The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review
Authors' affiliations: T Blom, School of Dental Hygiene, INHOLLAND University of Applied sciences, Amsterdam, and Dental practice Blom Ltd., Limmen, The Netherlands DE Slot, GA Van der Weijden, Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands M Quirynen, Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. International Journal of Dental Hygiene
(Impact Factor: 1.06).
03/2012; 10(3):209-22. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00546.x
To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene10, 2012; 209-222 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00546.x Blom T, Slot DE, Quirynen M, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review. Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically review the literature regarding the impact of mouthrinses on oral malodor and present evidence for the treatment effects of mouthrinses on oral malodor. Material and methods: PubMed-MEDLINE, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE were searched through February 10, 2012 to identify appropriate studies. Volatile sulphur compound measurements, organoleptic measurements and tongue coating were selected as outcome variables. Search results: The independent screenings of 333 unique titles and paper abstracts revealed 12 publications (12 experiments) that met the eligibility criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted. The results were separated into short-term (<3 weeks) and longer-term (≥3 weeks) studies. Conclusion: In this review, nearly all mouthwashes with active ingredients had beneficial effects in reducing oral malodor in both short- and longer-term studies. The most compelling evidence was provided for chlorhexidine mouthwashes, and those that contained a combination of cetyl pyridinum chloride and zinc provided the best evidence profile on oral malodor. Little data with respect to tongue coating were available, and none of the studies showed a beneficial effect for this parameter.
Available from: Mon Mon Tin Oo
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported halitosis and its associated factors among undergraduate students at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire, assessing self-reported halitosis and its associated factors, was administered to 300 undergraduate students, 100 per group in the dental, medical and health sciences courses. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.7 years (SD 1.75), and 202 (67.3%) were female. Self-reported halitosis by hand-on-mouth technique was reported by 13.0% of the students, with 9.3% of students reporting that bad breath interfered with their social life. Most students (79.7%) experienced their worst breath after waking up. Dental students were less likely to report halitosis than medical and health sciences students (non-dental students) (OR = 0.34, CI = 0.12, 0.95). Students who used mouthwash regularly and brushed their tongues were also less likely to report halitosis. However, the prevalence of halitosis was higher among students with gingival bleeding and tongue coating than among those without. Conclusion: Halitosis is more common among non-dental than among dental students. Factors associated with halitosis include gingival bleeding and tongue coating. Regular use of mouthwash and tongue brushing were beneficial in preventing halitosis. Professional care and motivation in the use of oral hygiene aids are recommended for students.
Available from: Franklin Garcia-Godoy
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ABSTRACT: Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Method (PGRM) is a proven clinical assay for bioavailability, retention and proportional efficacy of mouthrinses containing the antimicrobial cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) (J Clin Dent 6: 59, 1995; Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 356 Vol 68: 103, May 29 2003). Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two CPC mouthrinses on PGRM efficacy. Methods: The study employed a controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-treatment, four-period crossover design. 20 qualified adult PGRM subjects were supplied with acclimation NaF dentifrice (Crest Cavity Protection, Procter and Gamble) for use throughout the trial. Test products included: 0.075 % CPC antigingivitis rinse (Colgate Total, Colgate-Palmolive - CT) and 0.070 % CPC antigingivitis rinse (Crest Pro-Health, Procter and Gamble - CPH). On treatment days, subjects visited the clinic in the morning prior to hygiene/breakfast, had supragingival baseline plaque samples collected from upper quadrants, followed by rinsing for 30 seconds with 20 ml of assigned treatment. Lower left and right quadrants plaque samples were collected 15 and 45 minutes after rinsing. Sampled plaques were vortexed, normalized for biomass and incubated under standard conditions to assess glycolysis (J Clin Dent 6: 59, 1995). pH of the plaque incubation suspensions was compared to starting pH and an Area Under Curve (AUC) aggregate analysis of glycolysis inhibition was used for treatment comparisons. Results: ANCOVA adjusted measures: plaque metabolism pH: 15 min post rinse CPH 6.44 (0.055) -s- CT 5.94 (0.055) [p< 0.0001, statistically significant (-s-)]; 45 min post rinse: CPH 6.30 (0.057) -s- CT 5.78 (0.056) [p< 0.0001]; AUC glycolysis: CPH 48.22 (1.95) -s- CT 29.10 (1.93) [p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: CPC bioavailability varied in commercial rinses and activity was not proportional to supplied dose. CPH rinse with 700 ppm CPC provided 66% increase in glycolysis inhibition as compared to CT rinse containing 750 ppm CPC.
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