Combining hand techniques with electric pumping increases the caloric content of milk in mothers of preterm infants

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association (Impact Factor: 2.07). 01/2012; 32(10):791-6. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2011.195
Source: PubMed


Objective:We previously reported that preterm mothers' milk production can exceed levels of term mothers by using early hand expression and hands-on pumping (HOP) with the highest production (955 ml per day) in frequent users of hand expression. In this study, we compared milk composition between mothers stratified by early hand expression frequency.Study Design:A total of 67 mothers of infants <31 weeks gestation were instructed on hand expression and HOP. Subjects submitted expression records and 1-ml samples from each pumping session over 24 h once weekly for 8 weeks.Result:78% (52/67) of mothers completed the study. But for Week 1, no compositional differences (despite production differences) were noted between the three groups. Protein and lactose tracked reported norms, but fat and energy of mature milk (Weeks 2-8) exceeded norms, 62.5 g l(-1) per fat and 892.7 cal l(-1) (26.4 cal oz(-1)), respectively.Conclusion:Mothers combining manual techniques with pumping express high levels of fat-rich, calorie-dense milk, unrelated to production differences.

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    • "ctured by Kaneson ( Osaka , Japan ) or Medela ( McHenry , IL ) . There is a grow - ing body of evidence , however , that suggests pumps alter milk composition by evaporating water content and artifi - cially changing milk composition . Moreover , the use of the pump can affect milk synthesis during the subsequent feed ( De Curtis and Rigo , 2012 ; Morton et al . , 2012 ) . Addi - tionally , pumps require sterilization between uses and are not recommended for multiperson use , as there is a risk of spreading infection between mothers . Finally , our field observations ( Fujita , Miller , and Quinn ) indicate that pumps may be uncomfortable or unfamiliar to mothers and are generally discouraged for fiel"
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