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An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of ailments in villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve, a low land catchment forest with high number of endemic plant species. Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants used to treat common illnesses were conducted with the traditional medical practitioners using open-ended semi -structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods of preparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded. A total of 82 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded during the study. The most commonly used plant families recorded were Fabaceae (29%), Euphorbiaceae (20%), Asteraceae and Moraceae (17% each) and Rubiaceae (15%) in that order. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (41.3%), followed by roots (29.0%), bark (21.7%), seeds (5.31%), and fruits (2.6%). The study revealed that stomach ache was the condition treated with the highest percentage of medicinal plant species (15%), followed by hernia (13%), diarrhea (12), fever and wound (11% each), and coughs (10%). Majority of medicinal plant species (65.9%) were collected from the wild compared to only 26.7% from cultivated land. A rich diversity of medicinal plant species are used for treating different diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve, with the wild habitat being the most important reservoir for the majority of the plants. Awareness programmes on sustainable utilization and active involvement of community in conservation programmes are needed.
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RESEARCH Open Access
Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages
around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro,
Tanzania
Ezekiel Amri
1*
and Daniel P Kisangau
2
Abstract
Background: An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of
ailments in villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve, a low land catchment forest with high number of endemic
plant species.
Methods: Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants used to treat common illnesses were conducted with the
traditional medical practitioners using open-ended semi -structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods of
preparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded.
Results: A total of 82 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded during the study. The most
commonly used plant families recorded were Fabaceae (29%), Euphorbiaceae (20%), Asteraceae and Moraceae
(17% each) and Rubiaceae (15%) in that order. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves
(41.3%), followed by roots (29.0%), bark (21.7%), seeds (5.31%), and fruits (2.6%). The study revealed that stomach
ache was the condition treated with the highest percentage of medicinal plant species (15%), followed by hernia
(13%), diarrhea (12), fever and wound (11% each), and coughs (10%). Majority of medicinal plant species (65.9%)
were collected from the wild compared to only 26.7% from cultivated land.
Conclusions: A rich diversity of medicinal plant species are used for treating different diseases in villages around
Kimboza forest reserve, with the wild habitat being the most important reservoir for the majority of the plants.
Awareness programmes on sustainable utilization and active involvement of community in conservation
programmes are needed.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Medicinal plants, Kimboza forest, Conservation
Background
Kimboza forest reserve has 13 recorded endemic plant
species making it the richest lowland forest in East
Africa. The forest reserve has valuable contribution to
biological and gene pool conservation, and together with
other mountain ranges of Morogoro region form part of
the Eastern Highlands of Tanzania with about 200 ende-
mic plant species [1,2]. The usesofplantsintheindi-
genous cultures particularly of developing countries, are
numerous and diverse, forming an important socio-eco-
nomic base including their use as medicine [3]. People
generally depend on nearby forests for fuel wood, timber
and medicine. Medicinal plants therefore have important
contribution in the primary healthcare systems of local
communities as the main source of medicines for the
majority of the rural population [4,5].
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates
that up to 80% of the worlds population in developing
countries depend on locally available plant resources for
their primary healthcare, since western pharmaceuticals
are often expensive, inaccessible or unsuitable [6].
Further, in this decade, the world is experiencing an
increasing rate of resistance by pathogens to some of
the synthetic drugs, as well as the struggle against some
chronically complex and uncontrolled infections such as
Cancer and HIV/AIDS. There is therefore need to study
* Correspondence: ezekielamri@yahoo.com
1
Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute
of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Amri and Kisangau Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012, 8:1
http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/1 JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY
AND ETHNOMEDICINE
© 2012 Amri and Kis angau; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Acc ess article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attri bution License (http://creativecommons.org /licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricte d use, distribution, and
reproductio n in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
and validate ethnomedicines for wider acceptance,
recognition and utilization by all stakeholders in the
society. However, overtime, ethnomedicinal knowledge
hasbeenunderminedbymortalityofresourcepersons,
extinction of plant resources, inadequate scientific
research and poor documentation [7]. The aim of the
present study was therefore to document ethnomedic-
inal information of plants used by indigenous people in
villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve. The gener-
ated information will be used in future to explore ways
of sensitizing the community on the sustainable utiliza-
tion of the forest resources so as to minimize their
genetic loss.
Methods
Study area
The study area is about 60 km from Morogoro Munici-
pal located between 06°59-7°02Sand37°47-37°
49E. An ethnobotanical survey for medicinal plants was
conducted in the following villages: Changa, Kibangile,
Mwarazi and Uponda which surround Kimboza forest
reserve (Figure 1). The communities adjacent to the for-
est have access right over the forest as stipulated in the
village forest management plan by-laws.
Data collection
Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to obtain infor-
mation on medicinal plants traditionally used to treat
various ailments in the study area. With the help of
local administrative officers, Participatory Rural Apprai-
sal (PRA) was employed to identify key respondents [8].
Ethnobotanical data was collected through individual
and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) interviews using
semi-structured open-ended questionnaires. Interviews
were conducted in Swahili or the local Kiluguru lan-
guage. Field excursions were also conducted with the
assistance of key respondents. Information regarding the
local names of the plant species, medicinal uses, parts
used, methods of preparation, and administration route
were documented. The methods used in harvesting the
plant materials from the wild were also recorded. Plant
specimens were prepared, identified and voucher speci-
mens deposited in the University of Dar es Salaam her-
barium for future reference. Descriptive statistics were
used to analyze the ethnomedicinal data collected.
Results and discussion
A total of 22 traditional medical practitioners were
interviewed, with their agesrangingbetween28to70
years, and 60% of them being older than 50 years. Out
of the 22 informants interviewed, 18 of them were men
and only four were women. A total of 82 medicinal
plant species in 29 families were recorded as being used
to treat 41 different types of diseases as shown in Table
1. The family Fabaceae had the highest proportion of
medicinal plants used (29%), followed by Euphorbiaceae
(20%), Asteraceae and Moraceae (17% each), and Rubia-
ceae (15%) in that order (Figure 2). Each of all other
families had less than six plant species associated with
the treatment of the diseases documented in Table 1.
At least 65.9% of all medicinal plants recorded were
collected from the wild while only 26.7% were collected
from cultivated land. The most frequently utilized med-
icinal plant parts were leaves (41.3%), followed by roots
(29.0%), bark (21.7%), seeds (5.3%), and fruits (2.6%) as
shown in Figure 3. Roots were mostly used in the treat-
ment of stomachache, diarrhea and inflammatory dis-
eases, while leaves were mostly used in the treatment of
malaria, skin diseases and childrens diseases.
Most of the plant species were used to treat one dis-
ease, while some were used to treat two or more dis-
eases. The plant species used to treat the highest
percentage of diseases were Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
and Bridelia micrantha (Hochst) Baill. each reported to
treat 14.6% of the diseases. Ficus exasperate Valh., Man-
gifera indica L. and Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby.
were each reported to treat 12.2% of the diseases. The
third category of highly used plant species were Ocotea
usambarensis Engl. and Vernonia hymenolopis A. Rich.
each reported to treat 9.8% of the diseases (Figure 4). In
terms of frequency of medicinal plant uses, the highest
percentage of plant species (15%) was used to treat sto-
machache, followed by diarrhea (13%) and hernia (12%),
fever and wound (11% each) and cough (10%). Other
diseases were treated with less than 10% of the medic-
inal plants recorded (Figure 5).
Majority of the plant remedies were prepared by boil-
ing (44%), then by crushing or pounding (27%), or soak-
ing in cold water (19%) and concoction 10% (Figure 6).
Some specific herbal preparations were taken by mixing
Figure 1 Map showing location of the study area.
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Table 1 Medicinal plants used for treating human diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve
Family/Botanical name Local name Habitat/
Source
Part
used
Health problems cured Methods of
preparation
Administration
route
Voucher
No.
Acanthaceae
Justicia heterocarpa
L.
Mwidu Wild or
Cultivated
Roots,
Leaves
Snake bite Crushed or
pounded
Oral EA031
Alliaceae
Allium ascalonium
L.
Kitunguu saumu Cultivated Roots,
Leaves
Antifungal, Child fever Decoction Oral EA040
Allium sativum L. Kitunguu maji Cultivated Leaves Fever, Cough, Asthma,
Malaria, Hypertension
Concoction Oral EA017
Anacardiaceae
Sorindeia
madagascariensis DC.
Mpilipili Wild Leaves Wound Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA021
Mangifera indica L. Mwembe Cultivated Leaves,
Bark,
Roots
Malaria,Diarrhea, Hypertension,
Asthma, Cough
Decoction Oral EA025
Annonaceae
Annona senegalensis
Pers.
Mtopetope Wild Roots
Leaves
Eye ache, Wound Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA035
Apocynaceae
Landolphia
buchananii P.Beauv.
Luziwana Wild Roots Stomach ache, Diarrhea, Hernia Decoction Oral EA022
Asteraceae
Vernonia iodocalyx
O. Hoffm.
Kitugutu Wild Bark
leaves
Stomach ache, Diarrhea, Head ache Crushed or
pounded
Oral EA010
Helichrysum
schimperi (Sch. Bip.
ex A. Rich.) Moeser
Lweza Wild Roots Stomach ache, Diarrhea, Decoction Oral EA013
Vernonia
hymenolepis A. Rich.
Msungu Wild Roots,
Leaves
Fever, Diarrhea, Hernia, Spleen
enlargement.
Decoction Oral EA006
Crassocephalum
Montuosum (S.
Moore) Milne-Redh.
Nyaluganza Wild Bark Ear ache, Head ache, burn Crushed or
pounded
Oral EA004
Bidens pilosa L. Nyaweza Wild,
Cultivated
Bark Wound, Spleen enlargement Decoction Topical EA003
Sonchus pinnatifidus
L.
Sungasunga Wild Roots,
Leaves
Stomachache, Headache. Decoction Oral EA032
Helianthus annus L. Ufuta Cultivated Leaves Chest pain, Asthma Concoction Oral EA002
Asphodelaceae
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Mlovera Cultivated Leaves Skin diseases, Wounds Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA041
Bignoniaceae
Kigelia africana (Lam.)
Benth.
Mwegea Wild Bark,
Leaves,
Fruits
Skin diseases, Venereal diseases,
Fever,
Crushed or
pounded
Oral EA026
Bombacaceae
Adansonia digitata
L.
Mbuyu Wild Roots Hernia Decoction Oral EA018
Bombax
rhodognaphalon L.
Msufipori Wild Leaves Stomach ache Decoction Topical EA024
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L. Mpapai Cultivated Roots,
Leaves
Tooth ache, Stomach-ache. Decoction Oral EA015
Combretaceae
Cobretum molle R.Br. ex
G.Don.
Mlamweusi Wild Roots,
Leaves
Wounds, Cough, Malaria Decoction Oral EA012
Terminalia sericea L. Mpululu Wild Leaves,
Roots
Antifungal treatment Crushed
and
pounded
Topical EA053
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Table 1 Medicinal plants used for treating human diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve (Continued)
Cucurbitaceae
Momordica foetida
L.
Huluhundu Cultivated Leaves Malaria, Ear ache, Head ache, Decoction Oral EA048
Cucurbita moschata
Duchesne.
Maboga Cultivated Roots Expulsion of placenta Infusion Oral EA042
Euphorbiaceae
Acalypha fruticosa
Forssk.
Kifulwe Wild Leaves Diarrhea Decoction Oral EA028
Jatropha curcas L. Mbono Wild Leaves
Seeds
Wound, Scabies Crushed
and
pounded
Topical EA034
Fluggea virosa Willd. Mkalananga Wild Leaves Stomach ache, Diarrhea, Hernia,
Spleen enlargement
Infusion Oral EA029
Manihot esculenta
Crantz.
Mhogo Cultivated Leaves Stomach ache Infusion Oral EA043
Suregada
zanzibariensis Roxb.
ex Rottler.
Mndimu pori Wild Roots Malaria, Fever Decoction Oral EA050
Ricinus communis L. Mnyonyo Wild Leaves Rheumatism, Wound Crushed
and
pounded
Topical EA055
Bridelia micrantha
(Hochst.) Baill.
Msumba Wild Bark
Leaves
Rheumatism, Hernia, Stomach ache,
Spleen enlargement, Skin eruption,
Insecticide
Decoction Oral EA036
Euphorbia nyikae Pax ex
Engl.
Mngwede Wild Leaves Wound Crushed
and
pounded
Topical EA044
Fabaceae
Cassia mimosoides
L.
Lusangalala Wild Roots
Bark
Mental illness, Asthma, Severe
cough
Decoction Oral EA056
Senna petersiana
(Bolle) Lock.
Mkunde Wild Roots
Leaves
Skin diseases, Inflammation
Backache, Stomach ache, Skin
eruption
Infusion Oral EA054
Senna hirsuta (L.)
Irwin & Barneby.
Mwambalasimba Wild Leaves Pneumonia, Hernia, Stomach ache,
Head ache
Decoction Oral EA052
Brachystegia
spiciformis Benth.
Mzinghawa nyika Wild Roots Ear ache, Child fever. Infusion Oral EA061
Albizia versicola
Welw. ex Oliv.
Mkenge maji Wild Roots
Bark
Skin diseases, Boils Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA057
Albizia petersiana
Oliv.
Mkenge poli Wild Leaves
Bark
Skin diseases Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA063
Mucuna pruriens (L.)
DC
Bumu Wild Roots Male fertility Infusion Oral EA066
Tephrosia vogelii
Hook.f.
Kitupa Wild Bark Insecticide Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA068
Abrus precatorius L. Lufambo Wild Roots Eye inflammation, Diarrhea, Women
fertility
Decoction Oral EA078
Cajanus cajan (L.)
Millsp.
Mbaazi Cultivated Leaves Diarrhea. Crushed or
pounded
Oral EA071
Vigna unguiculata
(L.) Walp.
Mkunde Cultivated Roots
Leaves
Chest pain, Cough, Abscess, Hernia Infusion Oral EA062
Pterocarpus
angolensis DC.
Mninga Wild Bark Hernia Decoction Oral EA064
Lamiaceae
Satureja biflora (Buch.-
Ham.ex D.Don) Briq.
Luparalwa
mlungu
Wild Leaves Mental illness Infusion Oral EA011
Ocimum suave
Willd.
Mnungha Wild Bark Malaria, Stomach ache, Decoction Oral EA001
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Table 1 Medicinal plants used for treating human diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve (Continued)
Lauraceae
Ocotea
usambarensis Engl.
Mseli Wild Roots
Bark
Stomach ache, Fever, Malaria,
Hernia, Sprit
Infusion Oral EA009
Malvaceae
Hibiscus surattensis
L.
Lumotomoto Wild
Cultivated
Leaves Wound,
Abscess, Gonorrhea
Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA059
Hibiscus fuscus
Garcke
Luswagamene Wild Roots Rheumatism, Mental illness. Concoction Oral EA043
Melastomataceae
Dissotis rotundifolia
(Sm.) Triana.
Kinzasu Wild Roots,
Leaves
Wound, Asthma, Boil, Abscess
Diarrhea, Gonorrhea
Crushed or
pounded;
Decoction
Topical;
Oral
EA039
Meliaceae
Khaya anthotheca
(Welw.) C. DC
Mkangazi Wild Bark
Leaves
Malaria, Bilharzias, Gonorrhea Concoction Oral EA067
Azadirachta indica
A. Juss.
Mwarobaini Cultivated Leaves,
Bark,
Seeds
Head ache, Back ache, Malaria,
Fever, Stomach-ache, Insecticide
Decoction Oral EA080
Cedrella odorata L. Mwerezi Wild Leaves
Bark
Menstrual cycle and Women fertility Infusion Oral EA079
Moraceae
Ficus altissima
Blume.
Mvira Wild Bark
Leaves
Diarrhoea, Stomach-ache, Concoction Oral EA077
Ficus asperifolia Hook. ex
Steud.
Mkoya Wild Roots
Leaves
Wounds Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA075
Ficus exasperata Valh Msasa Wild Roots
Leaves
Bark
Hypertension, Scabies, Stomach
disorders, Gonorrhoea, Diarrhea
Decoction Oral EA073
Ficus stuhlmanii
Warb.
Foza/Mtamba Wild Bark Stomach tumor Infusion Oral EA069
Ficus sycomorus L. Mkuyu Wild Bark Menstrual cycle,
Women fertility
Infusion Oral EA067
Milicia excelsa
(Welw.) C.C Berg.
Mvule Wild Roots Wound Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA082
Antiaris toxicaria
Lesch.
Mbila Wild Leaves
Bark
Skin diseases, Insecticide. Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA088
Moringaceae
Moringa oleifera
Lam.
Mlonge Cultivated Leaves
Bark
Seeds
Roots
Skin diseases, headache,
[Detoxification, Rheumatism,
inflammation
Decoction
or
Infusion
Oral EA097
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus maidenii
Labill.
Mmaidini Wild
Cultivated
Bark Chest pain, Cough Decoction Oral EA087
Psidium guajava L. Mpera Cultivated Leaves Diarrhea, Stomach ache Infusion Oral EA085
Poaceae
Zea mays L. Mahindi Cultivated Roots Bedwetting Decoction Oral EA091
Saccharum
officinarum L.
Muwa Cultivated Roots Bilharzias, Detoxifying kidneys Decoction Oral EA101
Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus latifolius
(Thunb.) R.Br. ex
Mirb.
Mnyanziri Wild Roots Hernia Decoction Oral EA99
Rosaceae
Rubus pinnatus
Willd
Lufifi Wild Leaves Menstrual cycle, Infusion Oral EA093
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Table 1 Medicinal plants used for treating human diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve (Continued)
Prunus americana
Marshall.
Mpisi Wild Bark Stomach ache Crushing
and water
Oral EA090
Rubiaceae
Multidentia fanshwei
(Tennant) Bridson.
Degedege Wild Roots Child fever Decoction Oral EA095
Rytigynia
lichenixenos (K.
Schum.) Robyns.
Mhambalamaziwa Wild Seeds
Roots
Hernia Decoction Oral EA092
Vangueria infausta
Burch.
Mviru Wild Seeds Pneumonia, Menstrual cycle, Infusion Oral EA084
Rytigynia uhligii (K.
Schum. & K.Krause)
Verdc.
Msanangare Wild Seeds Hernia Decoction Oral EA099
Chassalia parvifolia
K. Schum.
Mguhu Wild Bark Hernia, Chest pain, Malaria, Concoction Oral EA102
Catunaregum
spinosa (Thunb.)
Mtutuma Wild Leaves Skin diseases Crushed or
pounded
Topic EA104
Rutaceae
Citrus limon (L.)
Burm.f.
Mlimau Cultivated Roots Stomach ache Decoction Oral EA103
Zanthoxylum
deremense
(Engl.)
Mlungulungu Wild Fruits Stomach ache, Child fever Decoction Oral EA100
Citrus aurantifolia
(Christm.) Swingle.
Mndimu Cultivated Roots Gonorrheal, Diarrhea, Decoction Oral EA117
Solanaceae
Lycopersicum
esculentum Mill.
Mnyanya Cultivated Roots,
Leaves
Stomach ache Concoction Oral EA105
Solanum incanum
L.
Mtula Wild
Cultivated
Leaves Cough, Vomit. Concoction Oral EA107
Capsicum frutescens
L.
Pilipililukwale Cultivated Roots,
Bark
Wound Crushed or
pounded
Topical EA110
Nicotiana tabacum
L.
Tumbaku Cultivated Fruits Hernia Decoction Oral EA106
Zingiberaceae
Zingiber officinale
Roscoe.
Tangawizi Cultivated Roots Cough Decoction Oral EA111
Figure 2 Percentage distribution in families for medicinal
plants used treat different health problems.
Figure 3 Plant parts used for medicinal purposes and
percentage of total medicinal species.
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with food, honey or drunk together with coffee prepared
from leaves of the coffee plant. Most medicinal plant
preparations were taken orally (75.6%), while 24.4%
were administered topically for diseases such as skin
infections and wounds. It was reported that different
dosages were given to similar disease conditions.
Administration dosage was by estimation and the
amount of each dosage depended on the age of the
patient and severity of the condition being treated.
Figure 4 Medicinal plant species with highest percentage of total diseases treated.
Figure 5 Frequency of medicinal plants uses to cure diseases.Figure 6 Medicinal plants preparation methods.
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The study revealed a rich diversity of medicinal plants
used to treat various disease conditions in the villages
around Kimboza forest reserve. It further revealed a rich
ethnobotanical knowledge amongst the residents of the
neighbourhood of Kimboza Forest reserve. The families
Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae and
Rubiaceae which were the most dominant in this study
are consistently recorded in other ethnomedicinal stu-
dies [9-12], and could be attributed to their wide range
of bioactive ingredients [13,14].
The fact that majority of the plant species recorded
weresourcedfromthewildandonlyafewwereculti-
vated may imply that many indigenous plant species
may be difficult to propagate. This therefore calls for
the need to train the herbal practitioners on the appro-
priate propagation techniques of these plant species for
sustainable utilization. According to Edwards [15], about
two-thirds of 50, 000 medicinal plants in use worldwide
are still harvested from the natural habitat and about
one fifth of them are now endangered. The increased
percentage of species obtained from the wild has a
direct effect on the availability of these resources and is
likely to contribute to their vulnerability to being over-
exploited.
The finding that majority of the informants inter-
viewed were aged above 50 years augments Kisangau et
al. [16]. This implies that the elderly people are the
main custodians of traditional knowledge, and this poses
a serious challenge of the knowledge gap between the
elderly and the young generation if framework to ensure
apprenticeship is not put in place.
Some herbal practitioners reported that there was a
potential to domesticate medicinal plants as some of
them were already being planted on farmlands. Kisangau
et al. [17] support the observation that only a few herbal
practitioners were involved in cultivation of medicinal
plants and most of them were gathered from the wild.
The unabated over collection of the medicinal plants
from the wild is a major threat to their existence and
raises serious concern for their conservation. In the pre-
sent study, the few plant species that were found to be
cultivated on farmlands included Senna petersiana
(Bolle) Lock., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Khaya
anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC. and Moringa oleifera Lam.
However, unavailability of planting material and lack of
appropriate propagation techniques were noted to be
the major constraints to exploiting the potential for
medicinal plant domestication. On the other hand, spe-
cies like Carica papaya L., Vernonia iodocalyx O.
Hoffm., Helichrysum schimperi (Sch.Bip.exA.Rich)
Moeser and Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle. could
easily be conserved by planting them in home gardens.
It was found that the most commonly harvested plant
parts were leaves followed by roots. These results are
contrary with the findings of Rukia [18] who reported
that roots were the most commonly harvested plant
partsfollowedbyleavesin Udzungwa Mountains For-
ests in Tanzania.
Some methods of harvesting medicinal plants like root
excavation and bark striping can be very devastating and
a big threat to the plant survival. The high utilisation of
roots has also been reported as putting many plant spe-
cies at a risk of extinction because of the damages
inflicted on them in the course of uprooting them
[19,20]. Bark striping is also an equally harmful harvest-
ing method as reported for Prunus africana and other
medicinal plants in Cameroon [7]. In Namibia just like
in other countries, harvesting of roots and barks was
foundtobecommon,destructiveandunsustainable
[21].
The fact that the most frequently utilised plant parts
were leaves is a more sustainable practice as opposed to
where roots and/or the bark are used. The prevalence in
the use of leaves for preparation of traditional herbal
remedies has been reported in other studies too
[9,22-26]. This practice helps to reduce the rate of
threat on plant species and enhances the sustainable
management of plants, as long as only an appreciable
amount of leaves is harvested [27]. Leaves of plants have
been reported to accumulate inulins, tannins and other
alkaloids [28], which may be responsible for their var-
ious medicinal properties, hence explaining their wide
use.
Conclusion
The results of the study revealed that there is rich
diversity of medicinal plants used to treat various ail-
ments in the neighbourhood of Kimboza forest reserve.
Herbal practitioners and the local community in the
study area should be educated on sustainable methods
of harvesting medicinal plants without compromising
their availability for future use. It is also imperative to
train the community on the proper propagation tech-
niques in order to encourage the domestication of
valuable and threatened medicinal plants. The domes-
tication of medicinal plants will create new opportu-
nities for the local people such as provision of an
alternative income and could help reduce the pressure
on the wild population. Successful conservation strate-
gies should be developed and priority given to sustain-
able harvesting of the plants.
Acknowledgements
EA is grateful for support from Rufford Small Grants on nature conservation
which formed the basis of this work. The authors acknowledge the kindness
and cooperation of the informants and local administrators in the study
area, and the support of the University of Dar es Salaam Herbarium staff. EA
and DPK also acknowledge the valuable input of Dr. Wycliffe Wanzala of
South Eastern University College, Kenya in revising the manuscript.
Amri and Kisangau Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012, 8:1
http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/1
Page 8 of 9
Author details
1
Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, Dar es Salaam Institute
of Technology, P. O. Box 2958, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
2
Department of
Biological Sciences, South Eastern University College (A Constituent College
of the University of Nairobi) P.O Box 170-90200, Kitui, Kenya.
Authorscontributions
EA identified the research area and title, involved in field data collection,
carried out statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. DPK participated
in refining data analysis and drafting as well as enrichment of the
manuscript. All authors read, revised and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interest, and share the
aspirations of the local people in the villages around Kimboza forest reserve
to conserve medicinal plants for future generations.
Received: 20 February 2011 Accepted: 6 January 2012
Published: 6 January 2012
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doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-1
Cite this article as: Amri and Kisangau: Ethnomedicinal study of plants
used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012 8:1.
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Amri and Kisangau Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2012, 8:1
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... Several ethnobotanical studies conducted in different African countries (Chinsembu, 2016;Gbadamosi & Egunyomi, 2014;Kamanja et al., 2015;Maema et al., 2019;Maroyi, 2013;Naidoo et al., 2013;Namukobe et al., 2011;Ndubani & Höjer, 1999) have demonstrated that an ample proportion of the population, especially rural inhabitants, rely on plant medications for their primary health care needs on STIs. The similar case is true for Tanzania (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Chhabra et al., 1990a;Chhabra et al., 1990b;Kacholi, 2020;Maregesi et al., 2007;Moshi et al., 2012), whereby almost 72% of the rural population rely on medicinal plants for their medications. The dependence on medicinal plants for many lower-and middle-income countries is linked with the lack of access to modern health facilities, and the inability to pay for modern drugs and health services (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Maroyi, 2013;Mathibela et al., 2019). ...
... The similar case is true for Tanzania (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Chhabra et al., 1990a;Chhabra et al., 1990b;Kacholi, 2020;Maregesi et al., 2007;Moshi et al., 2012), whereby almost 72% of the rural population rely on medicinal plants for their medications. The dependence on medicinal plants for many lower-and middle-income countries is linked with the lack of access to modern health facilities, and the inability to pay for modern drugs and health services (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Maroyi, 2013;Mathibela et al., 2019). For instance, in the study area, only one government hospital is registered; and it is situated in the urban area where only a minority (5.2%) of the district population lives (URT, 2012). ...
... This means that some vital and basic ethnomedicinal information may be lost, hence, documenting indigenous knowledge is of paramount importance. In Tanzania, several ethnobotanical studies focusing on medicinal plants have been done (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Kacholi, 2020;Kitula, 2007;Moshi et al., 2009Moshi et al., , 2012. However, information available on medicinal plants used for the treatment of STIs in Tabora region is scarce. ...
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This study aims to document medicinal plants used by Nyamwezi traditional health practitioners (NTHPs) in managing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Sikonge District. The data on medicinal plants were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 23 NTHPs were interviewed. The findings revealed that 28 medicinal plants, belonging to 16 families and 25 genera, are used for the management of STIs in Sikonge. Most species belonged to family Fabaceae (17.9%), Apocynaceae, Combretaceae and Euphorbiaceae (10.7% each), and Olacaceae and Rutaceae (7.1% each). Out of the recorded plants, 45.7% are used to manage gonorrhoea, 25.7% syphilis, 17.1% vaginal candidiasis, 8.6% HIV/AIDS related infections and 2.9% chlamydia. Cassia abbreviata (47.8%), Ximenia caffra (39.1%) and Abrus precatorius (34.8%) were plants with high citation index. Tree (50.0%) and root (70.9%) were the most utilized growth form and plant part, respectively. 85.7% of the species were collected from the wild. Decoction (73.3%) and oral (86.2%) were the most used methods of preparation and administration of remedies, respectively. These study findings can serve as resource for the probe of bioactive components, which can lead to the discovery of contemporary drugs. Thus, the study recommends for pharmacological investigations of the reported plants, provision of awareness to NTHPs on sustainable harvest and conservation of the plants, and mentorship to the younger generation in an effort to preserve the indigenous knowledge.
... Several ethnobotanical studies conducted in different African countries (Chinsembu, 2016;Gbadamosi & Egunyomi, 2014;Kamanja et al., 2015;Maema et al., 2019;Maroyi, 2013;Naidoo et al., 2013;Namukobe et al., 2011;Ndubani & Höjer, 1999) have demonstrated that an ample proportion of the population, especially rural inhabitants, rely on plant medications for their primary health care needs on STIs. The similar case is true for Tanzania (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Chhabra et al., 1990a;Chhabra et al., 1990b;Kacholi, 2020;Maregesi et al., 2007;Moshi et al., 2012), whereby almost 72% of the rural population rely on medicinal plants for their medications. The dependence on medicinal plants for many lower-and middle-income countries is linked with the lack of access to modern health facilities, and the inability to pay for modern drugs and health services (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Maroyi, 2013;Mathibela et al., 2019). ...
... The similar case is true for Tanzania (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Chhabra et al., 1990a;Chhabra et al., 1990b;Kacholi, 2020;Maregesi et al., 2007;Moshi et al., 2012), whereby almost 72% of the rural population rely on medicinal plants for their medications. The dependence on medicinal plants for many lower-and middle-income countries is linked with the lack of access to modern health facilities, and the inability to pay for modern drugs and health services (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Maroyi, 2013;Mathibela et al., 2019). For instance, in the study area, only one government hospital is registered; and it is situated in the urban area where only a minority (5.2%) of the district population lives (URT, 2012). ...
... This means that some vital and basic ethnomedicinal information may be lost, hence, documenting indigenous knowledge is of paramount importance. In Tanzania, several ethnobotanical studies focusing on medicinal plants have been done (Amri & Kisangau, 2012;Augustino & Gillah, 2005;Kacholi, 2020;Kitula, 2007;Moshi et al., 2009Moshi et al., , 2012. However, information available on medicinal plants used for the treatment of STIs in Tabora region is scarce. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This study aims to document medicinal plants used by Nyamwezi traditional health practitioners (NTHPs) in managing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Sikonge District. The data on medicinal plants were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 23 NTHPs were interviewed. The findings revealed that 28 medicinal plants, belonging to 16 families and 25 genera, are used for the management of STIs in Sikonge. Most species belonged to family Fabaceae (17.9%), Apocynaceae, Combretaceae and Euphorbiaceae (10.7% each), and Olacaceae and Rutaceae (7.1% each). Out of the recorded plants, 45.7% are used to manage gonorrhoea, 25.7% syphilis, 17.1% vaginal candidiasis, 8.6% HIV/AIDS related infections and 2.9% chlamydia. Cassia abbreviata (47.8%), Ximenia caffra (39.1%) and Abrus precatorius (34.8%) were plants with high citation index. Tree (50.0%) and root (70.9%) were the most utilized growth form and plant part, respectively. 85.7% of the species were collected from the wild. Decoction (73.3%) and oral (86.2%) were the most used methods of preparation and administration of remedies, respectively. These study findings can serve as resource for the probe of bioactive components, which can lead to the discovery of contemporary drugs. Thus, the study recommends for pharmacological investigations of the reported plants, provision of awareness to NTHPs on sustainable harvest and conservation of the plants, and mentorship to the younger generation in an effort to preserve the indigenous knowledge. Keywords: ethnomedicine, herbal medicine, sexually transmitted infections, Sikonge, traditional healers
... The knowledge about and use of medicinal plants are themes that remain one of the main study topics in ethnobotany. Many recent studies in Brazil and around the globe have recorded the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, in both rural [e.g., [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] and urban areas [e.g., [9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
... This has been related to the current habits of society, which tends to be sedentary and ingest highly caloric foods, becoming obese, and social media and television promoting the sale of medicinal plants for losing weight [44][45][46]. In most cases, the medicinal use of leaves, bark, and seeds (Fig. 3) was recorded, similar to several other studies [7,30,47]. Previously, a greater use of leaves and herbaceous plants in wetter regions, such as the Atlantic Forest, has been commonly registered [4,48,49], while in drier regions, such as the Caatinga, a predominance of the use of barks and woody plants has been shown [3,50], highlighting a relationship with the loss of foliage in the vegetation during the drier periods [16]. This apparent correspondence between the most used plant parts and the environment can also be seen in other studies conducted in dry [6,8,51] and wetter environments [20,33]. ...
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Background: Open and public markets are the main providers of medicinal plants in urban environments. The present study evaluated the medicinal plants sold in public markets in different municipalities in the mesoregions of the state of Paraíba, northeast of Brazil, and the possible variations in the supply of these plants in the markets over the course of a year. Methods: Interviews with medicinal plant traders were conducted in four mesoregions of different climatic and phytophysiognomic characteristics (ranging from Caatinga to Atlantic Forest). The versatility of the species sold was elucidated using the relative importance (RI) index, and the set of species sold by each informant in each mesoregion was compared with each other by one-way Anosim and by the analysis of main coordinates. Results: Thirty-five plant traders identified 163 medicinal plant species (151 genders and 76 families) and more 17 non identified species. The most frequent families were Fabaceae (19 species), Asteraceae (12), Lamiaceae (11), and Myrtaceae (6). Punica granatum, Zingiber officinale, and Myracrodruon urundeuva were the species with the highest RI. The analysis of similarity showed distinct differences between the Sertão and all other mesoregions. The Agreste, an ecotone area, was also the area where more species of other regions was found. The absence of 88 species in at least one of the trading locations at some stage of the fieldwork was recorded. Conclusions: The presence and absence of the commercialized species do not seem to be related to the period of the year or the mesoregion. There were differences in the inventory of plants commercialized in markets in recent years. We identified an intermediate zone of knowledge and use of species commercialized between the studied localities. Keywords: Urban ethnobotany, Caatinga, Atlantic Forest, Similarity analysis, Relative importance
... Similar results were found in previous ethnobotanical studies (Benarba, 2015;Merrouni and Elachouri, 2020). In fact, decoction and infusion were found to be the most used in the recent ethnobotanical studies in Algeria Benarba, 2016;Mechaala et al., 2021;Zatout et al., 2021) and neighboring countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, Spain, and Italy in Africa and in Europe (Giday et al., 2009;Benitez et al., 2010;Amri and Kisangau, 2012;Menale et al., 2016;Savić et al., 2019). The dominance of decoction or infusion could be explained by the disinfection potential of heating besides its extraction enhancing effects (Benarba, 2015). ...
... In concordance with our findings, several ethnobotanical investigations carried out in Algeria demonstrated that honey was the adjuvant most frequently added to prepare medicinal herbal mixtures (Benarba, 2016;Ouelbani et al., 2016;Zatout et al., 2021). Our findings are also in perfect consistency with those reported in other regions around the world Amri and Kisangau, 2012;Pranskuniene et al., 2016). These ingredients could enhance the plant effect, maintain the blend texture, and facilitate the treatment administration. ...
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Traditional medicine is the cornerstone that boosts scientific research to explore new therapeutic approaches. The study aimed to assess the traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants to treat various ailments by Algerian traditional healers. Forty traditional healers were face-to-face interviewed in three different Algerian areas (West, Kabylia, and Sahara). The data collected were analyzed using quantitative indices such as fidelity level (FL) and informant consensus factor (FIC). A total of 167 species belonging to 70 families were recorded. Lamiaceae (13%), Asteraceae (13%), Apiaceae (7%), and Rosaceae and Fabaceae (5% each) were the most cited families. The survey revealed that leaves were the most used parts of the plants (29%). Furthermore, decoction (35%), raw (24%), and infusion (19%) were the common modes for the remedies’ preparation. Here, 15% of the total species were newly reported as medicinal plants. Besides, it was reported for the first time a total of 47 new therapeutic uses for 20 known plant species. Of 17 ailments categories, cancer was presented by 44 species, showing the highest FIC of 0.46. Marrubium vulgare L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., and Juniperus phoenicea L. recorded the maximum fidelity value of 100%. Therefore, our study reveals strong ethnomedicinal knowledge shared by local populations living in the three regions studied. The medicinal species with a high FL could be promising candidates for identifying new bioactive molecules.
... Thus, several studies have examined breastfeeding mothers' HM use in various cultural settings (Bnouham, 2010;Sim et al., 2013;Aleandri et al., 2014;Bettiol et al., 2018b;James et al., 2019;Orabi et al., 2020;Zheng et al., 2020). However, limited data is available regarding the HM use in East African countries like Tanzania even though HM use is widely practiced to treat various physical conditions such as women's complications as well as infectious and chronic diseases (Augustino and Gillah, 2005;Moshi et al., 2009;Amri and Kisangau, 2012;Kacholi and Amir, 2022). Consequently, breastfeeding mothers' self-care practices must be examined to establish appropriate policy measures and clinical protocols to ensure the health of the mother and the child. ...
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Background: There are limited data on the use of herbal medicines (HM) among breastfeeding mothers, despite the fact that knowledge of the possible benefits or harms of HM use has a direct relationship with the health of infants, especially in resource-limited countries. The study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with HM use among breastfeeding mothers in Tanzania. Methods: The study followed a cross-sectional design using a structured survey questionnaire. Survey participants were recruited from the reproductive and child health clinic at Uhuru health center in Morogoro, Tanzania. The survey instrument comprised of 34 questions, including demographic information, the pattern of HM use during breastfeeding, and women’s perceptions of HM. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis using SPSS ver. 24.0. Results: The majority of the respondents (53.8%) used HM during breastfeeding. The most commonly used HM was black pepper (Piper nigrum L.; 80.0%), followed by pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.; 18.0%). About one-third (27.5%) of HM users discussed their use with their healthcare providers. In addition, higher education levels and low breastmilk supply were identified as potential predictors of HM use. Conclusion: The practice of HM use among breastfeeding mothers in Tanzania is popular to ease breastfeeding difficulties. However, the issue of the safety or effectiveness of HM is still an unknown agenda. This awakens the need to evaluate HM’s safety, efficacy, and quality through pharmacological studies for scientific evidence. Lastly, a clinical guideline should be developed in healthcare settings to promote open dialogues between the healthcare providers and mothers to ensure the safe use of HM.
... Combretaceae and Fabaceae, both with 9 species, are the most comprehensively used families, followed by Capparaceae, Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae with 8, 7 and 6 species, respectively. Our results are consistent with other ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Africa (Ribeiro et al. 2010;Bruschi et al. 2011Bruschi et al. , 2014Corrigan et al. 2011;Maroyi 2011Maroyi , 2017Amri and Kisangau 2012;Mahwasane et al. 2013;Constant and Tshisikhawe 2018;Mongalo and Makhafola 2018) in which Fabaceae is one of the most dominant families related to traditional uses. Such an assumption could be supported by the high species diversity of the Fabaceae family (Constant and Tshisikhawe 2018). ...
Article
This study aims to document the Mozambican traditional knowledge related to the use of plants. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the Limpopo National Park (Gaza province, Mozambique). Data were gathered through field expeditions which involved interviews with five local healers, selected as key informants. 101 plant species, belonging to 49 families and 83 genera, related to traditional uses were recorded. For each species, vernacular name, use categories and used parts are reported. Most of the identified plants are used for medicinal purposes (94.1%) with an analogously extensive (44.1%) also directed to food use. Plants are also used for veterinary (14.7%), cosmetic (12.7%), and handicraft (12.7%) purposes. Whereas only few species are used as fuel (4.9%), several species (37.3%) are associated to local beliefs or mystical rituals. Roots are the most used part. To identify the most important plant species used by indigenous communities, an ethnobotani-cal value was calculated through Uses Totaled index. Based on such cultural index, the most valuable species are Euclea divinorum, Ximenia caffra, Elaeodendron schlechterianum and Peltophorum africanum. Our findings highlight the potential of Mozambique's flora for future conservation and development research aimed at identifying genetic resources which could also open the way to notable commercial perspectives, including through the Access and Benefit Sharing process.
... The dominance of the use of leaves or aerial parts in the study of plant therapeutic benefits against renal illnesses may be attributed to the simplicity with which these tissues may be collected without destroying the source plant, allowing for long-term use. In addition, it has been reported that plant leaves accumulate inulins, tannins, and other alkaloids (Amri and Kisangau, 2012), which may be responsible for their various Protective effect against kidney damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (Rubattu et al., 2015) Brassica rapa L. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Renal disease is a significant public health concern that affects people all over the world. The main limitations of conventional therapy are the adverse reaction on human health and the expensive cost of drugs. Indeed, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies that are less expensive and have fewer side effects. As a consequence of their natural compounds, medicinal plants can be used as an alternative therapy to cure various ailments including kidney diseases. Objective of the study: This review paper has two principal goals: (1) to inventory and describe the plants and their ancestral use by Moroccan society to cure renal problems, (2) to link traditional use with scientific confirmations (preclinical and clinical). Methods: To analyze pharmacological effects, phytochemical, and clinical trials of plants, selected for renal therapy, a bibliographical search was undertaken by examining ethnobotanical investigations conducted in Morocco between 1991 to 2019 and consulting peerreviewed papers from all over the world. Results: Approximately 290 plant species, spanning 81 families and 218 genera have been reported as being utilized by Moroccans to manage renal illness. The most frequently mentioned species in Morocco were Herniaria hirsuta subsp. cinerea (DC.), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The leaves were the most frequently used plant parts, followed by the whole plant. Decoction and infusion were the most popular methods of preparation. A record of 71 plant species was studied in vitro and/or in vivo for their therapeutic efficacy against kidney disorders, including 10 plants attempting to make it to the clinical stage. Twenty compounds obtained from 15 plants have been studied for the treatment of kidney diseases. Conclusion: Medicinal herbs could be a credible alternative therapy for renal illness. However, additional controlled trials are required to confirm their efficiency in patients with kidney failure. Overall, this work could be used as a database for future exploration.
... The most frequently used medicinal plant part was the leaf (29%) followed by whole plant (18%) and seed (17%) (Fig. 4). Tribal people all over the world mostly use leaves for the preparation of herbal remedies (Amri and Kisangau, 2012;Ullah et al. 2013) as they are easier to collect as compared to other plant parts (Giday et al. 2010) and also have more secondary metabolite as compared to other plant parts (Ghorbani, 2005). The use of specific plant parts by the indigenous people reveals that these parts have a strong therapeutic potential and therefore phytochemical screening and pharmacological examination must be done in order to validate the indigenous traditional knowledge. ...
Article
Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of different gynecological problems. Present study aims to evaluate the medicinal plants used for the treatment of various gynecological problems in Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir. To date, no study is conducted on ethno-gynecology in the study area. This study was carried-out from September 2019 to August 2020 to document ethno-gynecological data about 73 collected plant species through semi-structured questionnaire and face to face interviews and group discussions with the tribal people, traditional healers and midwives. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and informant consensus factor (ICF). Leaves (29%) were the most frequently used plant part. Decoction (40%) was most preferred preparation mode of medicine. The post-partum disorders had the highest ICF value (87%). The highest FL value (100%) was obtained for Cus-cuta reflexa for contraceptive, Centaurea iberica for lactation, and Notholirion thomsonianum as uterine tonic. Foeniculum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Cannabis sativa, Artemisia absinthium and Punica granatum have the highest UV and RFC. According to the results of the study we recommend the phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of plants having high UV, RFC and FL values for the discovery of novel drugs for female reproductive healthcare.
... Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C.DC is a plant of Meliaceae family used in African traditional medicine to treat diseases helmenthiasis, malaria, gonorrhea, abdominal pain and migraine [14][15]. The Khaya genus is also used for the treatment of convulsion, fever, cough, stomach ache, rheumatism and dermatomycosis [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recently, we reported estrogen-like and anxiolytic effects of the decoction of Khaya anthotheca in ovariectomized rats. Rationale: The purpose of the present study was to assess the putative neuroprotective properties of the plant in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats were ovariectomized, while 6 were used as sham. After 14 days of endogenous hormonal decline, animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=6) and administered with distilled water, K. anthotheca decoction (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg doses) or estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg) for 28 days. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the decoction were determined. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were determined in brain homogenates, while histopathological analysis was performed on brain sections, and expressions of neuroinflammation markers determined. Results: Polyphenols were detected in K. anthotheca, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay revealed antioxidant properties (635.50 ± 0.58 mg eq quercetin/g of dried decoction). Treatment with K. anthotheca decoction reduced MDA and increased GSH levels in brain homogenates (p<0.01). As estradiol valerate, the decoction, prevented neurodegeneration observed in cortices and hippocampi of untreated ovariectomized animals. Conclusions: Our results suggested that K. anthotheca is endowed with neuroprotective effects and warrant further studies, including other models of neurodegeneration and dementia.
... Also, the sustainability of leaves has provided its usability hence, the use of leaves for medicinal purposes is a more practiced than other plant parts. The utilization of leaves in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various ailments has also reported in studies conducted in Assam 33,34 and elsewhere 35 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to record the ethnomedicinal plants and their uses by the Karbi tribe in Bichikri and Harlong sacred groves of West Karbi Anglong district of Assam. A prestructured questionnaire survey and quantitative analysis was carried out to record the medicinal plants and to determine the ailments categories. A total of 38 ethnomedicinal plants (36 genera and 27 families) were recorded from the study sites. Leaves were found as the dominant plant parts used for the treatment of various health ailments. The highest F ic value was recorded for cold, dermatological, skeletal muscle pain and inflammation, general health, and infectious disease and genital-urinary disorder categories. The informant agreement ratio (IAR) was found higher for 18 species. The fidelity level (FL) of 11 species secured the highest FL value (100%) and the used value (UV) was in the range of 0.05 to 0.93. The present study has revealed that the Karbi tribe living around the sacred groves depends on the plant species for their health care. However, proper management is required for the conservation of sacred groves through sustainable utilization of medicinal plants occurred in the groves.
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