Alzheimer's Disease-Related Loss of Pin1 Function Influences the Intracellular Localization and the Processing of A beta PP
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
(Impact Factor: 4.15).
03/2012; 30(2):277-97. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2012-111259
Increased amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously observed that the prolyl isomerase Pin1, which is down-regulated in AD, regulates AβPP conformation accelerating cis/trans isomerization of the phospho-Thr668-Pro669 peptide bond, and that Pin1 knockout in mice increases the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP, although the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Since the intracellular localization of AβPP determines whether the processing will be amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic, here we addressed the question whether loss of Pin1 function affects the intracellular localization of AβPP, influencing AβPP processing. Using cellular models of Pin1 knockout and Pin1 knockdown, we have demonstrated that lowering Pin1 levels changed the intracellular localization and the processing of AβPP. Under these conditions, less AβPP was retained at the plasma membrane favoring the amyloidogenic processing, and the kinetics of AβPP internalization increased as well as the nuclear trafficking of AβPP C-terminal fragment AICD. In addition, AβPPThr668Ala mutant, which cannot bind to Pin1 and retains more trans conformation, rescued the levels of AβPP at the plasma membrane in Pin1 knockout cells. Thus, loss of Pin1 function contributes to amyloidogenic pathways, by facilitating both the removal of AβPP from compartments where it is mostly non-amyloidogenic and its internalization to more amyloidogenic compartments. These data suggest that physiological levels of Pin1 are important to control the intracellular localization and metabolic fate of Thr668-phosphorylated AβPP, and regulation of AβPP conformation is especially important in pathologic conditions of AβPP hyperphosphorylation and/or loss of Pin1 function, associated with AD.
Available from: Daniel YenHong Lee
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Wnt/β-catenin pathway promotes proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) at early stages and induces neuronal differentiation
from NPCs at late stages, but the molecular mechanisms that control this stage-specific response are unclear. Pin1 is a prolyl
isomerase that regulates cell signaling uniquely by controlling protein conformation after phosphorylation, but its role in
neuronal differentiation is not known. Here we found that whereas Pin1 depletion suppresses neuronal differentiation, Pin1
overexpression enhances it, without any effects on gliogenesis from NPCs in vitro. Consequently, Pin1-null mice have significantly fewer upper layer neurons in the motor cortex and severely impaired motor
activity during the neonatal stage. A proteomic approach identified β-catenin as a major substrate for Pin1 in NPCs, in which
Pin1 stabilizes β-catenin. As a result, Pin1 knockout leads to reduced β-catenin during differentiation but not proliferation
of NPCs in developing brains. Importantly, defective neuronal differentiation in Pin1 knockout NPCs is fully rescued in vitro by overexpression of β-catenin but not a β-catenin mutant that fails to act as a Pin1 substrate. These results show that
Pin1 is a novel regulator of NPC differentiation by acting on β-catenin and provides a new postphosphorylation signaling mechanism
to regulate developmental stage-specific functioning of β-catenin signaling in neuronal differentiation.
Available from: Soumya De
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerization acts as an effective molecular timer that plays significant roles in biological and pathological processes. Enzymes such as Pin1 catalyze cis-trans isomerization, accelerating the otherwise slow isomerization rate into time scales relevant for cellular signaling. Here we have combined NMR line shape analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters describing the trans-specific interaction between the binding domain of Pin1 (WW domain) and a key cis-trans molecular switch in the amyloid precursor protein cytoplasmic tail. A three-state model, in which the cis-trans isomerization equilibrium is coupled to the binding equilibrium through the trans isomer, was found to fit the data well. The trans isomer binds the WW domain with ∼22 μM affinity via very fast association (approaching the diffusion limit) and dissociation rates. The common structural and electrostatic characteristics of Pin1 substrates, which contain a phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motif, suggest that very rapid binding kinetics are a general feature of Pin1 interactions with other substrates. The fast binding kinetics of the WW domain allows rapid response of Pin1 to the dynamic events of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in the cell that alter the relative populations of diverse Pin1 substrates. Furthermore, our results also highlight the vastly different rates at which slow uncatalyzed cis-trans isomerization and fast isomer-specific binding events occur. These results, along with the experimental methods presented herein, should guide future experiments aimed at the thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of cis-trans molecular switches and isomer-specific interactions involved in various biological processes.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proline-directed protein phosphorylation (pSer/Thr-Pro), a central signaling mechanism in diverse cellular processes in physiology and disease, has been proposed to be subject to further cis-trans conformational regulation by the unique prolyl isomerase Pin1. Until recently, no tool is available to directly detect the cis-trans conformation of Pin1-catalyzed cis-trans conformational changes in vivo. We have developed novel peptide chemistry that enable to generate the first antibodies that can distinguish cis from trans pThr231-Pro conformation in tau (p-tau). Using these conformation-specific antibodies, we have discovered that cis, but not trans, p-tau appears early in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) neurons and further accumulates in neurofibrillary degenerated neurons as Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses, localizing to the dystrophic neurites, an early hallmark change that correlates with synaptic and cognitive deficits. Unlike trans p-tau, the cis not only cannot promote microtubule assembly, but also is more resistant to dephosphorylation and degradation, and prone to aggregation. Pin1 accelerates cis to trans conversion to prevent the accumulation of the pathogenic cis p-tau conformation in AD, providing the first structural evidence for how Pin1 protects against AD. These findings develop the first tool to directly detect cis-trans prolyl isomerization, especially after phosphorylation and uncover cis p-tau as the very early pathogenic conformation leading to tau pathology and memory loss in AD. These results also suggest novel conformation-specific diagnoses and therapies for AD and likely others.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.