Endothelial function in children and adolescents with mucopolysaccharidosis
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Medical School, 420 Delaware St. S.E., MMC 715, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA, . Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
(Impact Factor: 3.37).
01/2012; 36(2). DOI: 10.1007/s10545-011-9438-x
Although coronary artery pathology is a prominent feature of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), it may be underestimated by coronary angiography because of its diffuse nature. It is also generally assumed that cardiovascular risk is increased in MPS and reduced following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but this has never been formally evaluated. Non-invasive methods of assessing vascular endothelial function may provide a measure of cardiovascular risk in MPS. We evaluated endothelial function, using digital reactive hyperemia, in youth with MPS and in healthy controls.
Digital reactive hyperemic index (RHI) was measured in 12 children and adolescents (age 10.3 ± 3.9 years old; 11 boys) with treated MPS and nine age- and gender-matched (11.4 ± 4.0; 8 boys) healthy controls. An independent t-test was used to compare RHI between individuals with MPS and controls.
Children and adolescents with MPS (MPS type II: N = 5; type I: N = 4; type VI: N = 3) whether treated by HSCT (N = 4) or ERT (N = 8) had significantly lower RHI compared to controls (MPS 1.22 ± 0.19 vs. controls 1.46 ± 0.32, p < 0.05).
These preliminary findings suggest that children and adolescents with treated MPS have significantly poorer endothelial function when compared to healthy controls. Further investigation into the utility of endothelial function for risk stratification and the long term implications of reduced endothelial function in MPS is warranted.
Available from: Adam Golda
- "Although these factors may be important for the occurrence of PF in MPS VI, the importance of eventual malfunction of the pulmonary artery endothelial cells cannot be omitted during considering PH etiology. This opinion confirms the results of Kelly et al. who documented a significantly impaired endothelial function of MPS children in a non-invasive test measuring digital reactive hyperemia  "
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ABSTRACT: Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by a deficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurs in MPS VI patients and is a marker of bad prognosis. Malfunction of endothelium, which regulates vascular tonus and stimulates angiogenesis, can contribute to the occurrence of PH in MPS VI. Aim The aim of the study was to establish a human MPS VI cellular model of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and evaluate how it affects factors that may trigger PH such as proliferation, apoptosis, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Results Increasing concentrations of dermatan sulfate (DS) reduce the viability of the cells in both ARSB deficiency and controls, but hardly influence apoptosis. The expression of eNOS in HPAECs is reduced up to two thirds in the presence of DS. NPPC shows a biphasic expression reaction with an increase at 50 μg/mL DS and reduction at 0 and 100 μg/mL DS. The expression of VEGFA decreases with increasing DS concentrations and absence of elastin, and increases with increasing DS in the presence of elastin. Conclusion Our data suggest that MPS VI endothelium presents a prohypertensive phenotype due to the reduction of endothelium's proliferation ability and expression of vasorelaxing factors.
Available from: Raymond Y Wang
- "The three indices concordantly indicate that the MPS cohort has increased arterial stiffness compared to the unaffected control cohort, beyond that which can be accounted for by co-variates alone. Taken together, our findings indicate impaired arterial structure and function/mechanics in MPS patients, corroborating previous reports of endothelial dysfunction in MPS I and II patients as measured by digital peripheral arterial tonometry following forearm ischemia   and by aortic elastic indices acquired via echocardiogram . Moreover, cIMT correlated with increasing carotid stiffness in the MPS patients, indicating a link between thicker arterial intima/media in MPS patients and reduced arterial elasticity. "
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Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular complications cause mortality in a high percentage of patients. Non-invasive measures of sub-clinical atherosclerosis, such as carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness, may be useful for prediction of CAD outcomes in MPS patients.
The aim of the study was to determine if cIMT and arterial stiffness are abnormal in MPS I and II patients compared to healthy controls.
MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography, and electronic wall-tracking software was used to measure cIMT, carotid artery cross-sectional compliance (cCSC), cross-sectional distensibility (cCSD), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). Control data from healthy subjects were obtained from a different study that utilized identical testing within the same laboratory.
A total of 406 healthy controls and 25 MPS patients (16 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were studied. All MPS patients had or were receiving treatment: 15 patients (6 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), 9 patients (all MPS I) had received hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and 1 patient with MPS I had received HSCT and was receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). MPS patients had significantly higher mean (± SD) cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) compared to controls (0.44 ± 0.04 mm; adjusted p < 0.001). MPS patients also had increased stiffness compared to controls, showing significantly lower cCSC (0.14 ± 0.09 mm2/mm Hg versus 0.16 ± 0.05 mm2/mm Hg; adjusted p = 0.019), and higher cIEM (1362 ± 877 mm Hg versus 942 ± 396 mm Hg; adjusted p < 0.001). cCSD in MPS patients was lower than that of controls (29.7 ± 16.4% versus 32.0 ± 8.2%) but was not statistically significant; p = 0.12. Among MPS patients, cCSD showed a significant association with cIMT (p = 0.047), while the association between cIEM and cIMT approached significance (p = 0.077). No significant differences were observed in cIMT, cCSD, cCSC, and cIEM between MPS I and MPS II patients.
Despite treatment, MPS patients had higher cIMT compared to healthy controls, indicating this marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis may be a useful predictor of CAD outcomes. The association of arterial stiffness measures with cIMT suggests that mechanical and structural changes may occur in concert among MPS patients. Although yet to be confirmed, increased cIMT and arterial stiffness in MPS I and II patients may be a consequence of inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by heparan or dermatan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Prospective, longitudinal studies will need to be performed in order to evaluate the usefulness of these carotid measurements as predictors of adverse CAD outcomes in MPS patients.
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Recent studies have indicated that a proportion of patients with renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, or cryptogenic stroke have sequence variants in their aGal A gene (Fabry disease), which has resulted in an increase in diagnostic activities for this disorder. The diagnostic process for lysosomal storage disorders may result in findings of unknown clinical significance. Here we report such an unexpected outcome.
A 32-year-old male presented at the emergency department because of a transient ischemic attack. Extensive investigations revealed no cause and an initial diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke was made. Subsequently, aGal A activity was measured in a bloodspot and was shown to be normal, but the activity of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA), used as reference enzyme, was unexpectedly low: 0.5 umol/L (ref = 1.7-14.3). A diagnosis of IDUA deficiency, mucopolysaccharidosis type 1S or Scheie disease was considered. IDUA gene analysis revealed two homozygous sequence alterations: a silent sequence change (979C > T) in exon 7 (N297N) and an unknown missense mutation 875A > T (R263W). Physical examination was completely normal, without clinical signs of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). Leukocyte IDUA activity was also low: 2.1 nmol/mg prot/h (ref = 14-40 nmol prot/h), but higher than the patient range of <0.1 nmol/mg prot/h. Urinary glycosaminoglycan levels were normal both quantitatively and qualitatively. It was concluded that there was low IDUA activity without clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis I was discarded.
The diagnostic process for lysosomal storage disorders may result in biochemical abnormalities of unknown clinical significance. Early evaluation by a specialist in inborn errors of metabolism may help to avoid anxiety in patients and unnecessary additional analyses.
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