IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: Relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

ArticleinPediatric Pulmonology 48(1) · January 2013with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/ppul.22540 · Source: PubMed
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. DESIGN/METHODS: TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) <30 weeks (w), birth weight (BW) <1,250 g (g)] were analyzed. IFN-γ was measured in a subgroup of 38 infants by using a biochip multi-analyte immunoassay. The level of IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). RESULTS: Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • "We speculate that such a BPD phenotype may be secondary to enhanced M1 macrophage recruitment in lungs upon IFNγ stimulation. The importance of classically activated M1 macrophages in the pathogenesis of lung injury is also supported by several other reports that suggest that direct activation of these cells can augment tissue damage [34, 36, 37]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale. Hyperoxia exposure to developing lungs-critical in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia-may augment lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory mediators in alveolar macrophages. Objective. We sought to determine the O2-induced effects on the polarization of macrophages and the role of anti-inflammatory BRP-39 in macrophage phenotype and neonatal lung injury. Methods. We used RAW264.7, peritoneal, and bone marrow derived macrophages for polarization (M1/M2) studies. For in vivo studies, wild-type (WT) and BRP-39(-/-) mice received continuous exposure to 21% O2 (control mice) or 100% O2 from postnatal (PN) 1 to PN7 days, along with intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered on alternate days (PN2, -4, and -6). Lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts, BAL protein, and cytokines measurements were performed. Measurements and Main Results. Hyperoxia differentially contributed to macrophage polarization by enhancing LPS induced M1 and inhibiting interleukin-4 induced M2 phenotype. BRP-39 absence led to further enhancement of the hyperoxia and LPS induced M1 phenotype. In addition, BRP-39(-/-) mice were significantly more sensitive to LPS plus hyperoxia induced lung injury and mortality compared to WT mice. Conclusions. These findings collectively indicate that BRP-39 is involved in repressing the M1 proinflammatory phenotype in hyperoxia, thereby deactivating inflammatory responses in macrophages and preventing neonatal lung injury.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to hyperoxia, invasive mechanical ventilation, and systemic/local sepsis are important antecedents of postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This review will summarize information obtained from animal (baboon, lamb/sheep, rat and mouse) models that pertain to the specific inflammatory agents and signaling molecules that predispose a premature infant to BPD. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Article · Mar 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important complication of preterm births. The soluble form of ST2 (sST2), interleukin-33 (IL-33), and soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) have attracted increasing attention as biomarkers for different diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive value of plasma sST2, IL-33, and suPAR levels in patients with risk of BPD development. Methods: A total of 38 babies were studied prospectively on delivery to the neonatal intensive care unit. Serum levels of IL-33, sST2, and suPAR were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples were collected from umbilical cord (at the time of delivery, termed CB) and peripheral blood (on day 14, termed PB). Results: Levels of suPAR (PB-suPAR) and sST2 (PB-sST2) in the peripheral blood of the BPD group were significantly higher than the corresponding levels in the non-BPD group (P < 0.001, P = 0.028, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between PB-suPAR levels and the severity of BPD (P < 0.001)) when the suPAR results were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion: PB-suPAR and PB-sST2 levels are sensitive and specific independent predictive biomarkers in preterm babies with BPD.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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