Article

Cross-sectional associations between occupational and leisure-time sitting, physical activity and obesity in working adults

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Interestingly, most sedentary time was spent during leisure time activities rather than during work. This observation differs from previous findings [21][22][23]. The difference might be partially explained by the relatively high percentage of older individuals who stopped working (25%) in our population compared to previous articles [21][22][23] (all working adults). ...
... This observation differs from previous findings [21][22][23]. The difference might be partially explained by the relatively high percentage of older individuals who stopped working (25%) in our population compared to previous articles [21][22][23] (all working adults). Another explanation relates to differences in the physical activity levels of the profession, but most individuals in our population were highly educated, who typically perform desk-based office work. ...
... Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, higher education level, being employed and a higher BMI were independently associated with higher levels of total SB. SB correlates identified in the present study align with previous findings [8,[21][22][23][24][25][26], but the direction of the association is different for age, smoking status and physical activity. In our study, age was negatively associated with high levels of sedentary time, which is in contrast to other studies, which found a positive association [20,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is associated with increased risks of detrimental health outcomes. Few studies have explored correlates of SB in physically active individuals. Furthermore, SB correlates may depend on settings of SB, such as occupation, transportation and leisure time sitting. This study aims to identify subject-, lifestyle- and health-related correlates for total SB and different SB domains: transportation, occupation, and leisure time. Methods: Dutch participants were recruited between June, 2015 and December, 2016. Participant characteristics (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, marital status, education level, employment), lifestyle (sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) and medical history were collected via an online questionnaire. SB was assessed using the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire and estimated for 9 different activities during weekdays and weekend days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between correlates and SB. Total SB was dichotomized at > 8 h/day and > 10 h/day, and being sedentary during transportation, occupation and leisure time at the 75th percentile (60 min/day, 275 min/day and 410 min/day, respectively). Results: In total, 8471 participants (median age 55, 55% men) were included of whom 86% met the physical activity guidelines. Median SB was 9.1 h/day (Q25 6.3-Q75 12.0) during weekdays and 7.4 h/day (Q25 5.5-Q75 9.5) during weekend days. SB was most prevalent during leisure time (5.3 h/day; Q25 3.9-Q75 6.8), followed by occupation (2 h/day; Q25 0.1-Q75 4.6) and transportation (0.5 h/day; Q25 0.2-Q75 1.0). Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, higher education, employment and higher BMI were significantly related to higher levels of total SB. Younger age, male sex, employment, and higher BMI increased the odds for high SB volumes during occupation and transportation. Higher education, being unmarried and smoking status were positively associated with high volumes of occupational SB only, whereas older age, being unmarried, unemployment, higher BMI and poor health were positively linked to leisure time SB. Conclusions: SB is highly prevalent in physically active individuals, with SB during leisure time as the most important contributor. Correlates for high volumes of SB vary substantially across SB domains, emphasizing the difficulty to target this unhealthy lifestyle.
... In the student group, many classes are held in the day in college and students spend most of the day sitting; therefore, it is assumed that this routine was the cause of the low step counts and long SB performance time. Long VPA performance time in the student group may have been caused by club activities and/or similar opportunities to perform sports activities 29 In both worker groups (i.e., standing worker group and sitting worker group), workers probably move around in the workplace because of the working task they are performing 30,31 , and they do not have the opportunity to perform sports activities compared to students; hence, it is assumed that those situations are reflected in the WSD measurement data. From the above results, it was found in the WSD that the characteristics of the lifestyle in each group are reflected in both the step counts and performance time of each intensity of the PA. ...
... In addition, there was a significant difference in the PA performance time, "Household" METs × hour, and EE between the worker groups. The standing worker group performs a working task that requires changing places, carrying stuff, and so on 30,31 , and these working tasks may be distinguished from "Household" activities. In contrast, the sitting worker group mainly works at a desk 30,32 and does not perform many intense activities. ...
... The distinction in the present study was referred to previous reports. In those reports, subjects responded to questionnaires about their occupational activity patterns such as desk works requiring constant sitting or standing works requiring moving around, and categorized based on the results [30][31][32] . Most sales workers answered their jobs are often standing. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to compare the physical activity (PA) measured by a wearable sensor device (WSD) and the step count measurement, and to investigate the association between PAs and lifestyle. Data of 301 participants were collected from March 2019 to March 2021. Step counts, sedentary behavior, performance time of light/moderate/vigorous PA, METs × hour of “Locomotive” and “Household” categorized activities, and energy expenditure (EE) were measured by the WSD, respectively. Furthermore, the participants were classified into student, standing worker, and sitting worker groups. Data were analyzed using the Steel–Dwass and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. The correlation between the performance time of each PA and step count was weak, except for moderate PA. “Household” EE and step count also had a weak correlation. In the comparison of lifestyle, there was a significant difference in the mean performance time of each type of PA between the groups. Additionally, the standing worker and sitting worker groups had a significant difference in METs × hour of "Household" activities, indicating that the difference between the occupations is reflected in “Household” activities. The WSD measurement can be used to evaluate detailed individual PA, whereas the step count measurement showed weakness in the PA estimation.
... In summary, creating an active environment was the focus of all the strategies. Environmental interventions, including providing safe sidewalks, parks and cycling routes have shown to be positively influential (Bauman et al., 2012;Bauman et al., 2008). Additionally, there is an increasing interest in environmental changes for PA, health and wellbeing promotion, particularly in the workplace settings. ...
... It was concluded that walking meetings are a potential alternative to overcoming workplace sedentary behaviour (Huntley, 2015). Also, university staff in this thesis are spending most of their time sedentary (as detailed in sections 4.5 and 5.5), which can put them at risk of health-related diseases, including obesity (Chau et al., 2012). Participants from study three suggested that workplace culture and management support would be serving as a potential facilitator to their barriers to PA and sedentary behaviour, as explored in section 6.5.3. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The benefits of participating in regular physical activity are wide-ranging and well-accepted globally, yet physical inactivity is increasing, especially amongst adults. Occupations involving sedentary behaviour are considered a leading contributor to the inactive lifestyle responsible for many health-related problems. An increasing number of occupations involving predominantly sedentary work and the incidence of work-related health issues is becoming more prevalent, with evidence suggesting that adults spend approximately 60% of their waking time at work. Moreover, higher educational institutions are arguably one of the predominant sources of influence on society and can play a significant role in developing the nation and changing attitudes. Despite this, research in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health and wellbeing substantially lacks in these settings. Therefore, this thesis adds to the limited knowledge about physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health and wellbeing interventions on university employees in the workplace. To elucidate this, several studies were conducted to evaluate existing physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour, followed by the exploration of barriers to physical activity amongst employees. The outcomes of these investigations contributed to the subsequent design and implementation of five physical activity, health and wellbeing interventions within the university. The five interventions were: • Accessibility and the availability of exercise resources in the workplace • Reducing sitting time through sit and stand workstation amongst university employees • Exploring the impact of seated, standing and walking meetings in the university setting • Getting university employees on the stairs: The impact of points of decision prompts • Promoting PA amongst employees through the 10,000 steps team-based competition Findings concluded that there is potential for physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health, and wellbeing interventions to be extended to other settings to promote physical activity engagement, reduce sitting time, and improve employees health and wellbeing. For instance, findings of intervention one indicate, employees engaged in 1287 minutes of physical activity/exercise throughout the intervention period and staff reported positive mood, work productivity and stress relief by having access to the exercise resources in the workplace. The intervention two findings indicate that having access to the height-adjustable sit-stand workstation resulted in sedentary behaviour reducing from 1974 to 821 minutes. Standing time increased from 439 minutes to 923 minutes across the week. The results of intervention three demonstrated that staff indicated enhanced anger, fatigue, tension, and vigour post seated meeting instead of standing and walking meetings. The outcomes of this thesis demonstrate that these interventions can be generalizable and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related interventions must be tailored to the needs of employees in other settings. The intervention four results demonstrated that 84 participants noticed the banners, 54 were influenced to take the stairs, 68 felt physical, and 66 felt mental benefits of taking the stairs, whilst 88 suggested that the banners displayed in the workplace will influence them to take the stairs in future. Intervention five showed that the daily average steps increased from 5959 to 10308, and staff reported motivation, competitiveness, enjoyment, active and behaviour change due to 10,000 steps challenge intervention. These findings support the implementation of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related interventions across settings. This thesis contributes to the existing knowledge of behaviour theories, including the Trans-theoretical Model, Self-determination theory and Social-Ecological Model in the subject of exercise psychology associated with public health, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, health, and wellbeing of employees in the university workplace.
... Most PA studies in bariatric patients assessed MVPA only [10,14], which does not adequately illustrate other domains of physical behavior such as PAL and SB, which are considered independent relevant aspects for physical fitness and health [30,31]. We extended earlier work as we measured those different dimensions of physical behavior simultaneously and in conjunction with self-reported measures. ...
... There are no specific recommendations concerning sedentary behavior. However, the detrimental health effects of sitting in general and sitting in uninterrupted periods are increasingly recognized as clinically relevant and are independent of whether patients meet PA guidelines [30,31]. Matthews et al. found a lower mortality in low-active US adults (adults who spent 68% of their time sedentary) of 18% and 42%, if 1 h of sedentary time was replaced with either light intensity PA or MVPA, respectively [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to (1) quantify physical behavior through self-reports and sensor-based measures, (2) examine the correlation between self-reported and sensor-based physical activity (PA) and (3) assess whether bariatric patients adhere to PA guidelines. Methods A Fitbit accelerometer was used to collect minute-to-minute step count and heart rate data for 14 consecutive days. Total physical activity levels (PAL), moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were used to quantify physical behavior. Self-reported PA was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). To analyze the association between sensor-based and self-reported PA, Spearman’s correlation was used. A minimum of 150 MVPA minutes per week was considered as compliance with the PA guidelines. Results Fitbit data of 37 pre- and 18 post-surgery patients was analyzed. Participants averaged 7403 ± 3243 steps/day and spent most of their time sedentary (832 min, IQR: 749 – 879), especially in prolonged periods of ≥ 30 min (525, IQR: 419 – 641). Median MVPA time was 5.6 min/day (IQR: 1.7 – 10.6). Correlations between self-reported and sensor-based MVPA and SB were respectively 0.072 and 0.455. Only 17.1% was objectively adherent to MVPA guidelines ≥ 150 min/week, while 94.3% met the guidelines in case of self-reports. Conclusion PA quantification confirmed that bariatric patients are highly sedentary and rarely engage in MVPA, despite a relatively high daily step count. Moreover, bariatric patients are not able to assess MVPA and moderately their SB by self-reports. Our results indicate the need for sensor-based PA monitoring in routine bariatric care. Graphical abstract
... In sweatshop factories, workers are forced to stand or sit for ten to 12 h along an assembly line. Because sweatshop factory work is often physically exhausting and time-consuming, this may influence how factory workers value the outdoor environment, in terms of providing opportunities for leisure time physical activity (Chau, van der Ploeg, Merom, Chey, & Bauman, 2012). workers in developed regions. ...
... The significance of F value change compared to the Social Demography + Employment is at p < 0.001 for all environmental measures, which is shown as *** on the histogram bars. priority use of limited leisure time (Chau et al., 2012;Pechter, 1986). ...
... ОЖ, ССЗ [57]. Риск ОЖ повышает сочетание факторов -сидячий образ жизни и возраст [58][59][60], воздействие ксенобиотиков (диоксин, фталаты и др.), влияющих на эндокринную систему и жировой метаболизм [61,62], организационный стресс, сочетающийся с НФА на рабочем месте [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. Риск ССЗ повышает сочетание ночных смен с НП и ОЖ [66][67][68][69], шума с НП и ОЖ [57,70,71]. ...
... ОЖ, ССЗ [57]. Риск ОЖ повышает сочетание факторов -сидячий образ жизни и возраст [58][59][60], воздействие ксенобиотиков (диоксин, фталаты и др.), влияющих на эндокринную систему и жировой метаболизм [61,62], организационный стресс, сочетающийся с НФА на рабочем месте [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. Риск ССЗ повышает сочетание ночных смен с НП и ОЖ [66][67][68][69], шума с НП и ОЖ [57,70,71]. ...
... ОЖ, ССЗ [57]. Риск ОЖ повышает сочетание факторов -сидячий образ жизни и возраст [58][59][60], воздействие ксенобиотиков (диоксин, фталаты и др.), влияющих на эндокринную систему и жировой метаболизм [61,62], организационный стресс, сочетающийся с НФА на рабочем месте [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. Риск ССЗ повышает сочетание ночных смен с НП и ОЖ [66][67][68][69], шума с НП и ОЖ [57,70,71]. ...
... ОЖ, ССЗ [57]. Риск ОЖ повышает сочетание факторов -сидячий образ жизни и возраст [58][59][60], воздействие ксенобиотиков (диоксин, фталаты и др.), влияющих на эндокринную систему и жировой метаболизм [61,62], организационный стресс, сочетающийся с НФА на рабочем месте [53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]. Риск ССЗ повышает сочетание ночных смен с НП и ОЖ [66][67][68][69], шума с НП и ОЖ [57,70,71]. ...
Article
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is one of the most prevalent sleep-wake disorders and is associated with brain damage. In this review, we describe the role of astroglia, microglia and oligodendroglia as the main cellular mediators of brain damage in SDB based on the results of experimental studies. Specifically, we describe the role of the molecules that are expressed by glia and mediate oxidative stress (NADPH-oxidase), inflammation (hypoxia-inducible factor-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines) and sympathetic hyperactivation (ATP, lactate).
... Other studies have shown that each individual spends 55-70% of their waking hours or the equivalent of 9-11 hours on sedentary behavior with a 2% increase for each additional hour spent [36]- [38]. In 2008, about 25% of workers in America were sedentary [13], whereas, in Australia, 47% of women and 42% of men spent an average of 6.3 hours of their 8-hour shift in sedentary work and sitting [39]. In Thailand, the employees spend 13 hours on sedentary behavior and spend 2 hours on physical activity [40]. ...
... The data was collected by using Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). It is a validated instrument to assess self-reported percentages of sitting, standing, walking, and heavy labor at work in the past seven days and the number of days worked during the past seven days [39], [41], [42]. The questionnaire also included socio-demographic data (i.e., gender, education level, body mass index, smoking habit), working conditions (i.e., work from home, work schedule, working hours, and working day). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The high prevalence of sedentary behavior among workers is an emerging health concern due to the negative impact on human health. This study aimed to evaluate employees' sitting behavior and physical activity during their working time. A total of 130 employees participated in this study, with an average of working hours/week (38.92 ± 20.28). The cross-sectional data were collected from Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) filled out by participants about their self-reported percentage of sitting, standing, walking, and heavy labor at work. The present data revealed that most workers reported a high rate of prolonged sitting time in the workplace, which is significantly higher among employees in the sedentary profession (73.3.3 ± 9.6). Age and education level are also significant between physically active jobs and those with sedentary jobs. Concerning this, it is essential to develop and promote programs to reduce sedentary time and the importance of interrupting sedentary time and participating in light-intensity activities in the workplace due to the detrimental effect of sitting time on health among employees.
... A study by Sartorius et al. (2015) concluded that a lack of exercise alone can contribute to obesity in 15% of the adult population (Sartorius et al., 2015). In addition, a cross-sectional study by Chau et al. (2011) concluded that workers who mostly sit to do their jobs had a significantly higher obesity risk than workers whose jobs involved more standing (Chau et al., 2011). Tehard (2005, however, also notes the complexity of the correlation between physical activity and obesity. ...
... A study by Sartorius et al. (2015) concluded that a lack of exercise alone can contribute to obesity in 15% of the adult population (Sartorius et al., 2015). In addition, a cross-sectional study by Chau et al. (2011) concluded that workers who mostly sit to do their jobs had a significantly higher obesity risk than workers whose jobs involved more standing (Chau et al., 2011). Tehard (2005, however, also notes the complexity of the correlation between physical activity and obesity. ...
Article
Obesity is a consequence of the metabolic morbidities caused by overconsumption and lack of physical activity. Etiologically, obesity should be preventable, but reviews show that no country has yet been successful in reducing obesity, even though many efforts have been taken around the globe. This study aimed to assess effects of two non-consecutive days fasting per week on energy intake and body mass index (BMI) among obese male students aged 18-25 years at Universitas Indonesia. The collected data including demographic data, anthropometric, socio-economic status, and self-perception of obesity were used as additional information about obesity incidence as the descriptive data. A randomized controlled trial study was conducted on 40 obese male students. Their habitual intake six months before the study was measured through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The BMI was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Intervention group did two non-consecutive days fasting per week, and recorded their fasting intake by food record diary; while control group did their habitual eating as before, and being recorded by three days 24-hour recall. After a four-week intervention, the intervention group saw a significant reduction (P <0.005) in energy intake and BMI. IF that properly followed the 5:2 protocol reduced energy intake and BMI among obese male students aged 18–25 at Universitas Indonesia in a four-week intervention.
... Studies in the general population have demonstrated the damaging relationship between sedentary lifestyle and diminished life expectancy, especially studies on cardiometabolic health consequences of prolonged sitting time [179,180]. Based on the results of the AusDiab study, an 8800-adult follow-up for approximately seven years, Dunstan and colleagues [181] found that every hour spent on TV increased by 11 % the risk of death from all causes and by 18 % the risk of death from CVD. Considering the significant number of worldwide workers [182,183] who spend up to 70 % of their daily time seated [184], the 3.2 million premature deaths related to sedentary lifestyle estimated by the WHO are not surprising but rather expected [185]. The estimates make the association between sedentarism and life expectancy reduction both shocking and undeniable, and yet sedentarism levels are continually increasing. ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors with high prevalence among adult populations and elevated costs for public health systems worldwide. Despite the lack of consensus regarding the syndrome definition and diagnosis criteria, it is characterized by the coexistence of risk factors such as abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, a prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory state, insulin resistance (IR), and higher glucose levels, factors indubitably linked to an increased risk of developing chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The syndrome has a complex and multifaceted origin not fully understood; however, it has been strongly suggested that sedentarism and unbalanced dietary patterns might play a fundamental role in its development. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview from the syndrome epidemiology, costs, and main etiological traits from its relationship with unhealthy diet patterns and sedentary lifestyles.
... While the evidence is mixed, some studies have suggested a compensatory effect may exist, whereby those who engage in higher work activity may be less active during leisure time, and those who are more sedentary at work may engage in more physical activity during leisure time. 24,25 This could explain why no differences were observed between occupational groups when the average total daily MVPA was examined. This finding also aligns with evidence from a meta-analysis of device measures that found no occupational differences in total daily MVPA. 10 It is also possible that differences would have appeared if more occupational groups had been examined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adults spend a large proportion of their day at work. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been shown to vary considerably between occupations. The objective of this study is to describe occupational differences in accelerometer-measured and self-reported PA and SB for Canadian full-time workers. Data and methods: Using combined data from three cycles of the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 4,080), three activity groups (high, intermediate, low) were created based on a composite ranking of accelerometer-derived steps, proportion of time spent sedentary (SED%) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of ⋝10 minutes (MVPAbouted). Differences between groups were assessed for accelerometer-derived and self-reported PA and SB, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: On average, Canadians employed in full-time work were sedentary for 68.9% of their day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.3% to 69.6%), took 8,984 steps per day (95% CI: 8,719 to 9,249) and accumulated 79.5 minutes per week of MVPAbouted (95% CI: 71.1 to 87.9). Among Canadians employed in full-time work, 18.5% met the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. The high-activity group took significantly more steps and had a lower SED%, but spent a higher proportion of time in light-intensity PA compared with the intermediate- and low-activity groups. No differences were observed for MVPA. The low-activity group reported more recreational and active travel-related PA and leisure reading, while those in the high-activity group reported more work and domestic PA and leisure screen time. Discussion: The majority of full-time working adults are not getting adequate MVPA and spend most of their day sedentary, regardless of occupation. Findings support workplace policies to improve MVPA levels among Canadian workers and to promote awareness for the potential benefit of occupation-specific messaging around PA and SB.
... La inactividad física y el sedentarismo se han convertido en una gran preocupación global en términos de salud, siendo estimadas 3.2 millones de muertes globales asociadas, predominantemente a través de enfermedades crónicas, especialmente enfermedad cardiovascular (Chau, van der Ploeg, Merom, Chey, y Bauman, 2012;Unick, Lang, Tate, Bond, y Espeland, 2017;WHO, 2014). En España actualmente un 46,5% de la población reporta no hacer ningún tipo de actividad física (Consejo Superior de Deportes. ...
... However, evidence linking high levels of workplace sitting with adiposity and other markers of cardio-metabolic risk is mixed. For instance, an Australian study with a large sample of workers in diverse occupations found that those who were "mostly sitting" at work were more likely to be overweight or obese, compared to those who were "mostly standing" (Chau et al., 2012). Another Australian study in office settings found associations of higher levels of desk-based sitting with higher odds of obesity (Ryde et al., 2013). ...
Article
Studies examining associations of sitting time at work with obesity measures have produced inconsistent findings. Different sample characteristics across studies, e.g., the composition of different occupational groups, may be one explanation for the mixed findings. We examined cross-sectional associations of workplace sitting time with waist circumference in workers engaged in desk-based work and those engaged in other work settings using a population-based sample of Australian workers. Participants (5,878 full-time workers in the 2014-15 Australian National Health Survey) were categorized into desk-based (N=3,006) or non-desk-based (N=2,872) workers, based on self-reported predominant behavior at work (sitting, standing, walking, and physical labor) and occupational group. Linear regression analyses examined associations of measured waist circumference with self-reported sitting time at work for each group, which was further stratified by gender and leisure-time physical activity level. Longer sitting time at work was associated with greater waist circumference in desk-based workers (b=0.45 [95%CI: 0.09, 0.80] cm for a 1 h/day increment of sitting) but not in non-desk-based workers (b=0.25 [95%CI: -0.12, 0.63]). For desk-based workers, stratified analyses found significant associations in men and those who were insufficiently physically active during leisure time. Our findings support interventions to decrease occupational sitting time for desk-based workers to reduce their cardio-metabolic risk. Differential associations observed between desk-based and non-desk-based workers and between genders may be attributable to the ways in which sitting time is accumulated. Future research is needed to examine the impact of behavior patterns at work (sitting breaks, occupational physical activity) on adiposity in working adults.
... Science and technology have made people's life easier, increased their life expectancies, and altered the lifestyle due to which different health problems like overweight and obesity arise [1][2][3]. Overnutrition has been a serious public health problem worldwide. Between 1975 and 2016, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Overweight and obesity are major serious public health problems, since their prevalence is accelerating rapidly not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this study was to find out the factors associated with the nutritional status of the industrial workers in Bara District of Nepal. Methods: An industry-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the 271 male workers using pretested semistructured questionnaires, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour recall method, and anthropometric measurement after obtaining informed consent from the workers. For the categorical independent variables, bivariate and multivariate regression tests were used for the analysis, and for numerical independent variables, Student's t-test was used. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Ethical approval was taken from the Research Committee of the College of Applied Food and Diary Technology (CAFODAT). Results: Overweight /obesity was observed among 27.3% of the participants of which 22.1% were overweight and 5.2% were obese. Age (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.346-4.823); ethnicity, Brahmin/Chhetri (OR: 6.14; 95% CI: 1.971-19.123) and Madhesi (OR: 4.641; 95% CI: 1.534-14.04); and smoking (OR: 4.165; 95% CI: 1.972-8.80) were associated with nutritional status of industrial workers. Additionally, food frequency (OR: 2.232; 95% CI: 1.101-4.522), dietary diversity, and total calorie intake were also significantly associated with nutritional status of industrial workers. Conclusions: The study has indicated that more than one-fourth of workers of iron and steel industries in Bara District of Nepal are overweight or obese. Different sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle-related factors were associated with overweight and obesity. There is need for programs for industrial workers focused on nutrition education to raise awareness about nutrition-related problems and risk factors.
... It is estimated that around 60% of the total waking time is conducted in a sedentary position in the UK population [7]. Especially for office workers, 65-70% of their working hours are spent sedentary [7], but sedentary behavior is existent in all main domains of living including travelling (e.g., time spent in the car) or during leisure time [6,8]. For example, college students spend as much as 30 h per week with sedentary activities such as reading, studying, using the computer, or watching TV [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity is a promising intervention to restore cognitive function after prolonged sedentary periods. However, little is known about the effect of short physical activity bouts on cognition especially among individuals that are used to physical activity. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the impact of a single ten-minute physical activity bout on the cognitive domain of visual attention compared to sedentary behavior in a population of physically active sport students. Using a randomized controlled design, 51 healthy and physically active sport students [mean age: 22.3 (SD: 2.0) years, 33.3% female] were allocated to one of the following interventions in the break of a two-hour study course: physical activity group (running for ten minutes) and sedentary control group. Visual attention was measured post-intervention using a modified trail making test. Pre-, post-, and 30 min after intervention, perceived attention, and affective states were measured. Between-group comparisons were used to analyze whether visual attention and/or changes in perceived attention or affective states differed between groups. The physical activity group showed significantly higher visual attention post-intervention compared with the sedentary control group, p = 0.003, d = 0.89. Perceived attention, p = 0.006, d = 0.87, and arousal, p < 0.001, d = 1.68, showed a significantly larger pre- and post-intervention increase in the physical activity group compared with the sedentary control group, which was not evident 30 min after intervention. A single ten-minute running intervention in study breaks might help to restore the basal visual attentional domain of cognition after prolonged sedentary periods more effectively compared with common sedentary behavior in breaks between study lessons.
... The reduced physical activity at sport and leisure are caused by the increase in physical activity at work. The previous study in the opposite situation reported that a lower level of physical activity at work among the office workers showed increased activity at sport and at leisure time [19]. During their free time, they take the time in exercising regularly [20]. ...
Article
Injuries and health problems related to musculoskeletal disorders are common among construction workers. Physically active people have good postural stability which is correlated with less injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of physical activity against work experience in construction workers. 36 healthy men aged 20-60 years were divided into two groups based on their work experience: less experience (LE, n = 12), and more experience (ME, n = 24). Physical activity at work, through sports, and associated with leisure were assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The results found that there was no significant difference between the LE and ME groups in the level of physical activity (p = 0.146 for work, p = 0.515 for sport, and p = 0.821 for leisure). Nevertheless, both the LE and ME groups had a higher level of physical activity at work than at sport and leisure (p < 0.0001). This preliminary study indicated that construction workers have a high workload which impedes them from other activities during leisure time. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation between the physical activity level and postural stability among construction workers. Keywords: physical activity, construction workers, work experience
... Consistent with several other studies [17,28,29], leisure-time sedentary behavior poses greater risk to cardio-metabolic health than do total sedentary time and other domains of sedentary behavior. Our results also reveal that between the two types of leisure-time sedentary behavior, only leisure-time computer use, and not TV viewing, was associated with an increased likelihood of having CVD risk factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the associations of overall and domain-specific (i.e., occupational, transport, and leisure-time) sedentary behaviors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among high-tech company employees in Taiwan. A total of 363 participants employed at high-tech companies (mean age ± standard deviation: 37.4 ± 7.2 years) completed a questionnaire administered by email regarding their overall, occupational, transport, and leisure-time sedentary behaviors. Self-reported data of height and weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and total cholesterol levels were also collected in 2018. An adjusted binary logistic regression model was employed in the analysis. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, high-tech company employees who used a computer (or Internet) for more than 2 hours per day during their leisure-time were more likely to have CVD risk factors (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval:1.08–3.00). No significant associations with CVD risk factors were detected for total sedentary time, occupational sitting, television viewing time, and transport-related sitting. Despite the nature of cross-sectional design in this study, our findings may have considerable implications for intervention designers and policymakers of Taiwan. Developing effective strategies for limiting leisure-time computer use should be considered for the prevention of CVD among high-tech company employees.
... Although the WHO guidance in adults is to achieve at least 75 minutes of intense physical activity (IPA) per week or 150 minutes of moderate physical activity (MPA) [7], in developed countries, 40% of adults do not reach this volume of PA [8]. This status causes a high degree of a sedentary lifestyle in the society (without activities during waking hours and a long time spent in a reclining or sitting posture, that does not increase energy expenditure to above 1.5 metabolic equivalents) [9] increasing the risk of remaining overweight and obese [10]. However, the weight loss caused by exercise is shifting due to individual differences in total energy expenditure with a wide range of possibilities, such as time spent, intensity, fitness status, followed by compensatory changes in energy intake [11]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Although the effectiveness of high-intensity training has been widely recognized as positive in athletes, its application in a clinical context is not well established. There is enough evidence to confirm that high-intensity routines are safe and that at-risk populations, such as for overweight and obese subjects, can help from these weight loss treatments. The purpose of this study was to lead a trial to test whether manipulation of physical activity in extension to high protein diet intake would induce changes in total weight and body composition. Methods Sixty-eight healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups: a control group with a low-level prescription of physical activity (1–4 METs), moderate physical activity group that performed 10.000 steps walking per day (5–8 METs) and intense physical activity group that trained exercises by at least 70% of VO2max three times a week (> 8 METs). All subjects followed a high-protein diet designed with a reduction of 500 kcal/day. Nutritional counseling was provided throughout the study period to help ensure dietary adherence. This intervention was delivered over twenty-four sessions as weekly one-on-one, face-to-face 30-min consultations. Results A significant reduction in body fat percentage was observed in the intense physical activity group (-20.9 ± 8.8 (CI95%: -25.6 – -16.2), p < 0.001). The change in muscle mass did not produce any significant differences between groups (p > 0.05). Concerning weight, a notable weight loss was found in those subjects who performed moderate or intense physical exercise, vs. those who did light exercise, (p < 0.001) and (p < 0.003), respectively. Conclusion our data strongly suggest that resistance training should be included, whenever possible, in any dietary treatment for improving the body composition of men with overweight or obesity.
... Background Frequent and uninterrupted sedentary behavior is highly prevalent among office workers [1,2] and negatively impacts workers' health and well-being by increasing the risk of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes [3][4][5], obesity [6], and mental health problems [7,8]. This is reflected in the higher mortality rates among office workers as compared with those in more active occupations [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since desk-dominated work environments facilitate sedentary behavior, office workers sit for 66% of their working days and only 8% succeed in interrupting their prolonged periods of sitting within the first 55 minutes. Yet stretches of long and uninterrupted sitting increase the likelihood of several chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We therefore developed a computer-based app designed to interrupt periods of prolonged sitting among office employees. Methods: When developing the intervention, we applied the intervention mapping protocol. This approach for the systematic design of theory and evidence-based behavior change programs consists of 6 steps: creation of a logic model of the problem, creation of a logic model of change, program design, program production, design of an implementation plan, and development of an evaluation plan. Results: Working through all 6 steps has resulted in an individually adaptable intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. The intervention, UPcomplish, consists of tailored, half-automatized motivational components delivered by a coach. To register sedentary behavior, the VitaBit (VitaBit Software International BV) toolkit, a wearable accelerometry-based monitoring device, is used. Among others, UPcomplish includes personalized goal setting, tailored suggestions to overcome hurdles, and weekly challenges. The VitaBit toolkit supports the participants to monitor their behavior in relation to self-set goals. Conclusions: Intervention mapping is a useful protocol not only for the systematic development of a comprehensive intervention to reduce sedentary behavior but also for planning program adherence, program implementation, and program maintenance. It facilitates obtaining the participation of relevant stakeholders at different ecological levels in the development process of the intervention and anticipating facilitators to and barriers of program implementation and maintenance. Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register NL7503; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/7503
... to high dose ionizing radiation mimicked the weight loss pattern observed following surgical implantation of empty and weighted capsules. Some studies have identified positive associations between duration of sitting and risk for obesity (Levine et al. 2005, Chau et al. 2012, while other studies suggest that reduced energy expenditure by individuals in developed countries is unlikely to be a major cause for obesity. For example, studies of Hadza hunter-gatherers challenge the concept that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure or result in more sitting time (Pontzer et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The gravitostat is purported to function as a leptin-independent, osteocyte-dependent mechanism for regulation of energy balance. If correct, reduced activation of gravitostat signaling caused by prolonged sitting may contribute to obesity. The gravitostat concept is supported by reduced body mass in rodents following surgical implantation of weighted capsules. However, the procedure induces a confounding injury response. We, therefore, sought to confirm a gravitostat by decreasing (microgravity and simulated microgravity) or increasing (simulated gravity) weight using less invasive models (spaceflight, hindlimb unloading and centrifugation). We also evaluated changes in weight following non-surgical injury (radiation). Male rats (Wistar, Sprague–Dawley and Fischer 344) ranging in age from 5–12 weeks at launch and flown for 4–19 days in low Earth orbit exhibited slightly lower (4-day flight) or no difference (all other studies) in weight compared to ground controls. Rats subjected to inflight (1.0 G) or ground (1.04 G and 1.56 G) centrifugation during a 19-day mission did not differ in weight. In female rats (Fischer 344), spaceflight (14 days) did not alter ovariectomy-induced weight gain. Finally, hindlimb unloading resulted in weight loss in lean and obese mice. The aforementioned findings are inconsistent with outcomes predicted by a gravitostat namely increased mass during weightlessness and decreased mass when subjected to >1 G simulated gravity. Injury (dose-associated graded increases in radiation) mimicked the leptin-independent weight changes attributed to a gravitostat. Taken together, these findings do not support gravitostat regulation of energy balance and suggest injury/stress as an alternative mechanism for weight loss induced by weighted capsules.
... Ergonomic analysis has benefits in a real environment. Chau et al. in their sample indicated that 42% of men and 47% of women spend an average of 6.3 of their 8-hour shifts in sedentary and sitting jobs having problems with the musculoskeletal system [14]. Cramer et al. state that habitual postural patterns are associated with musculoskeletal pathology, and that correcting this position leads to improved clinical presentation [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sedentary behavior carries the risk of musculoskeletal problems, especially in the lumbosacral region of the spinal column. According to modern lifestyle, this has begun to be a public health issue. Objective: To point to the health risks of working at the computer and present an ergonomic analysis of the typical and improved position of workers in front of the computer, thereby reducing the chances of emergence occupational diseases. Results: Changing the position of the subjects led to a change in lumbar pressure from 2,818 N/m2 to 351 N/m2. Software analysis of the changed position indicates that this position is acceptable, both for the lumosacral region of the spine and for the abdominal muscles. Conclusions: A change in body position will decrease lumbar moment and the load on the lumbosacral region of the spine. Work chair with lumbar support, the right desk height, setting the appropriate position of the monitor, selecting the optimal keyboard and mouse, dividing the workspace into appropriate zones, as well as changing lifestyle and habits should be part of the management of people who spend most of their working time in a sitting position. Keywords: Ergonomics; Sitting position; Prevention; Software
... However, data have been mixed on the association of work-related PA with employees' health. In some studies, high work-related PA has predicted better health, including lower rates of metabolic syndrome, lower obesity prevalence, and higher self-rated health [8,[17][18][19]. Other studies have shown that high work-related PA is associated with adverse health events, including coronary events and long term sickness absence [7,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While leisure-time physical activity (PA) has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease, less is known about the relationship between work-related PA and health. Work-related PA is often not a chosen behavior and may be associated with lower socioeconomic status and less control over job-related activities. This study examined whether high work-related PA and leisure-time PA reported by hospital employees were associated with healthier dietary intake and reductions in cardiometabolic risk. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 602 hospital employees who used workplace cafeterias and completed the baseline visit for a health promotion study in 2016-2018. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and clinical measures of weight, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipids. Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were calculated from two 24-h dietary recalls, and a Healthy Purchasing Score was calculated based on healthfulness of workplace food/beverage purchases. Regression analyses examined Healthy Purchasing Score, HEI, and obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/prediabetes by quartile of work-related PA, leisure-time PA, and sedentary time. Results: Participants' mean age was 43.6 years (SD = 12.2), 79.4% were female, and 81.1% were white. In total, 30.3% had obesity, 20.6% had hypertension, 26.6% had prediabetes/diabetes, and 32.1% had hyperlipidemia. Median leisure-time PA was 12.0 (IQR: 3.3, 28.0) and median work-related PA was 14.0 (IQR: 0.0, 51.1) MET-hours/week. Higher leisure-time PA was associated with higher workplace Healthy Purchasing Score and HEI (p's < 0.01) and lower prevalence of obesity, diabetes/prediabetes, and hyperlipidemia (p's < 0.05). Work-related PA was not associated with Healthy Purchasing Score, HEI, or cardiometabolic risk factors. Increased sedentary time was associated with lower HEI (p = 0.02) but was not associated with the workplace Healthy Purchasing Score. Conclusions: Employees with high work-related PA did not have associated reductions in cardiometabolic risk or have healthier dietary intake as did employees reporting high leisure-time PA. Workplace wellness programs should promote leisure-time PA and healthy food choices for all employees, but programs may need to be customized and made more accessible to meet the unique needs of employees who are physically active at work. Trial registration: This trial was prospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02660086) on January 21, 2016. The first participant was enrolled on September 16, 2016.
... Those with low levels of physical activity were the most sedentary in terms of all of the sitting contexts investigated in this study. This is in line with previous studies showing an inverse relationship between PA and SB [29,[54][55][56][57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been linked with detrimental effects on morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify the individual, social and environmental correlates of total sedentary behaviour and the contexts in which sitting time accumulates in an Irish adult cohort. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of data from 7328 adults of the nationally representative Healthy Ireland Survey. Ordinal regression analyses were used to examine participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, physical and mental health status, perceived neighbourhood environmental factors, and their association with total daily sitting times and sitting times across the domains of occupation, leisure screen-time and transportation/leisure. Results: Overall median of sitting time per day was 450 min (7.5 h). Male gender, and living in an urban location were associated with increased total-, occupational, and screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Younger age was associated with increased total and occupational sitting times (p < 0.001), while being older was associated with increased screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.001). Insufficient physical activity levels were associated with increased sitting across all domains (p < 0.001). Higher socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased total, occupational, and transportation/leisure SB (p < 0.001), while lower socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Alcohol consumption was associated with screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.01), while smoking was associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Being married was associated with less screen-time (p < 0.001) and transportation/leisure sitting (p = 0.02), while those with a caring role had less total (p = 0.04) and screen-time sitting (p = 0.01). A significant negative association between neighbourhood attributes and total (p = 0.04), and transportation/leisure sitting times (p < 0.001) was found. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a starting position for development of targeted interventions aimed at the most sedentary, such as males with sedentary occupations in higher socio-economic groups and education levels, those with insufficient levels of physical activity and who live in an urban location.
... Physical inactivity and sedentarism are major health concerns, as they are estimated to cause 3.2 million deaths globally annually, predominantly through chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases [1][2][3][4]. Several studies have shown a social gradient in physical activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Identifying socioeconomic determinants that are associated with access to and availability of exercise facilities is fundamental to supporting physical activity engagement in urban populations, which in turn, may reduce health inequities. This study analysed the relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and access to, and availability of, exercise facilities in Madrid, Spain. Methods: Area-level SES was measured using a composite index based on seven sociodemographic indicators. Exercise facilities were geocoded using Google Maps and classifed into four types: public, private, low-cost and sessional. Accessibility was operationalized as the street network distance to the nearest exercise facility from each of the 125,427 residential building entrances (i.e. portals) in Madrid. Availability was defned as the count of exercise facilities in a 1000 m street network bufer around each portal. We used a multilevel linear regression and a zero infated Poisson regression analyses to assess the association between area-level SES and exercise facility accessibility and availability. Results: Lower SES areas had a lower average distance to the closest facility, especially for public and low-cost facilities. Higher SES areas had higher availability of exercise facilities, especially for private and seasonal facilities. Conclusion: Public and low-cost exercise facilities were more proximate in low SES areas, but the overall number of facilities was lower in these areas compared with higher SES areas. Increasing the number of exercise facilities in lower SES areas may be an intervention to improve health equity. Keywords: Exercise, Socio-economic status, Exercise facilities, Inequities, Urban health
... Engagement in physical activity has known protective effects on workrelated musculoskeletal injuries. 30 However, an increasing proportion of the workforce have occupations that are sedentary, i.e., sitting 31 and coupled with low levels of physical activity, is associated with poor health, productivity losses, job dissatisfaction, absence and high turnover. 32 As such, it is not too surprising that almost half of the chiropractors surveyed in our study were likely to discuss physical activity and occupational health and safety. ...
Article
Background: Approximately one in four adults do not meet the World Health Organisation physical activity recommendations. While health promotion (i.e., physical activity) is common within chiropractic settings, little is known about chiropractors discussing this public health issue with their patients. The aim of our study is to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Australian chiropractors who frequently discuss patient physical activity. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey of chiropractors focusing upon practitioner characteristics, practice settings and clinical management characteristics. Regression analyses were conducted on 1924 survey respondents to identify factors associated with practitioners who frequently discuss physical activity with patients. Results: Eighty-five percent of Australian chiropractors reported 'often' discussing physical activity as part of their patient management. The strongest factors associated with chiropractors who frequently discuss physical activity obtained from the multivariate analysis include: often discussing occupational health and safety (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95%CI: 3.88, 9.59), often discussing diet/nutrition (OR = 4.56; 95%CI: 3.12, 6.66), often discussing smoking/drugs/alcohol (OR = 4.41; 95%CI: 2.06, 9.40), often use of specific exercise therapy/rehabilitation/injury taping (OR = 3.76; 95%CI: 2.62, 5.39) and often caring for athletes or sports people (OR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.56, 3.06) within their practice setting. Conclusion: Discussing physical activity is a frequent feature of patient management among most chiropractors in Australia. The association between these practitioners and discussion of other costly public health burdens could suggest chiropractors have a valuable role to play in chronic disease prevention. Given the growing need for practitioner-led promotion of patient physical activity further research examination of the role and contribution of chiropractors in promoting this important public health topic among patients and communities is needed.
... Thus, in the micro approach, a cut-off of 4 h/day was established. The approach was similar to recent investigations classifying sitting time into two categories (≤3.5 h/day, > 4.5 h/day) [14,17,26,27]. Therefore, the range (which included from >3.5 h/day to ≤ 4.5 h/day) was removed, as it could contain participants at either the upper or lower cut-off point. ...
Article
Digital technology development has been proposed to explain higher levels of sedentary behaviour; but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, here we evaluated the impact of digital development on sedentary behaviour using two metrics: digital country development and e-devices ownership from the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) and the Eurobarometer 88.4 cross-sectional survey with 28,031 participants ≥ 15 years old. From an environmental macro perspective, at the national level, a simple linear regression has been performed between the DESI and mean sitting time per country. To develop a micro approach to this phenomenon, binomial logistic regression models have been run among individual e-devices ownership and the daily amount of time spent sitting (≤3.5 h/day, > 4.5 h/day). Digital country development is positively related to sitting time, whereas the ownership of e-device (either DVD player, CD player, desk computer, laptop, and Internet connection) was associated with a higher sitting time (>4.5 h/day) in the overall population, with slight differences by gender. While further research is needed to understand the effect of digitalization on sedentary behaviour throughout time, here we document how it is associated with higher sitting time, as assessed through both macro and micro approaches.
... The prevalence of overweight and obesity of Dutch workers was 37% [5]. In Australia, 41.6% of workers were overweight/obese [6]. Overweight/obesity has become a common health problem, especially in the occupational population [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore association of physical activity and sitting time with overweight/obesity in Chinese occupational populations for the development of intervention and prevention strategies for obesity. Methods: A total of 23,112 participants were selected from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS). A logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of physical activity and sitting time with overweight/obesity by gender after adjusting for age, educational level, marital status, and family economic level. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity based on the WHO definition and the WGOC definition was 30.8% and 41.3%, respectively. Male employees with moderate and heavy occupation activity intensity had a lower risk for overweight/obesity than those with light occupation activity intensity (moderate: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; heavy: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86), and the risk of overweight/obesity of male employees with long work-time spent sitting was higher than those with short work-time spent sitting (2-4.9 h/day: OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40; ≥5 h/day: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.44). The risk of overweight/obesity of male employees with active transportation mode was lower than those with inactive transportation mode (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99), while the risk of overweight/obesity of female employees with active transportation mode was higher (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25). Female employees with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) for ≥150 min/week had lower risk of overweight/obesity than those with LTPA for <150 min/week (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84). There was no significant association of leisure-time sitting and housework time with overweight/obesity in Chinese occupational populations. Conclusion: Occupation activity intensity, LTPA, transportation mode, and work sitting time were associated with overweight/obesity. Reducing work sitting time, moderate and heavy occupation activity intensity, and an active transportation mode could help male employees decrease the risk of overweight/obesity. Increasing leisure-time physical activity could reduce the risk of overweight/obesity in women. Our findings provided insight into the association of physical activity and sitting time with overweight/obesity. It will be necessary to carry out workplace-based interventions, have an active transportation mode, and increase leisure-time physical activity to decrease the risks of overweight/obesity.
... In recent years, the prevalence of central obesity is increasing, whereas it is demonstrated that other non-communicable diseases subsequently occur from central obesity. According to past research, it was revealed that low physical activity, excessive intake of high energy foods, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables, and smoking and drinking alcohol all promote obesity [1][2][3][4]. From a prospective observational study with children, it was evidenced that sedentary lifestyles, especially watching television, is becoming a risk factor of obesity [5]. Moreover, excessive fat accumulation in the body leads to a failure to regulate normal physiological processes, and increases the risk of chronic diseases like diabetes [6], certain cancers [7], cardiovascular diseases [63], hepatic diseases [8], gallstones [9], and gastrointestinal disturbances [10]. ...
... With advancements in technology, many workplaces have shifted towards sedentary environments with predominantly desk-based occupations. Research suggests 42% of men and 47% of women report their jobs as mostly sitting and that fulltime office employees can sit for approximately six hours per day at work [3,4]. Very little movement occurs during work hours in these jobs with some data suggesting as little as 4 to 17 min of moderate to vigorous activity accumulated whilst at work [3,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Workplace step count challenges show promise with regard to increasing physical activity, with walking linked to many positive physical and mental health benefits. Few studies have investigated their effects on work-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe (1) the process of collecting work-related outcomes as part of a real-world workplace intervention, the Step Count Challenge, and (2) report step counts and work-related outcomes (productivity, perceived stress and work engagement) during the Step Count Challenge. This pre-post study was conducted as part of a four-week 2018 National Step Count Challenge (SCC) in Scotland, UK. A survey was administered to collect self-reported steps, productivity (HWQ), perceived stress (Cohen Perceived Stress Scale) and work engagement (UWES) on the week prior to the intervention starting (baseline), week 1 and week 4. Process data such as recruitment and response rates were monitored throughout. Of 2042 employees who signed up to the SCC, baseline data were reported for 246 (12% of total; mean age 42.5 years, 83% female). Process data suggest low uptake to the study and poor compliance between surveys time points. Preliminary data suggest positive changes in step counts (3374 steps/day by week 4), stress and productivity. No changes in work engagement were found. The findings highlight the need to integrate research more effectively into real-world interventions, including a true baseline period. The Step Count Challenge may have positive change on some work-related outcomes warranting further investigation into how robust research designs can be delivered without negatively influencing real-world interventions.
... Furthermore, occupation sitting time has been associated with being overweight or obese. [50][51][52] However, the current study did not find any significant association. Although the consumption of vegetables was not associated with being overweight or obese, higher consumption of vegetables was found among teachers than other working populations; this could be attributed to availability of vegetable gardens at schools and possibly the socio-economic class of teachers, since vegetables in Tanzania are low in cost compared with meat and fish. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tanzania is one of the developing countries experiencing an increasing trend of overweight and obesity among adults. Working adults have been identified as a high-risk group more exposed to the predictors of overweight and obesity than the general population. However, limited studies have been done in this group. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated risk factors among health-care workers, teachers, and bankers in Arusha city council. Subjects and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among health-care workers, teachers, and bankers. A total of 305 working adults aged 18-60 years participated in the study. A modified World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach for chronic disease risk factor surveillance was used to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, dietary practices and anthropometric measurement. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect information about level of physical activities. The anthropometric measurement and level of physical activities were calculated and ranked according to WHO guidelines. Results: Overall, 68.9% (31.1% overweight and 37.8% obese) of working adults were overweight or obese. Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR=7.73; 95% CI: 1.93-30.87]), gender (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.30-5.21), marital status (AOR=2.47; 95% CI: 1.11-5.50), years spent with the current institution (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 1.38-17.80), using private car or public transport to and from work (AOR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.10-5.39) and sedentary work (AOR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.04-5.71), were significant factors associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusion: The study identified a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tanzania compared with previous studies. The results from this study are useful for the education sector, financial institutions and health sector on designing workplace wellness programs to reduce the burden of overweight and obesity among this working category.
... A study by Cooper and Goodman analyzed pooled accelerometer data from more than 27,000 children and adolescents and showed that only 9% of the male and 2% of the female participants meet the World Health Organization recommendation of daily 60-min moderate-to-vigorous PA [8]. Over the past three decades, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents around the world has increased rapidly [9,10]. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adolescents (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19) years old) has increased by 20.6% [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of educational interventions on promoting regular physical activity in adolescent weight management programs. Methods The relevant studies indexed in Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest databases were searched using keywords namely “Physical Activity, Adolescent, Weight Management, Body Mass Index (BMI) , Randomized Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trial.” Up to the end of March 2020, two authors independently screened the papers, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool. Results Out of 12,944 initial studies, 14 met the inclusion criteria after screening the titles, abstracts, and full texts of the papers. The participants in these studies were aged between 6 and 18 years, and 13 studies included participants from both sexes. Moreover, eight of them were performed as a controlled clinical trial. The overall estimate of the difference showed that the interventions improved weight loss which is a statistically significant finding. The participants in the intervention group had a weight loss of 1.02 kg compared to the control group at a 95% confidence interval (− 4.794–0.222). Conclusion Published longitudinal data indicated that physical activity declines over the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using the results of the study, policy-makers can design educational interventions using educational models and patterns. Systematic review registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020173869
... Few studies explored the difference between LTPA and OPA in nursing staff. Previous studies suggested that employees who have higher levels of job strain and work demands tend to engage in less LTPA (Fransson et al., 2012), and OPA may be inversely associated with LTPA (Chau et al., 2012). Previous studies have also reported the contrasting associations of OPA and LTPA with human autonomic regulation related to chronic disease outcomes (Hallman et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims This exploratory study, using mixed methods research, aimed to (1) examine the associations among self‐efficacy, social support and regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff, and (2) identify motivators and barriers to leisure‐time physical activity. Background It is important to engage nursing staff in regular leisure‐time physical activity as a countermeasure against high occupational stress and poor health. Limited research has examined nursing staff's participation in leisure‐time physical activity and associated factors. Methods Nursing staff employed at a community hospital in the northeastern United States were invited to participate in this cross‐sectional survey with close‐ and open‐ended questions in March 2016. Results A total of 363 nurses and nursing assistants responded, among whom, 59.8% reported regular leisure‐time physical activity. Poisson regression models suggested that self‐efficacy and social support had an interactive association with increased prevalence of regular leisure‐time physical activity. Conclusion Self‐efficacy and social support have an important synergistic association with regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff. Effective interventions intending to facilitate nursing staff's leisure‐time physical activity should consider improving their self‐efficacy and social support. Qualitative comments suggested that work‐out areas in the workplace with release time and organized activity may promote regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff.
... Although the health benefits of participating in MVPA are well accepted and, in people following bariatric surgery, increasing MVPA may assist with minimizing weight regain [44][45][46][47], there is increasing recognition of the cardiometabolic risk associated with ST. This risk is especially pronounced when ST is accumulated in prolonged uninterrupted periods [48,49]. This point is relevant to this population who, at all assessments, spent over 70% of their waking hours in ST, and accumulated the vast majority of ST in bouts ≥ 30 min. ...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) over 12 months following bariatric surgery.Methods Pre-surgery and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-surgery, wearable devices were used to measure PA at different intensities, grouped according to energy expenditure and daily step count, and ST. Measures were also collected of weight and self-efficacy for exercise. Pre- and 12 months post-surgery, measures were collected of body composition and cardiovascular fitness.ResultsThirty adults scheduled for bariatric surgery were recruited (20 females, 44.1 [range, 22.0 to 65.0] years, body mass index 39.6 [range, 30.9 to 50.9] kg/m2). When compared to pre-surgery measures, over the 12 months post-surgery, there were no changes in the percentage of waking hours (mean [95% CI]) spent in ST (− 2% [− 6 to 3]), light intensity PA (1% [− 3 to 5]), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (1% [− 1 to 3]). At all time points, participants spent most (> 70%) of their waking hours accumulating ST, with little time spent in light intensity PA (~ 21%) and almost no time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (~ 5%). Step count and cardiovascular fitness were also unchanged. There were significant changes in weight, self-efficacy for exercise, and body composition.Conclusions Although bariatric surgery resulted in substantial weight loss and improved self-efficacy for exercise, it was insufficient to effect change in PA, ST or cardiovascular fitness. Complementing surgical intervention with behavioral interventions may optimize change in PA and ST.Graphical abstract
... The lack of exercise (sedentary lifestyle) and healthy food choices such as fast food are also a recognised risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and is generally thought to be independent of its effects on body weight, blood pressure, or lipids (35). Evidence from observational studies recommends that prolonged time spent sedentary is associated with an increased risk of obesity (50,51). Adipose tissue releases a considerable amount of bioactive mediators that influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, in addition to alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and chronic inflammation, causing endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis (52) ...
Thesis
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. Reducing levels of modifiable atherogenic risk factors is an essential goal in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Since there is an established relationship between metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease, the first study focused on demonstrating these links. Therefore, this research focuses on a sedentary population who work under conditions that predispose them to risk factors of metabolic syndrome and who are likely to develop atherosclerosis ultimately. Accordingly, a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic syndrome risk factors was conducted on 79 transport drivers. The clinical examination collected anthropometric data and blood biochemistry results. Daily step counts calculated by the Fitbit over seven days were also used to monitor their activity trends over time. Health assessments were conducted at the beginning of the study. The results showed that 68% (n = 51) of participants were recorded as having three or more risk factors which can contribute to MetS including obesity, hyperglycaemia, lipid profile abnormalities, blood pressure, hyperuricemia and markers of inflammation. This study also demonstrated that there are interconnections between oxidative stress and chronic inflammation with MetS components highlighting the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. It could be suggested that the potential use of anthocyanins as antioxidants and with anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative approach for the prevention and management of atherosclerosis in MetS population. Initially, the use of an in vitro model of endothelial cells can offer valuable mechanistic insights into the development and progression of inflammatory conditions that provide an efficient platform for product screening before conducting a human intervention trial. Based on findings from the literature review, it is hypothesised that anthocyanin might exert protective effects on healthy human aortic endothelial cells against inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro. The second study aimed to examine and compare the abilities of healthy and diabetic human aortic endothelial cells to incorporate anthocyanins’ potential benefits against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidative stressor and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Cultured Primary Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAEC) and Diseased-(type II diabetic) Aortic Endothelial Cells (D-HAEC) were exposed to oxidative stress by H2O2 (75 μM) and LPS (1μg/ml) and were treated with the anthocyanin (AC, 50 μl/ml). The results showed that anthocyanins might be responsible for protecting that aortic endothelial cells against inflammatory insult. These findings may have important implications for preserving endothelial cell function and preventing the initiation of endothelial cell damage that leads to platelets activation and coagulation associated with endothelial dysfunction. Finally, based on the in vitro finding, the last chapter aimed to investigate the antithrombotic effects of same berry-derived anthocyanin supplements on biomarkers of atherosclerosis, platelet function, and the expression of pro-atherogenic genes in a population with metabolic syndrome. A total of 55 participants in two groups of Normal and MetS (age 25-75y) were given 320 mg anthocyanin supplements twice daily for four weeks in a clinical trial. The effects of berry-derived supplementation were examined on features of metabolic syndrome, including fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress marker (uric acid), platelet surface markers, and the expression of pro-atherogenic genes. The results showed that anthocyanin consumption for four weeks significantly decreased the average fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 13.3 % in the MetS group. Similarly, significant reductions were observed in triglyceride (24.9%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (33.1%) levels in the MetS group compared with the Normal group (P ≤ 0.05). Anthocyanin supplementation also caused a reduction (18%) in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, with no significant difference in the Normal group. There was a positive correlation between decreased hs-CRP values and the levels of LDL-C and FBG in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05). Anthocyanin supplements also decreased ADP-induced platelet activation configuration expressed as P-selectin by 40%. The data here revealed that anthocyanin intake showed an inhibitory effect on the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1A, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (ECAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, with stimulatory effects on the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAG). Thus, these findings suggest that short-term consumption of anthocyanin supplements may have atheroprotective effects through the inhibition of chronic inflammation and platelet activation and improvement of MetS components.
... The effects of PI and SB on body mass index (BMI) have been analyzed previously [15,[18][19][20][21]. However, the relationship between the occurrence (incidence or prevalence) of sedentary lifestyle and PI in adults and older adults with obesity, the strength of this association, and which methods and respective cut-off points to measure it remains unclear. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity may increase the risk of obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate: i) the prevalence/incidence of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity, ii) the association of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity with obesity, and iii) the objective and subjective measures, diagnostic criteria, and cut-off points to estimate sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in adults and older adults with obesity. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases. A meta-analysis of a random-effects model was performed to estimate the combined prevalence of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity and their association with obesity. Results Twenty-three studies involving 638,000 adults and older adults were included in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted with 111,851 individuals with obesity. The combined prevalence of sedentary behavior was 31% (95% CI, 23-41%), and physical inactivity was 43% (95% CI, 31-55%). Significant associations between obesity and sedentary behavior (OR 1.45, 95% CI, 1.21-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR 1.52, 95% CI, 1.23-1.87) were found. Nine studies have used objective measures to assess physical activity levels, such as accelerometers and pedometers, whereas fourteen applied subjective methods and self-reported questionnaires. Conclusions As expected, we found elevated rates of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in individuals with obesity and a positive risk association. The wide range of objective and subjective measures, methods and cut-offs resulted in great variations of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior estimates. Trial registration PROSPERO (CRD42016037747).
... This is further underlined by our finding that participants with lifestyle-related chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure, were less active during the pandemic than those without these conditions. Indeed, a large body of pre-pandemic research (Chau et al., 2012;Thorp et al., 2011;Prince et al., 2017) and a handful of cross-sectional studies conducted during the pandemic (Giustino et al., 2020;Robinson et al., 2020;Robinson et al., 2021) show that obese people are generally less active. Considering the substantial disease burden from obesity (Bhaskaran et al., 2018) and the elevated risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms and mortality among those who are obese (Klang et al., 2020), it is pivotal to prioritize physical activity promotion among people with the most inactive Finally, this study contributes to the dearth of evidence on the association between COVID-19 containment measures and physical activity levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Regular physical activity is important for general health and reduces the risk for COVID-19 infections and for severe outcomes among infected people. However, measures to mitigate COVID-19 likely decrease population physical activity. This study aimed to examine 1) changes in exercise frequency in a representative sample of US adults during the pandemic (04/01/2020–07/21/2021), and 2) how sociodemographic characteristics, pre-COVID health-related behaviors and outcomes, and state-level stringency of COVID-19 containment measures predict exercise frequency. Self-reported exercise frequency and its individual-level predictors were determined based on 151,155 observations from 6,540 adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) in all US states from the Understanding America Study. State-level stringency of COVID-19 control measures was examined from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Exercise frequency varied significantly over 28 survey waves across 475 days of follow-up (F1,473 = 185.5, p
... In particular, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) identifies economic, social and physical factors that have changed dynamically over the past 20-30 years and have influenced diets and levels of physical activity at work, at home and leisure time [18]. Other researchers have placed emphasis on lifestyle factors [19], including particular attention to the impact of stress on weight gain [20,21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish Armed Forces soldiers and to analyze risk factors impacting body mass. In total, 1096 male, Caucasian soldiers (36.31 ± 8.03 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric data were obtained, and questionnaires evaluated sociodemographic, environmental, behavioral and biological factors known to be associated with obesity. Only 33% of the total number of participants had normal body weight, and 17.3% were considered obese (according to WHO criteria). The results showed that being 40 years or older, sleeping six hours or less per day, more frequent reaching for food in stressful situations, having a mother with excessive body weight, not exercising or exercising at most two days per week, and spending two hours a day or more in front of the TV increase the risk of obesity. Taken together, the results show that factors such as family history of obesity, dietary habits, physical activity, length of sleep and ability to cope with stress could be used to identify soldiers at higher risk of developing obesity in order to provide them with personalized prevention programs.
... Compared with other driving populations, similar results have been observed in studies with HGV drivers [12,38], and bus drivers using different device-based measures [39]. Previous research shows that workers with sedentary occupations were more likely to be sufficiently active during their leisure time [40] which could not be confirmed within our sample, who had reduced activity levels on nonworkdays. However, this could also be caused by the difference in valid waking wear time as there was almost a two-hour difference (15.2 vs 17.4 hours/ day). ...
Preprint
Objective: Physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and unhealthy dietary habits are common in Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) drivers. These factors increase risk of long-term health conditions. Methods: 329 HGV drivers across 25 UK depots completed a health assessment, including questionnaire completion, and objectively measured anthropometrics, blood biomarkers, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour. Results: The sample demonstrated a high-risk cardiometabolic health profile. 88.1% were overweight or had obesity, 11.9% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. 28.3% had hypertension, 83.6% had clinically elevated circulating LDL-cholesterol concentrations (>2mmol/l), and 66.6% had high total cholesterol levels (>4 mmol/l). On workdays drivers accumulated 12 hrs/day of sitting, 1.7 hrs/day of light PA (LPA) and 9.8 mins/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA. Associations between LPA and cardiometabolic markers were observed. Conclusion: This sample presents high levels of inactivity, overweight and obesity, and unhealthy cardiometabolic health profiles.
Thesis
Full-text available
Globally, physical activity levels have declined sharply and it has been estimated that up to 42% of individuals within developed countries are classified as being physically inactive. Insufficient physical activity is a substantial health risk and has been associated with negative psychophysiological outcomes including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression. Whilst there are many contributors to physical inactivity the workplace has been identified as a particularly significant contributor. Consistently high levels of sedentary behaviour have been documented within many modern workplaces, with employees spending up to 81% of working hours seated in white collar roles. Given that approximately 58% of global workforce will spend one third of their adult life at work, the workplace has been identified as a key domain in which researchers can deliver interventions to promote physical activity. Despite this, evidence for the efficacy of workplace physical activity interventions has been mixed. One potential explanation for this is an underutilisation of participatory approaches during intervention design. Within organisational research, concerns have been expressed regarding a widening gap between research and practice.Whilst interventions may be academically robust they may lack sufficient relevancy to the employees that they are intended to support. To address these issues this thesis adopted a pragmatic, participatory stance and drew upon co-creation methodologies to develop a new workplace physical activity intervention that would meet the needs of employees.
Article
Background: Workplace interventions have utilized standing desks to reduce sedentary behavior. However, minimal information is available concerning factors that impact use of standing desks under real working conditions. Purpose: To qualitatively explore factors that influence standing desk use under real working conditions. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with university employees currently using a standing desk using a semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for themes. Results: Participants (n = 37) identified factors impacting standing desk use across multiple socioecological levels. Intrapersonal-level barriers included forgetting to use the standing desk and pain or fatigue from standing; whereas, knowledge facilitated use. Social support facilitated use at the interpersonal level, but social norms were a barrier to standing. Access to standing desks and a wellness culture facilitated use at the institutional level, but the built environment was a barrier. Discussion: Findings from this study support a socioecological perspective of sedentary behavior and highlight the importance of incorporating intervention strategies at multiple levels to change sedentary behavior. Translation to Health Education Practice: The findings from this study may be used to develop multi-level strategies to initiate and maintain use of standing desks in order to overcome and prevent barriers impacting regular use.
Article
Aims: We aimed to explore the quantitative dose-response association of total sedentary behavior and TV viewing with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in a meta-analysis. Materials and methods: We searched 3 databases to identify English language reports that assessed the association of total sedentary behavior or TV viewing with above health outcomes. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate possible linear or nonlinear association of total sedentary behavior and TV viewing with above health outcomes. Results: We included 48 articles (58 studies) with 1,071,967 participants in the meta-analysis; 21 (6 cohort and 15 cross-sectional studies) studies examined the association of total sedentary behavior with overweight/obesity, 23 (13 cohort and 10 cross-sectional studies) with type 2 diabetes and 14 (1 cohort and 13 cross-sectional studies) with hypertension. We found linear association between total sedentary behavior and type 2 diabetes (Pnonlinearity =0.190) and hypertension (Pnonlinearity =0.225) and a nonlinear association for overweight/obesity (Pnonlinearity =0.003). For each 1-h/day increase in total sedentary behavior, the risk increased by 5% for type 2 diabetes and 4% for hypertension. We also found linear association between TV viewing and type 2 diabetes (Pnonlinearity =0.948) and hypertension (Pnonlinearity =0.679) and a nonlinear association for overweight/obesity (Pnonlinearity =0.007). For each 1-h/day increase in TV viewing, the risk increased by 8% for type 2 diabetes and 6% for hypertension. Conclusions: High levels of total sedentary behavior and TV viewing were associated with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective: Reducing sedentary behavior is an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to explore motivation to acquire a standing desk and strategies for using a standing desk through one-on-one interviews. Methods: Thirty-seven university employees (89% staff; 51% female) participated in the study. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide and brief demographic questionnaire. Results: Data analysis yielded five themes about motivation to acquire a standing desk: (1) pain management; (2) health risk; (3) movement opportunity; (4) workspace flexibility, and (5) productivity and three themes about typical use strategy: (1) task-dependent; (2) time-dependent; and (3) threshold. Conclusions: Motivating factors for using a standing desk should be considered when encouraging standing desk use. Interventions should provide realistic strategies to establish a sit-stand routine that address employees’ unique job demands and preferences.
Article
Objective: Physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and unhealthy dietary habits are common in Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) drivers. These factors increase risk of long-term health conditions. Methods: 329 HGV drivers across 25 UK depots completed a health assessment, including questionnaire completion, and objectively measured anthropometrics, blood biomarkers, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour. Results: The sample demonstrated a high-risk cardiometabolic health profile. 88.1% were overweight or had obesity, 11.9% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. 28.3% had hypertension, 83.6% had clinically elevated circulating LDL-cholesterol concentrations (>2mmol/l), and 66.6% had high total cholesterol levels (>4 mmol/l). On workdays drivers accumulated 12 hrs/day of sitting, 1.7 hrs/day of light PA (LPA) and 9.8 mins/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA. Associations between LPA and cardiometabolic markers were observed. Conclusion: This sample presents high levels of inactivity, overweight and obesity, and unhealthy cardiometabolic health profiles.
Article
Full-text available
Even when we meet physical activity guidelines, prolong sitting increase premature death risk. In this article we are discussing detrimental effects of too much sitting. Sedentary behaviors include sitting during travel to and from work, in the workplace and at home during leisure time. Sedentary behaviors are in the energy expenditure range of 1.0 to 1.5 METs (multiples of the basal metabolic rate). More studies are needed to form specific guidelines and advice that can be given to patients and the general population.
Article
Background: The retirement transition constitutes both a risk and an opportunity for changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). The present systematic review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the differences between socioeconomic status (SES) groups in changes in PA and SB across the retirement transition. Methods: The authors searched 5 databases. Inclusion criteria were: investigating statutory retirement, measuring PA and/or SB at least once before and once after retirement, and reporting information on SES differences. Results are reported by means of a narrative synthesis, combined with harvest plots based on direction of effect. Results: We included 24 papers from 19 studies. Sixteen papers focused on PA, 3 on SB, and 5 investigated both. For total PA, occupational PA, and total sedentary time, nearly all publications reported more favorable changes for high SES groups. For recreational PA, active transport, and screen time, there seemed to be a tendency toward more favorable changes for high SES groups. Changes in household/caregiving PA did not appear to differ between SES groups. Conclusions: Changes in movement behavior during the retirement transition are potentially more favorable for high SES adults. Nonetheless, the differences between SES groups seem to depend on the domain of movement behavior.
Article
Resumen Objetivo Analizar las variaciones en las prevalencias de diferentes conductas de riesgo para la salud, según la ocupación, en la población empleada en España. Método Estudio transversal con datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud española de 2017. El análisis incluye adultos de 18-65 años con empleo en el momento de la encuesta. Las conductas de riesgo para la salud son obesidad, inactividad física en el tiempo libre, consumo de tabaco y consumo excesivo de alcohol. La variable explicativa principal es la ocupación, utilizando la Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones de 2011. Se incluyen las siguientes características sociodemográficas: sexo, edad, país de nacimiento y nivel educativo. Se han calculado las prevalencias (P) de las conductas de riesgo, así como las odds ratios crudas y ajustadas (ORa). Resultados Las cifras más altas de obesidad se observan en operadores de instalaciones y maquinaria, y en montadores (P: 20,0%; ORa: 1,26; intervalo de confianza aproximado del 95% [IC95%A]: 1,04-1,52). El mayor nivel de inactividad física durante el tiempo libre aparece en ocupaciones elementales (P: 83,4%; ORa: 1,70; IC95%A: 1,45-1,99). El consumo de tabaco es más alto en operadores de instalaciones y maquinaria, y en montadores (P = 37,4%; ORa: 1,22; IC95%A: 1,05-1,43). El consumo excesivo de alcohol aparece en mayor medida en trabajadores cualificados en el sector agrícola, ganadero, forestal y pesquero (P: 3,9%. ORa: 1,51; IC95%A: 0,83-2,75). Conclusiones Los resultados indican una mayor relación entre las conductas de riesgo para salud y las ocupaciones manuales o de menor cualificación.
Article
Full-text available
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o comportamento sedentário (CS) nos domínios lazer, ocupação e deslocamento e verificar fatores associados ao excesso deste comportamento (ECS). Estudo transversal, com amostra representativa de 1.126 mulheres, 20-69 anos, de São Leopoldo/RS. CS, variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e relacionada à saúde foram avaliados através de questionário, aplicado em forma de entrevista. Considerou-se ECS valores acima da mediana. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. As medianas e intervalos interquartílicos (min/dia), para o CS no lazer, ocupação e deslocamento foram, respectivamente, 163,9 (86,6-2710,5), 51,4 (0-257,1) e 17,1 (5,7-37,3). A probabilidade do ECS no lazer aumentou com a escolaridade, foi maior entre as mulheres que não trabalhavam, sem crianças em casa e fumantes. Nos demais domínios, a probabilidade aumentou inversamente com a idade, foi maior entre mulheres brancas e aumentou com a classe econômica, escolaridade e renda. A probabilidade de ECS no deslocamento também aumentou com o número de carros no domicílio e foi 30% menor entre mulheres que não trabalhavam. O maior tempo de CS observado foi no domínio do lazer. As associações diferiram segundo o domínio, indicando distintas intervenções.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Overweight and obesity rates continue to rise globally, and are associated with increased chronic disease morbidity and mortality. There is evidence of high overweight and obesity prevalence in Kenya, however; a gap exists in the knowledge of national prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity. Methods The study examined data from the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) Kenya STEPwise Survey—the first nationally representative survey to measure body mass index (BMI) among Kenyan men and women. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis of 4,340 adults aged 18-69 years examined the prevalence, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors associated with overweight or obesity (overweight/obesity) defined by WHO definition. Results The mean BMI was 23.38 [Standard Error (SE) = 0.22)] with 28.08% being overweight/obese. The odds of overweight/obese were significantly higher among married individuals [odds ratio(OR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.81], woman (OR = 3.20, 95% CI 2.71-3.77), urban dwellers (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.67 and middle wealth or higher (OR = 2.74, 95% CI 2.31-3.25). Additionally, overweight/obese odds increased by age compared to 18-29 year olds; (30-44 years= (OR = 2.32 95% CI 1.93-2.80), 45-59 year olds= (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 2.40-3.71), 60-69 year olds= (OR = 3.12, 95% CI 2.34-4.14)). Discussion Overweight/obesity was highest among women, urban residents, and individuals with high education and wealth. Future studies should seek to ascertain drivers of overweight/obesity amongst high-risk groups. Targeted and tailored policies and interventions are needed to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To analyse the association between the type of work (productive vs reproductive work) and the levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in women with fibromyalgia. Method This cross-sectional study involved 258 women with fibromyalgia from southern Spain. Of them, 55% performed reproductive work (unpaid, associated with caregiving and domestic roles) exclusively, while 45% had productive job (remunerated, that results in goods or services). Physical activity of light, moderate and vigorous intensity in the leisure time, at home, at work, and totally were measured through the leisure time physical activity instrument and with the physical activity at home and work instrument, respectively. Sedentary behaviour was measured by the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire. Results After adjusting for age, fat percentage, education level and marital status, the multivariate analysis of covariance model informed the existence of significant differences between type of work groups (p<0.001). Women with productive work engaged in more light physical activity at work (mean difference =448.52 min; 95 % CI 179.66 to 717.38; p = 0.001), and total physical activity of light (809.72 min; 535.91 to 1085.53; p < 0.001) and moderate (299.78 min; 97.31 to 502.25; p = 0.004) intensity. Women with reproductive work engaged in more light physical activity at home (379.14; 175.64 to 582.64; p < 0.001). Leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour were similar in both groups (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions Women with productive work had greater levels of physical activity compared with those who only did reproductive work, except for physical activity at home. Having productive work might facilitate movement of women with fibromyalgia towards a more active lifestyle.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational category and 3 health-related behaviors: participation in leisure-time physical activity, active transport (AT) and occupational sitting in a sample of employed Australian adults. A random, cross-sectional sample of 592 adults aged 18 to 71 years completed a telephone survey in October/November 2006. Reported occupations were categorized as professional (n = 332, 56.1%), white-collar (n = 181, 30.6%), and blue-collar (n = 79, 13.3%). Relationships between occupational category and AT, sufficient physical activity and occupational sitting were examined using logistic regression. White-collar employees (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.95) were less likely to engage in AT and more likely to engage in occupational sitting (OR = 3.10, 95% CI 1.63-5.92) when compared with blue-collar workers. Professionals (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.94-4.76) were also more likely to engage in occupational sitting compared with blue-collar workers. No relationship was observed between occupational category and engagement in sufficient physical activity. No association between occupational category and sufficient physical activity levels was observed, although white-collar and professionals were likely to engage in high levels of occupational sitting. Innovative and sustainable strategies are required to reduce occupational sitting to improve health.
Article
Full-text available
The obesity epidemic is attributed in part to reduced physical activity. Evidence supports that reducing time spent sitting, regardless of activity, may improve the metabolic consequences of obesity. Analyses were conducted in a large prospective study of US adults enrolled by the American Cancer Society to examine leisure time spent sitting and physical activity in relation to mortality. Time spent sitting and physical activity were queried by questionnaire on 53,440 men and 69,776 women who were disease free at enrollment. The authors identified 11,307 deaths in men and 7,923 deaths in women during the 14-year follow-up. After adjustment for smoking, body mass index, and other factors, time spent sitting (> or = 6 vs. <3 hours/day) was associated with mortality in both women (relative risk = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.44) and men (relative risk = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.24). Relative risks for sitting (> or = 6 hours/day) and physical activity (<24.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week) combined were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.20) for women and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.65) for men, compared with those with the least time sitting and most activity. Associations were strongest for cardiovascular disease mortality. The time spent sitting was independently associated with total mortality, regardless of physical activity level. Public health messages should include both being physically active and reducing time spent sitting.
Article
Full-text available
Adults spend about one third of their day at work and occupation may be a risk factor for obesity because of associated socioeconomic and behavioral factors such as physical activity and sedentary time. The aim of this study was to examine body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity by occupation and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors (including leisure time and commuting physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol) to occupational risk. Secondary analyses of the National Health Survey in Australia (2005) were conducted for working age adults (20 to 64 years). Linear and logistic regression models using BMI as either dichotomous or continuous response were computed for occupation type. Model 1 was age-adjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and socioeconomic variables and Model 3 adjusted for age, socioeconomic variables and lifestyle behaviours. All models were stratified by gender. Age-adjusted data indicated that men in associate professional (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63) and intermediate production and transport (OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03-1.50) occupations had a higher risk of BMI >/= 25 kg/m2 than those without occupation, and women in professional (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82), management (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92) and advanced clerical and service occupations (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.58-0.93) had a lower risk. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors no occupational group had an increased risk but for males, professionals, tradesmen, laborers and elementary clerical workers had a lower risk as did female associate professionals and intermediate clerical workers. Adjustment for lifestyle factors explained the lower risk in the female professional and associate professionals but failed to account for the lower odds ratios in the other occupations. The pattern of overweight and obesity among occupations differs by gender. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to protect females in professional and associate professional occupations from overweight. For high-risk occupations lifestyle modification could be included in workplace health promotion programs. Further investigation of gender-specific occupational behaviors and additional lifestyle behaviors to those assessed in the current Australian Health Survey, is indicated.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the associations of sitting time and television (TV) viewing time with continuously measured biomarkers of cardio-metabolic risk in Australian adults. Waist circumference, BMI, resting blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin were measured in 2,761 women and 2,103 men aged > or =30 years (mean age 54 years) without clinically diagnosed diabetes from the 2004-2005 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined associations of self-reported sitting time and TV viewing time (hours per day) with these biomarkers, adjusting for potential confounding variables. For both women and men, sitting time was detrimentally associated with waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin (all P < 0.05), but not with fasting plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure (men only). With the exception of HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in women, the associations remained significant after further adjustment for waist circumference. TV viewing time was detrimentally associated with all metabolic measures in women and all except HDL cholesterol and blood pressure in men. Only fasting insulin and glucose (men only) remained deleteriously associated with TV viewing time after adjustment for waist circumference. In women and men, sitting time and TV viewing time were deleteriously associated with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers, with sitting time having more consistent associations in both sexes and being independent of central adiposity. Preventive initiatives aimed at reducing sitting time should focus on both nonleisure and leisure-time domains.
Article
Full-text available
Background Cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes analyzed by logistic regression are frequent in the epidemiological literature. However, the odds ratio can importantly overestimate the prevalence ratio, the measure of choice in these studies. Also, controlling for confounding is not equivalent for the two measures. In this paper we explore alternatives for modeling data of such studies with techniques that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. Methods We compared Cox regression with constant time at risk, Poisson regression and log-binomial regression against the standard Mantel-Haenszel estimators. Models with robust variance estimators in Cox and Poisson regressions and variance corrected by the scale parameter in Poisson regression were also evaluated. Results Three outcomes, from a cross-sectional study carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, with different levels of prevalence were explored: weight-for-age deficit (4%), asthma (31%) and mother in a paid job (52%). Unadjusted Cox/Poisson regression and Poisson regression with scale parameter adjusted by deviance performed worst in terms of interval estimates. Poisson regression with scale parameter adjusted by χ2 showed variable performance depending on the outcome prevalence. Cox/Poisson regression with robust variance, and log-binomial regression performed equally well when the model was correctly specified. Conclusions Cox or Poisson regression with robust variance and log-binomial regression provide correct estimates and are a better alternative for the analysis of cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes than logistic regression, since the prevalence ratio is more interpretable and easier to communicate to non-specialists than the odds ratio. However, precautions are needed to avoid estimation problems in specific situations.
Article
Full-text available
We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.
Article
Full-text available
To analyze the association of work-related physical activity (WRPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Spanish adult population aged 20 to 60 years. The data were taken from the 1993 Spanish National Health Survey. We analyzed a sample of 12,044 men and women representative of the Spanish population aged 20 to 60 years. BMI and frequency of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) were obtained from self-reported weight and height. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were constructed, adjusting for the main confounding factors. WRPA and LTPA were measured by two questions to classify subjects into four categories of physical activity. Neither mean BMI nor percentage of obesity varied significantly (p > 0.05) by WRPA. Mean BMI was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in those who were inactive in their leisure time (25.90 kg/m(2) in men and 24.43 kg/m(2) in women) than in those who reported vigorous activity (24.42 kg/m(2) and 22.97 kg/m(2) in men and women, respectively). The odds ration (OR) for obesity decreased with increasing level of LTPA in both men (OR of 0.64 for vigorous activity) and women (OR = 0.68), showing a statistically significant dose-response relation in both men (for linear trend, p = 0.0021) and women (p = 0.0245). These results raise questions about the association between WRPA and obesity and suggest the need to reexamine models of the obesity epidemic that point to automation of the workplace as one of the major explanatory factors.
Article
Full-text available
We analysed a sample of Australian adults to determine the strength of associations of TV viewing and participation in physical activity with the metabolic syndrome. This population-based cross-sectional study included 6,241 adults aged > or =35 years who were free from diagnosed diabetes mellitus and self-reported ischaemic disease and were not taking lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Participants self-reported TV viewing time and physical activity time for the previous week. The adjusted odds ratio of having the metabolic syndrome was 2.07 (95% CI 1.49-2.88) in women and 1.48 (95% CI 0.95-2.31) in men who watched TV for >14 h per week compared with those who watched < or =7.0 h per week. Compared with those who were less active (<2.5 h per week), the odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome was 0.72 (95% CI 0.58-0.90) in men and 0.53 (95% CI 0.38-0.74) in women who were active (> or =2.5 h per week). Longer TV viewing (>14 h per week) was associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity and dyslipidaemia in both men and women. A total physical activity time of > or =2.5 h per week was associated with a reduced prevalence of both insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia in both sexes and reduced prevalence of both obesity and hypertension in women. Increased TV viewing time was associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, while physical activity was associated with a reduced prevalence. Population strategies addressing the metabolic syndrome should focus on reducing sedentary behaviours such as TV viewing, as well as increasing physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
To examine (1) the inter-relationships between socio-economic status (SES), physical activity, three different domains of sitting time (weekday, weekend day and leisure-time sitting), and being overweight or obese (body mass index>/=25 kg/m(2)); and (2) the potential mediation effects of sitting time in the relationship between socio-economic factors and being overweight or obese in working Australian adults. Observational epidemiological study. One thousand forty eight working adults. Using a multistage sampling design on neighbourhood SES, participants were from high and low SES neighbourhoods of an Australian capital city. Neighbourhood SES was assessed using census data; individual SES was based on self-reported educational attainment and household income. There were three sitting time variables: sitting time on weekdays, weekend days and in leisure time. Overweight and obesity were determined using self-reported body weight and height. Gender, age, neighbourhood SES, education, working hours and physical activity were independently associated with weekday, weekend day and leisure-related sitting time. With the exception of education and working hours, these variables were also independently associated with being overweight or obese. Leisure-time sitting was found to be a mediator in the relationships between gender, education and being overweight or obese. Strategies to promote less sitting in leisure time are required to combat overweight and obesity in Australian adults, especially among those from low SES neighbourhoods, and among those with high levels of education and income who work long hours.
Article
Full-text available
To validate the physical activity (PA) questionnaire in Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2). The questionnaire was administered twice to a random sample of 108 men aged 20-39 and validity by comparing results with VO(2max) and ActiReg, measuring PA and energy expenditure and with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Spearman correlation coefficients indicated poor and moderate significant agreement by test-retest (light activity, r = 0.17, and hard activity, r = 0.50). We found a moderate significant correlation r = 0.46 (p < or = 0.01) between hard PA and VO(2max) and n.s for light activity (r = -03). Metabolic equivalent (METs) values 6+ from ActiReg most strongly correlated with hard PA r = 0.31 (p < or = 0.01), though associations of other measures obtained from ActiReg with questionnaire measures were weaker. Occupational activity was strongest correlated for METs 3-6 r = 0.48 (p < or = 0.01) by ActiReg. The HUNT 2 question for "hard" LTPA has acceptable repeatability and appears to be a reasonably valid measure of vigorous activity, as reflected in moderate correlations with several other measures including VO(2max), and with corresponding results from IPAQ and ActiReg. The HUNT 2 question on occupational activity had good repeatability and appears to best reflect time spent in moderate activity, with moderate associations with measured time at intermediate intensity levels. The "light" activity question from HUNT 2 had poor reproducibility and did not correlate well with most of the comparison measures. Thus, the "hard" PA and the occupational activity question should be useful measures of vigorous PA, if time and space allow only very brief assessment. The utility of the "light" PA questions remains to be established.
Article
Full-text available
Sedentary behaviors are linked to adverse health outcomes, but the total amount of time spent in these behaviors in the United States has not been objectively quantified. The authors evaluated participants from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged ≥6 years who wore an activity monitor for up to 7 days. Among 6,329 participants with at least one 10-hour day of monitor wear, the average monitor-wearing time was 13.9 hours/day (standard deviation, 1.9). Overall, participants spent 54.9% of their monitored time, or 7.7 hours/day, in sedentary behaviors. The most sedentary groups in the United States were older adolescents and adults aged ≥60 years, and they spent about 60% of their waking time in sedentary pursuits. Females were more sedentary than males before age 30 years, but this pattern was reversed after age 60 years. Mexican-American adults were significantly less sedentary than other US adults, and White and Black females were similarly sedentary after age 12 years. These data provide the first objective measure of the amount of time spent in sedentary behavior in the US population and indicate that Americans spend the majority of their time in behaviors that expend very little energy.
Article
Full-text available
Much small-scale research has identified the role of physical activity in obesity prevention. This is the 'energy expenditure' side of the energy balance equation. Although around half an hour of daily moderate-intensity physical activity is required for cardiovascular health and disease prevention, the quantum of physical activity required for obesity prevention and weight loss is around 60-90 minutes per day. This amount of physical activity is difficult to achieve through leisure time physical activity (LTPA) alone, and additional energy expenditure is needed in the domains of active transport, occupation activity and in domestic settings. Modeling of 24-hour energy expenditures demonstrate the need for 'active living', namely energy expenditure over and above that due to LTPA, for weight loss and obesity prevention. The consequences of this for developing countries such as China are the need to focus on preventing the declines in energy expenditure attributable to urbanization, industrialization, and motor vehicle dependence. These will pose policy challenges in the developing world, if they are to be taken seriously as obesity prevention strategies.
Article
Full-text available
A large health survey was previously conducted in 1984-86, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1), and another was conducted in 1995-97 (HUNT 2). A third, HUNT 3, started in 2006. However, the physical activity (PA) questionnaires have not yet been validated. To assess the reliability and validity of the self-reported physical activity questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1). The HUNT 1 questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 108 healthy men aged 20-39 years. Repeatability was assessed with a repeat questionnaire after one week, and validity by comparing results with direct measurement of VO(2) during maximal work on a treadmill, with ActiReg, an instrument that measures PA and energy expenditure (EE) and with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). ActiReg records the main body positions (stand, sit, bent forward and lie) together with the motion of the trunk and/or one leg each second. The results indicated strong, significant agreement on test-retest (weighted kappa frequency, r=0.80, intensity, r=0.82, and duration, r=0.69). We found a moderate, significant correlation, r=0.48 (p< or =0.01), between the index based on questionnaire responses and VO(2max.) Metabolic equivalent (MET) values of 6 or more from ActiReg and "vigorous activity'' from the IPAQ most strongly correlated with the index (r=0.39, r=0.55, respectively). Associations of other measures obtained from ActiReg with questionnaire responses were weaker. Our results indicate that the PA questionnaire in HUNT 1 is reproducible and provides a useful measure of leisure-time PA for men. The questionnaire is very short, and compared favourably with much longer instruments for assessment of more vigorous PA. It should be an appropriate tool for use in further epidemiological studies, particularly when the interest is in aspects of PA reflected in fitness or METs greater than 6.
Article
Full-text available
Television viewing and physical inactivity are independently associated with risk of obesity. However, how the combination of multiple leisure-time sedentary behaviours (LTSB) and physical activity (LTPA) may contribute to the risk of obesity is not well understood. We examined the joint associations of multiple sedentary behaviours and physical activity with the odds of being overweight or obese. A mail survey collected the following data from adults living in Adelaide, Australia (n = 2210): self-reported height, weight, six LTSB, LTPA and sociodemographic variables. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their level of LTSB (dichotomised into low and high levels around the median) and LTPA (sufficient: >/= 2.5 hr/wk; insufficient: < 2.5 hr/wk). Logistic regression analysis examined the odds of being overweight or obese (body mass index >/= 25 kg/m2) by the combined categories. The odds of being overweight or obese relative to the reference category (low sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity) were: 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.98) for the combination of low sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity; 1.55 (95% CI: 1.20-2.02) for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity; and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.92) for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity. Those who spent more time in sedentary behaviours (but were sufficiently physically active) and those who were insufficiently active (but spent less time in sedentary behaviour) had a similar risk of being overweight or obese. Reducing leisure-time sedentary behaviours may be as important as increasing leisure-time physical activity as a strategy to fight against obesity in adults.
Article
Objective: To compare the level of agreement in results obtained from four physical activity (PA) measurement instruments that are in use in Australia and around the world.Methods: 1,280 randomly selected participants answered two sets of PA questions by telephone. 428 answered the Active Australia (AA) and National Health Surveys, 427 answered the AA and CDC Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (BRFSS), and 425 answered the AA survey and the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).Results: Among the three pairs of survey items, the difference in mean total PA time was lowest when the AA and NHS items were asked (difference=24) (SE:17) minutes, compared with 144 (SE:21) mins for AA/BRFSS and 406 (SE:27) mins for AA/IPAQ). Correspondingly, prevalence estimates for ‘sufficiently active’ were similar for AA and NHS (56% and 55% respectively), but about 10% higher when BRFSS data were used, and about 26% higher when the IPAQ items were used, compared with estimates from the AA survey.Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that there are large differences in reported PA times and hence in prevalence estimates of ‘sufficient activity’ from these four measures.Implications: It is important to consistently use the same survey for population monitoring purposes. As the AA survey has now been used three times in national surveys, its continued use for population surveys is recommended so that trend data over a longer period of time can be established.
Article
Sitting time is an emerging health risk, and many working adults spend large amounts of time sitting each day. It is important to have reliable and accurate measurement tools to assess sitting time in different contexts. To validate the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire (WSQ), an adapted measure of total and domain-specific sitting time based on work and non-workdays for use in working adults. A convenience sample (N=95, 63.2% women) was recruited from two workplaces and by word-of-mouth in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed the WSQ, which asked about sitting time (1) while travelling to and from places; (2) while at work; (3) while watching TV; (4) while using a computer at home; and (5) while doing other leisure activities on work and non-workdays on two occasions, 7 days apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for the 7 days between test and retest. They recorded the times they wore the accelerometer, the days they worked and their work times in a logbook. Analyses determined test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and assessed criterion validity against accelerometers using Spearman's r and Bland-Altman plots. Measuring total sitting time based on a workday, non-workday and on average had fair to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.46-0.90) and had sufficient criterion validity against accelerometry in women (r=0.22-0.46) and men (r=0.18-0.29). Measuring domain-specific sitting at work on a workday was also reliable (ICC=0.63) and valid (r=0.45). The WSQ has acceptable measurement properties for measuring sitting time at work on a workday and for assessing total sitting time based on work and non-workdays. This questionnaire would be suitable for use in research investigating the relationships between sitting time and health in working populations.
Article
To investigate associations between physical (in)activity at different life-stages and lipids in mid-adulthood, examining the role of potential confounding and mediating factors, such as adiposity. Data from the 1958 British birth cohort (n=7824) were examined. Using linear regression, we analysed prospectively reported frequency of activity and TV-viewing (23, 33, 42 and 45 y) in relation to total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, at 45 y. Activity at different ages was associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides at 45 y: e.g. in men, a 1 day/week greater activity frequency at 42 y was associated with 0.006 mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol and 1.4% lower triglycerides. Most associations attenuated, but were not entirely explained by adjustment for covariates (life-styles and socio-economic factors): e.g. among men, the estimated 2.0% lower triglycerides per 1 day/week greater frequency at 33 y reduced to 1.8% after adjustment. Among women, though not men, activity at both 23 and 45 y contributed cumulatively to HDL-cholesterol. For sedentary behaviour, associations were found for sitting at work: a 1 h/day greater sitting among men was associated with a 0.012 mmol/L lower HDL-cholesterol after adjustment for covariates. Associations were seen for TV-viewing: e.g. in men, a 0.04 mmol/L lower HDL-cholesterol and 5.9% higher triglycerides per hour/day greater TV-viewing at 45 y, attenuated, respectively, to 0.03 mmol/L and 4.6% after adjustment for covariates. Associations attenuated further after adjustment for current BMI. Associations for total and LDL-cholesterol were less consistent. Activity and sedentary behaviour at different adult ages were associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in mid-adulthood. Associations were partly mediated by other life-style factors and by BMI.
Article
To systematically review and provide an informative synthesis of findings from longitudinal studies published since 1996 reporting on relationships between self-reported sedentary behavior and device-based measures of sedentary time with health-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between 1996 and January 2011 were identified by examining existing literature reviews and by systematic searches in Web of Science, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycINFO. English-written articles were selected according to study design, targeted behavior, and health outcome. Forty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria; of these, 46 incorporated self-reported measures including total sitting time; TV viewing time only; TV viewing time and other screen-time behaviors; and TV viewing time plus other sedentary behaviors. Findings indicate a consistent relationship of self-reported sedentary behavior with mortality and with weight gain from childhood to the adult years. However, findings were mixed for associations with disease incidence, weight gain during adulthood, and cardiometabolic risk. Of the three studies that used device-based measures of sedentary time, one showed that markers of obesity predicted sedentary time, whereas inconclusive findings have been observed for markers of insulin resistance. There is a growing body of evidence that sedentary behavior may be a distinct risk factor, independent of physical activity, for multiple adverse health outcomes in adults. Prospective studies using device-based measures are required to provide a clearer understanding of the impact of sedentary time on health outcomes.