Core Muscle Activation During Dynamic Upper Limb Exercises in Women

Unit of Family Practice, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland (Kautiainen)
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 01/2012; 26(12). DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318248ad54
Source: PubMed


Although several everyday functions and sporting activities demand controlled use of the abdominal and back muscles while working with the upper limbs, the activity of core muscles during dynamic upper limb exercises in the standing position has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine abdominal and back muscle activity during dynamic upper limb exercises while standing and to evaluate whether dynamic exercises are appropriate for strengthening muscles. The activation of the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during dynamic bilateral or unilateral shoulder exercises with or without fixation of the pelvis was measured in 20 healthy women using surface electromyography (EMG). Trunk muscle activation during isometric maximum contraction was used as a comparative reference. With bilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction, abdominal muscle activity was more than 60% of activity during reference exercises. With unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and shoulder extension exercises, back muscle activity was more than 60% of the activity level reference exercise. Muscle activation levels were 35-64% lower during shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction without fixation compared to exercises with fixation. The results indicate that upper limb exercises performed in the standing position are effective for activating core muscles. Bilateral and unilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and adduction with the pelvis fixed elicited the greatest activity of the core muscles.

Download full-text


Available from: Sami Tarnanen, Dec 29, 2015
  • Source
    • "In the development of the protocol for the intervention arm, we have used information obtained from our own trunk muscle electromyography studies, conducted among healthy subjects [19,20] and lumbar fusion patients (Tarnanen et al., unpublished observation), other previously published studies on trunk and hip muscle activation during exercises [21-24], as well as information from a multidisciplinary group in the study hospitals (physiotherapists, nurses, spine surgeons), and feedback from patients regarding the feasibility of the program. The timing of the beginning of intervention is based on recovery from the surgery. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lumbar spine fusion (LSF) effectively decreases pain and disability in specific spinal disorders; however, the disability rate following surgery remains high. This, combined with the fact that in Western countries the number of LSF surgeries is increasing rapidly it is important to develop rehabilitation interventions that improve outcomes. In the present RCT-study we aim to assess the effectiveness of a combined back-specific and aerobic exercise intervention for patients after LSF surgery. One hundred patients will be randomly allocated to a 12-month exercise intervention arm or a usual care arm. The exercise intervention will start three months after surgery and consist of six individual guidance sessions with a physiotherapist and a home-based exercise program. The primary outcome measures are low back pain, lower extremity pain, disability and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are back function and kinesiophobia. Exercise adherence will also be evaluated. The outcome measurements will be assessed at baseline (3 months postoperatively), at the end of the exercise intervention period (15 months postoperatively), and after a 1-year follow-up. The present RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term rehabilitation program after LSF. To our knowledge this will be the first study to evaluate a combination of strength training, control of the neutral lumbar spine position and aerobic training principles in rehabilitation after LSF. Identifier NCT00834015.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] We investigated the effects of changing the resistance direction using an elastic tubing band on abdominal muscle activities during isometric upper limb exercises in a seated position. [Subjects] Twenty ablebodied volunteers (10 males, 10 females) were recruited for the study. [Methods] All subjects performed isometric upper limb exercises with an elastic tubing band involving three different shoulder movements (extension, flexion, and horizontal abduction). Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) bilaterally during isometric upper limb exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in EMG activity of the bilateral RA during shoulder extension, shoulder horizontal abduction, and shoulder flexion. The EMG activities of the bilateral EO and IO were significantly higher in shoulder extension and horizontal abduction than in shoulder flexion when the subjects performed the arm exercise in the seated position. There was no significant difference between shoulder extension and horizontal abduction. [Conclusions] We suggest that upper limb extension and horizontal abduction using an elastic tubing band could be effective at improving abdominal muscle activities without trunk movement during isometric upper limb exercises.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strength and Conditioning for Team Sports is designed to help trainers and coaches to devise more effective high-performance training programs for team sports. This remains the only evidence-based study of sport-specific practice to focus on team sports and features all-new chapters covering neuromuscular training, injury prevention and specific injury risks for different team sports. Fully revised and updated throughout, the new edition also includes over two hundred new references from the current research literature. The bookintroduces the core science underpinning different facets of physical preparation, covering all aspects of training prescription and the key components of any degree-level strength and conditioning course, including: ○ physiological and performance testing. ○ strength training. ○ metabolic conditioning. ○ power training. ○ agility and speed development. ○ training for core stability. ○ training periodisation. ○ training for injury prevention. Bridging the traditional gap between sports science research and practice, each chapter features guidelines for evidence-based best practice as well as recommendations for approaches to physical preparation to meet the specific needs of team sports players. This new edition also includes an appendix that provides detailed examples of training programmes for a range of team sports. Fully illustrated throughout, it is essential reading for all serious students of strength and conditioning, and for any practitioner seeking to extend their professional practice.
    No preview · Book · Oct 2012
Show more