these criteria will lead to their validation and/or modification.
Dietary fiber is a topic that has burgeoned from an esoteric interest of a few research laboratories to a subject of international interest. This growth has been helped by the intense public interest in the potential benefits of adding fiber to the diet. The general popularity of fiber may have been helped by the perception that, for once, medicine was saying "do" instead of "don't. " There has been a proliferation of excellent scientific books on dietary fiber. Why another? The Spring Symposium on Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease was an outgrowth of our belief that informal discussion among peers-a discussion in which fact is freely interlaced with speculation-was the most effective way to organize our knowledge and direct our thinking. The normal growth progression of a discipline inc1udes its branching into many areas. Soon the expertise, which was once general, is broken into many specialties. Intercommunication becoIlles increasingly difficult. It was our intent to provide a forum that would expose its participants to developments in areas related to their research interest. Free exchange under these conditions could not help but broaden everyone's knowl­ edge and expand his horizons. We feel that this symposium was singularly successful in achieving its goals. It resulted in a free and friendly exchange of knowledge and ideas. It helped to establish seeds for future collaborations based on mutual interest and friendship. The proceedings of this conference will serve as yet another basic resource in the fiber field.
In order to obtain the basic data for processing adaptability of Korean figs, chemical analysis was carried out with 7 cultivar produced at Namhae and 3 cultivar transplanted from abroad. To prolong the storage period, Masan No.1 was packed with PE films with different thickness and stored at . The results obtained were as follows; 1. Total sugar content, total acidity and pectin were (dry basis), , , respectively. 2. Changes in moisture content of control during storage were rapid. After 16 days it was decreased about 5% but in the lot packed with PE films. moisture content was slowly decreased. 3. Total sugar and acidity of the figs in the lot packed with 0.08 mm PE film were very slowly decreased but control was not. 4. Changes in hardness, fracturability during storage showed similar decreasing pattern but adhesiveness was increased.
: The phytosterol compositions in unsaponifiables of fig (Ficus carica, var. Mission) fruit and 3 structural components of the branches; and the fatty acid composition of fig fruits were studied using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The phytosterols were determined from the trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) derivatives of the unsaponifiable samples. Fourteen compounds were separated from fig fruit; 13, 10, and 6 in bark, stem, and pith, respectively. Sitosterol was the most predominant sterol in all parts. Also detected were campesterol, stigmasterol, and fucosterol. Fatty acids in fig fruit, determined as their methyl esters, were myristic (14:0), palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3) acids.
Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste, colour and nutritional properties of fruit. We have tried to evaluate the phenolic profile of fig fruit, since only limited information on that topic is available in the literature. With the HPLC-PDA system, we have identified the following phenolics: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin and rutin. Phenolics were extracted from three different fig cultivars that are commonly grown in Slovenia’s coastal region. These cultivars were ‘Škofjotka’ (‘Zuccherina’) a white type fruit, ‘Črna petrovka’ and ‘Miljska figa’, both dark type fruit. The fruit from the first and the second crop were collected and compared. In general, fruit from the second crop contained higher values of phenolics than fruit from the first crop. The analysed phenolics present at the highest content were rutin (up to 28.7 mg per 100 g FW), followed by (+)-catechin (up to 4.03 mg per 100 g FW), chlorogenic acid (up to 1.71 mg per 100 g FW), (−)-epicatechin (up to 0.97 mg per 100 g FW), gallic acid (up to 0.38 mg per 100 g FW) and, finally, syringic acid (up to 0.10 mg per 100 g FW). Both cultivars with dark fruit exhibited a higher total level of analysed phenolics, in comparison to the white fruit cultivar ‘Škofjotka’. The amounts measured are comparable to those of other fruits grown in this region. The amounts of rutin in particular are quite high and comparable to apples, for example. As a typical, seasonal fresh fruit, figs can be an important constituent of the regional diet.