Subtype-specific statistical causalities in parkinsonian tremor

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937 Köln, Germany.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2012; 210:353-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.02.045
Source: PubMed


Tremor is one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Up to now, however, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Previously, oscillatory coupling at tremor frequency between the subthalamic nucleus und affected muscles was shown. In these studies, however, causality of coupling could not be demonstrated. Thus, we analyzed the statistical causality between intraoperatively recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic area and affected arm muscles during tremor episodes, using squared partial directed coherence, a recently developed causality measure. The analysis identified differential statistical causality patterns for Parkinson's disease patients of the akinetic-rigid subtype during tremor episodes (n=6) versus patients of the tremor-dominant subtype (n=8): for the akinetic-rigid Parkinson's disease patients significantly more cases of the subthalamic region were found to be statistically causal for electromyographic-tremor activity, a result in accordance with the standard basal ganglia model. In contrast, for the tremor-dominant patients, significantly more instances of electromyographic tremor activity turned out to be causal for activity of the subthalamic region. Furthermore, the clinical effective stimulation site coincided with the location of most input causalities from the periphery in seven out of eight tremor-dominant patients. The data suggest that, although tremor activity in tremor-dominant and akinetic-rigid Parkinson's disease patients was clinically similar, statistical causality between tremor electromyogram (EMG) and the subthalamic nucleus was fundamentally different. Therefore, we hypothesize different pathophysiological mechanisms to underlie the generation of tremor in the two subtypes of Parkinson's disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Alfons Schnitzler, Jan 03, 2014
  • Source
    • "On a cellular level, such oscillations were demonstrated in single-cell recordings inside VLp for ET (Lenz et al., 1994) and PD (Lenz et al., 1988), and in LFP-recordings for ET and PD but also other tremor entities such as multiple sclerosis (Marsden et al., 2000; Reck et al., 2009b). Additionally, in Parkinsonian tremor electrophysiological recordings revealed pathological oscillations inside the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (Amtage et al., 2008; Florin et al., 2012), each specific for different extremities and antagonistic muscles (Reck et al., 2009a, 2009b). Clinically this segregation of tremor loops had been hypothesized by Raethjen et al. (2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Different tremor entities such as Essential Tremor (ET) or tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be ameliorated by the implantation of electrodes in the ventral thalamus for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). The exact neural mechanisms underlying this treatment, as well as the specific pathophysiology of the tremor in both diseases to date remain elusive. Since tremor-related local field potentials (LFP) have been shown to cluster with a somatotopic representation in the subthalamic nucleus, we here investigated the neurophysiological correlates of tremor in the ventral thalamus in ET and PD using power and coherence analysis. Local field potentials (LFPs) at different recording depths and surface electromyographic signals (EMGs) from the extensor and flexor muscles of the contralateral forearm were recorded simultaneously in twelve ET and five PD patients. Data analysis revealed individual electrophysiological patterns of LFP-EMG coherence at single and double tremor frequency for each patient. Patterns observed varied in their spatial distribution within the Ventral lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (VLp), revealing a specific topography of 'tremor clusters' for PD and ET. The data strongly suggest that within VLp individual tremor-related electrophysiological signatures exist in ET and PD tremor.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Experimental Neurology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigations of local field potentials of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease have provided evidence for pathologically exaggerated oscillatory beta-band activity (13-30 Hz) which is amenable to physiological modulation by, e.g., voluntary movement. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in healthy controls have provided evidence for an increase of subthalamic nucleus blood-oxygenation-level-dependant signal in incremental force generation tasks. However, the modulation of neuronal activity by force generation and its relationship to peripheral feedback remain to be elucidated. We hypothesised that beta-band activity in the subthalamic nucleus is modulated by incremental force generation. Subthalamic nucleus local field potentials were recorded intraoperatively in 13 patients with Parkinson's disease (37 recording sites) during rest and five incremental isometric force generation conditions of the arm with applied loads of 0g to 400g (in 100g increments). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a modulation of LFP power in the upper beta-band (in 24-30 Hz; F(3.042)=4.693, p=0.036) and the gamma-band (in 70-76 Hz; F(4)=4.116, p=0.036). Granger-causality was computed with the squared partial directed coherence and showed no significant modulation during incremental isometric force generation. Our findings indicate that the upper beta- and gamma-band power of subthalamic nucleus local field potentials are modulated by the physiological task of force generation in patients with Parkinson's disease. This modulation seems to be not an effect of a modulation of peripheral feedback.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Neuroscience