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... In addition, as described by Martins et al., there were several food additives that had been used extensively in the past but are no longer allowed, due to existing evidence of their side effects, toxicity in the medium-and long-term, as well as a high frequency of potential health incidents [6]. It is also important to note that, apart from synthetic food colorants, certain commercial additives of plant or animal origin have also been suspended [3,[6][7][8]. ...
... Based on various scientific findings, several toxicity effects, have been reported including behavioral effects on children, effects on the respiratory system, connection with allergies, development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, or neuro-developmental effects at the No-Adverse Effect Limit levels [3,18,21]. In any case, further investigation to assess the potential associated risks of these compounds is needed [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]11,14,18]. ...
... Authorization for the use of food colorants in the production of food products is subject to a number of toxicity tests, in order to define and evaluate acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, accumulation in the body, bioenergy effects, and immunotoxicity [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]11,14,18]. ...
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Color additives are widely used by the food industry to enhance the appearance, as well as the nutritional properties of a food product. However, some of these substances may pose a potential risk to human health, especially if they are consumed excessively and are regulated, giving great importance to their determination. Several matrix-dependent methods have been developed and applied to determine food colorants, by employing different analytical techniques along with appropriate sample preparation protocols. Major techniques applied for their determination are chromatography with spectophotometricdetectors and spectrophotometry, while sample preparation procedures greatly depend on the food matrix. In this review these methods are presented, covering the advancements of existing methodologies applied over the last decade.
... Besides, Chl and its natural derivatives per se are known as effective free radical scavengers (Ferruzzi et al., 2002;Pérez-Gálvez et al., 2020). In recent years, Chl and Cu-chlorophyllins were used as human food supplements and stress regulators in plants, for their antioxidative ability to scavenge ROS (Ferruzzi et al., 2002;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Zhang et al., 2019). Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) is a semi-synthetic Chl derivative (Ferruzzi et al., 2002;Zhang et al., 2019) exhibiting photochemical reactions similar to natural Chl (Witte et al., 2018). ...
... The application of SCC activated antioxidative defence systems, suppressed LpNOL expression and resulted in effects on plant heat tolerance similar to those of NOLi plants. SCC is in the stable form of Cu-Chl by replacing Mg with a Cu atom (Ferruzzi et al., 2002;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Zhang et al., 2019). SCC has been shown to have reductivity in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo (Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Zhang et al., 2019). ...
... SCC is in the stable form of Cu-Chl by replacing Mg with a Cu atom (Ferruzzi et al., 2002;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Zhang et al., 2019). SCC has been shown to have reductivity in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo (Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Zhang et al., 2019). Previous research has shown that Cu-Chl possesses antioxidant activity against oxidative stress or radiation-generated ROS, and protects DNA against radiationinduced damage (Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012). ...
Article
Loss of chlorophyll and oxidative damage co-occur during heat-induced leaf senescence. This study aimed to determine the functions of a chlorophyll catabolic gene, NON-YELLOW COLOURING 1 (NYC1)-like (NOL), in regulating heat-induced leaf senescence and to characterize antioxidant roles of a chlorophyll derivative, sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), in suppressing heat-induced leaf senescence. In two separate experiments, one by comparing NOL RNAi transgenic and wild-type plants, and the other by analysing the effects of SCC treatment, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was exposed to heat stress (38/35 °C, day/night) or optimal temperature (25/20 °C). Results showed that both knock down of LpNOL and application of SCC suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as manifested by increased chlorophyll content, reduced electrolyte leakage, down-regulation of chlorophyll-catabolic genes and senescence-related genes, as well as enhanced antioxidant capacity in the peroxidase pathway for H2O2 scavenging. Ex vivo SCC incubation protected membranes from H2O2 damage in mesophyll protoplasts of perennial ryegrass. The suppression of leaf senescence by knocking down NOL or chlorophyllin application was associated with enhanced chlorophyll accumulation playing antioxidant roles in protecting leaves from heat-induced oxidative damage.
... Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a semi-synthetic mixture of water-soluble sodium copper salts derived from chlorophyll, widely used as food dye [4]. The main difference from the natural compound is a different coordinating metal (copper instead of magnesium), and the lack of a phytyl side chain. ...
... These modifications enable better molecule stability and water solubility [5]. So far, CHL has demonstrated several beneficial properties such as antimutagenicity, anticarcinogenicity, immunostimulation, and gene modulation on different experimental models [4,[6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
... There are many beneficial effects of CHL that include immunostimulation, wound healing, modulation of human odour, chemoprotective and anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in human intervention studies [4,[6][7][8][9]13,27]. Therefore, several studies have also investigated the possible positive effects of CHL upon irradiation. ...
... E-141ii is a metal-chlorophyllin salt containing a paramagnetic Cu 2+ center, which presents absorption bands in the blue and red regions related to the Soret and Q bands with maxima at around 404 and 628 nm, respectively ( Figure 1). It is important to point out that E-141ii is a natural green colorant derived from chlorophyll authorized as a food additive in several countries (for instance, Europe, United States, and Brazil) [19][20][21][22]. As a food additive, E-141ii is a non-toxic compound, and it also presents a high extinction coefficient in the photodynamic therapy window (600-700 nm range), which is a desired feature of a good PS for medical applications [23]. ...
... Notwithstanding, the mechanisms underlying strain-dependent response to aPDI remain unclear [34,35]. It is important to highlight that E-141ii (sodium copper chlorophyllin) is more resistant and stable to light, acid, and heat when compared with other chlorophyll derivatives [20,32,38], and it is widely employed in cosmetic and medicinal products as an additive or dye, in addition to its application as food colorant [38]. However, despite its potential as a PS for photoinactivation, metalfree sodium chlorophyllin (E-140ii) is the chlorophyll derivative most applied in aPDI. ...
... The data demonstrate that DBPF in the presence of MB rapidly degraded under red-light illumination due to the generation of 1 O2 ( Figure S1 in the supplementary material). Therefore, our data confirm that E-141ii is not capable of inducing the aPDI via Type II reaction It is important to highlight that E-141ii (sodium copper chlorophyllin) is more resistant and stable to light, acid, and heat when compared with other chlorophyll derivatives [20,32,38], and it is widely employed in cosmetic and medicinal products as an additive or dye, in addition to its application as food colorant [38]. However, despite its potential as a PS for photoinactivation, metal-free sodium chlorophyllin (E-140ii) is the chlorophyll derivative most applied in aPDI. ...
Article
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This study evaluates the photosensitizing effectiveness of sodium copper chlorophyllin, a natural green colorant commonly used as a food additive (E-141ii), to inactivate methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus under red-light illumination. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) was tested on a methicillin-sensitive reference strain (ATCC 25923) and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (GenBank accession number Mh087437) isolated from a clinical sample. The photoinactivation efficacy was investigated by exposing the bacterial strains to different E-141ii concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 µM) and to red light (625 nm) at 30 J cm-2. The results showed that E-141ii itself did not prevent bacterial growth for all tested concentrations when cultures were placed in the dark. By contrast, E-141ii photoinactivated both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) under red-light illumination. However, different dose responses were observed for MSSA and MRSA. Whilst the MSSA growth was inhibited to the detection limit of the method with E-141ii at 2.5 µM, >10 µM concentrations were required to inhibit the growth of MRSA. The data also suggest that E-141ii can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) via Type I reaction by electron transfer from its first excited singlet state to oxygen molecules. Our findings demonstrate that the tested food colorant has great potential to be used in aPDI of MRSA.
... Chlorophyll, a highly abundant tetrapyrollic compound, is the essential pigment necessary for photosynthesis to occur in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Sodium copper chlorophyllin (C 34 H 31 CuN 4 Na 3 O 6 , SCC; Figure 1) is a semi-synthetic, water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll and is widely used in the food and medicine industries [18][19][20]. Due to its characteristic tetrapyrrole structure, the photochemical properties of SCC have been well studied by organic photovoltaics and optical spectroscopy [21][22][23][24][25]. However, the effectiveness of SCC as a catalyst in organic reactions has yet to be explored in-depth [26]. ...
... Molecules 2018, 23, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 7 Chlorophyll, a highly abundant tetrapyrollic compound, is the essential pigment necessary for photosynthesis to occur in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Sodium copper chlorophyllin (C34H31CuN4Na3O6, SCC; Figure 1) is a semi-synthetic, water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll and is widely used in the food and medicine industries [18][19][20]. Due to its characteristic tetrapyrrole structure, the photochemical properties of SCC have been well studied by organic photovoltaics and optical spectroscopy [21][22][23][24][25]. However, the effectiveness of SCC as a catalyst in organic reactions has yet to be explored in-depth [26]. ...
Article
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We report the highly efficient and chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols catalyzed by sodium copper chlorophyllin in water, producing corresponding arylcarbonyl compounds. Importantly, the catalytic system exhibits a wide substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. Moreover, secondary alcohols and even diarylmethanes were smoothly oxidized to the desired aryl ketones with excellent yields.
... Copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) is a green material derived from chlorophyll and is sold as a health food [1] and as a food colorant [2,3]. Being relatively inexpensive and from renewable sources, CuChl has been studied for applications ranging from cancer treatment [4] to textile dying [5]. ...
... Copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) is a natural product [2] which is under evaluation as an active ingredient for crop sprays [15]. Our goal was to develop a simple approach to fixing CuChl to parafilm, a model for leaf surfaces. ...
Article
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The chlorophyll derivative copper chlorophyllin and related chlorins have promise as environmentally friendly agricultural chemicals, however, spray application is hindered by the propensity of dried spray deposits to wash off leaf surfaces during rain or irrigation. Hypothesis: Polyelectrolyte complexes formed between anionic carboxymethyl cellulose and cationic polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin can prevent the release of copper chlorophyllin from dried spray deposits on leaf surfaces when exposed to water. Experiments: Sessile drops on parafilm and containing polyelectrolyte complex and copper chlorophyllin or Brilliant Sulfaflavine, an anionic water-soluble dye, were dried to form deposits that were physical models for crop spray drop deposits on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. Larger buffer drops were placed on the dried deposits and the release of copper chlorophyllin or the dye were measured. Findings: Copper chlorophyllin showed some immediate (burst) release upon exposure to buffer whereas the remainder was immobilized on the parafilm. By contrast, Brilliant Sulfaflavine displayed rapid release following square root time dependence, typical of a diffusion-controlled process. The unusual behavior of copper chlorophyllin is attributed to the presence of CuChl nanoparticles when dispersed in water. The nanoparticles are encased in the polyelectrolyte complex that adheres to parafilm. The fraction of the added copper chlorophyllin lost in the burst release can be controlled by varying the polyelectrolyte complex composition and concentration.
... A major source of natural β-carotene extract is Dunaliella salina, a microalga that is highly salt tolerant. Production of this carotenoid involves growing cells in a nutrient-rich medium to obtain a large amount of biomass, then introducing nutrient stress to induce β-carotene accumulation, followed by extraction and purification [8,9]. ...
... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a mesophilic green alga that has long been used as a model organism for studying various biological processes [9]. Its ease of cultivation, rapid doubling time, the ability to grow heterotrophically, and the availability of genome sequencing and molecular tools have popularized this alga in recent years. ...
Article
Microalgae have long been used for the commercial production of natural colorants such as carotenoids and chlorophyll. Due to the rising demand for carotenoids and other natural products from microalgae, strategies to increase production efficiency are urgently needed. The production of microalgal biorefineries has been limited to countries with moderate climates. For countries with cooler climates and less daylight, methodologies for the efficient production of microalgal biorefineries need to be investigated. Algal strains that can be safely consumed as whole cells are also attractive alternatives for developing as carotenoid supplements, which can also contain other compounds with health benefits. Using such strains helps to eliminate the need for hazardous solvents for extraction and several other complicated steps. In this study, the mesophilic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was employed to study the effects of cold stress on cell physiology and the production of pigments and storage compounds. The results showed that temperatures between 10 and 20 • C induced carotenoid and chlorophyll accumulation in the wild-type strain of C. reinhardtii. Interestingly, the increased level of carotenoids suggested that they might play a crucial role in cold stress acclimation. A temperature of 15 • C resulted in the highest carotenoid and chlorophyll productivity. At this temperature, carotenoid and chlorophyll productivity was 2 times and 1.3 times higher than at 25 • C, respectively. Subjecting a mutant defective in lutein and zeaxanthin accumulation to cold stress revealed that these two carotenoids are not essential for cold stress survival. Therefore, cold temperature could be used as a strategy to induce and increase the productivity of pigments in C. reinhardtii.
... A major source of natural β-carotene extract is Dunaliella salina, a microalga that is highly salt tolerant. Production of this carotenoid involves growing cells in a nutrient-rich medium to obtain a large amount of biomass, then introducing nutrient stress to induce β-carotene accumulation, followed by extraction and purification [8,9]. ...
... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a mesophilic green alga that has long been used as a model organism for studying various biological processes [9]. Its ease of cultivation, rapid doubling time, the ability to grow heterotrophically, and the availability of genome sequencing and molecular tools have popularized this alga in recent years. ...
Article
Full-text available
Microalgae have long been used for the commercial production of natural colorants such as carotenoids and chlorophyll. Due to the rising demand for carotenoids and other natural products from microalgae, strategies to increase production efficiency are urgently needed. The production of microalgal biorefineries has been limited to countries with moderate climates. For countries with cooler climates and less daylight, methodologies for the efficient production of microalgal biorefineries need to be investigated. Algal strains that can be safely consumed as whole cells are also attractive alternatives for developing as carotenoid supplements, which can also contain other compounds with health benefits. Using such strains helps to eliminate the need for hazardous solvents for extraction and several other complicated steps. In this study, the mesophilic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was employed to study the effects of cold stress on cell physiology and the production of pigments and storage compounds. The results showed that temperatures between 10 and 20 • C induced carotenoid and chlorophyll accumulation in the wild-type strain of C. reinhardtii. Interestingly, the increased level of carotenoids suggested that they might play a crucial role in cold stress acclimation. A temperature of 15 • C resulted in the highest carotenoid and chlorophyll productivity. At this temperature, carotenoid and chlorophyll productivity was 2 times and 1.3 times higher than at 25 • C, respectively. Subjecting a mutant defective in lutein and zeaxanthin accumulation to cold stress revealed that these two carotenoids are not essential for cold stress survival. Therefore, cold temperature could be used as a strategy to induce and increase the productivity of pigments in C. reinhardtii.
... Chlorophyll is a liposoluble pigment, which is widely distributed in the leaves of photosynthetic plants (Ferruzzi and Blakeslee, 2007). Chlorophyll, metal-free pheophytins, pyropheophytins, Zn-pheophytins and Zn-pyropheophytins (thermally processed green vegetables), have been proved to act as an antioxidant, and antimutagenic, as well as modulating xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo (Ferruzzi and Blakeslee, 2007;Sigurdson et al., 2017;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012). However, the use of chlorophyll as a functional ingredient is limited as a result of its low water solubility and propensity to degrade during extraction and storage due to unfavorable conditions of temperature, pH value or light (Armesto et al., 2017;Zheng et al., 2014). ...
... Journal of Food Engineering 267 (2020) 109729 reported previously (Liu et al., 2016a;Peng et al., 2009). Compared to the control sample (raw WPI), all WPI-CH displayed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity due to the presence of chlorophyll (Lanfer-Marquez et al., 2005;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012). When the microcapsules were stored at the room temperature (20 ± 1°C) for 6 months, the DPPH radical scavenging activities of all samples decreased by 30.59% when compared to that of fresh samples, which could be explained by the degradation of chlorophyll and WPI during the storage process. ...
Article
Whey protein isolate-chlorophyll (WPI-CH) microcapsules at different WPI ratios via spray drying were created to improve water solubility and biological stability of chlorophyll. Samples at a higher ratio of WPI resulted in a lower moisture content (1.14 ± 0.12% to 2.47 ± 0.09%), higher chlorophyll encapsulation efficiency (98.34 ± 0.03% to 99.76 ± 0.02%) and greater chlorophyll solubility (79.29 ± 0.07% to 82.24 ± 0.03%). The results of fluorescence and FT-IR spectra showed that the pyrrole ring of chlorophyll became bound to the hydrophobic residues of WPI leading to a change in the crystalline structure of chlorophyll, probably due to the formation of soluble complexes of WPI-CH. In addition, the antioxidant activity of fresh WPI-CH samples, and those stored for 6 months, increased by 19.75% and 18.51% respectively compared to WPI (p < 0.05). Therefore, WPI-CH prepared by the higher ratio of WPI can be used as a potential natural food additive because of its good antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties, especially water-solubility and stability.
... CuChl is a chemical mixture, and much like commercial lignin or starch, the composition of the mixture depends upon the source, the extraction and the purification processes. The chemical composition of food grade CuChl has been summarized in recent reviews [1][2][3]. Fig. 1 shows the structures of the most relevant chlorins and the nomenclature used herein; a more extensive set of chlorin structures is given in Tumolo's review [1]. ...
... The chemical composition of food grade CuChl has been summarized in recent reviews [1][2][3]. Fig. 1 shows the structures of the most relevant chlorins and the nomenclature used herein; a more extensive set of chlorin structures is given in Tumolo's review [1]. ...
Article
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Measured were the colloidal and adsorption properties of copper chlorophyllin (CuChl), a complex mixture derived from chlorophyll that is used as a food additive and in other applications. CuChl has an “apparent solubility” (it is a mixture) of 0.1 g/L in PBS buffer. Dynamic light scattering of dilute solutions showed the presence of particles with diameters in the range 10−800 nm. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NanoSight LM10) showed the majority of nanoparticles had hydrodynamic diameters 100−200 nm. Dialysis experiments revealed that 58 % of a 0.1 g/L CuChl was present as dispersed particles. QCM-D measurements showed that aqueous CuChl adsorbs on surfaces giving a maximum adsorbed coverage, Γmax, that is sensitive to the type of surface; cellulose > polystyrene>> pullulan > silica = 0. No adsorption was observed on silica. Centrifuged CuCe6, a pure chlorin, showed essentially the same adsorption behaviors as centrifuged CuChl mixtures on polystyrene, suggesting that chlorins are the dominant adsorbed species from CuChl mixtures on hydrophobic surfaces. Centrifuged CuChl and CuCe6 usually gave lower Γmax values compared to non-centrifuged samples. In all cases, rinsing with buffer after CuChl or CuCe6 adsorption resulted in the immediate removal of some of the adsorbed chlorins. With cellulose there was no further dissolution, whereas with polystyrene, the adsorbed layer eventually was entirely removed. AFM measurements showed the adsorbed materials included nanoparticles. The surfactants SDS or DTAB could displace CuChl adsorbed on cellulosic filter paper only if the surfactant concentrations were above the critical micelle concentration.
... Among them, copper acetate [Cu 2 (CH 3 COO) 4 (OH 2 ) 2 ] (1) and histidinate [Cu(His) 2 ] (2) (HHis is histidine) are used in the intravenous (i.v.) administration for relieving symptoms in Menkes disease [2] (Figure 1). Copper sulphate and gluconate [Cu(glu) 2 ] (3) (HGlu is gluconic acid) are usually found in the complex medication of iron-deficiency anemia [3,4], while chlorophyllin (4) in pills, spray or ointment formulations is recommended for wound odor elimination, radiation burns, inflammatory diseases and even for liver cancer prevention [5][6][7]. The mammalian Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 oxidized active site (5)) formulated as injection or cream is recommended for inflammatory diseases. ...
... Molecules 2020, 25, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 27 sulphate and gluconate [Cu(glu)2] (3) (HGlu is gluconic acid) are usually found in the complex medication of iron-deficiency anemia [3,4], while chlorophyllin (4) in pills, spray or ointment formulations is recommended for wound odor elimination, radiation burns, inflammatory diseases and even for liver cancer prevention [5][6][7]. The mammalian Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 oxidized active site (5)) formulated as injection or cream is recommended for inflammatory diseases. ...
Article
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Every year, more Cu(II) complexes are proven to be biologically active species, but very few are developed as drugs or entered in clinical trials. This is due to their poor water solubility and lipophilicity, low stability as well as in vivo inactivation. The possibility to improve their pharmacological and/or oral administration profile by incorporation into inorganic or organic matrix was studied. Most of them are either physically encapsulated or conjugated to the matrix via a moiety able to coordinate Cu(II). As a result, a large variety of species were developed as delivery carriers. The organic carriers include liposomes, synthetic or natural polymers or dendrimers, while the inorganic ones are based on carbon nanotubes, hydrotalcite and silica. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on alginate-carbonate, gold-PEG and magnetic mesoporous silica-Schiff base were also developed for this purpose.
... Chlorophyllin (Chl) is used in this work as photosensitizer. It is semi-synthetic porphyrin, water soluble food colorant, also known as food additive E140 [23]. In addition, chlorophyllin is effective antioxidant protecting lipids from peroxidation, proteins from oxidation, and antioxidants from depletion [24]. ...
Article
The present study clearly demonstrated the significant antifungal activity of chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (Chl-CHS) after activation with visible light. This phenomenon afterwards was successfully applied for better microbial control of highly popular food- germinated wheat sprouts. Obtained results indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS complex (0.001% Chl-0.1% CHS and 0.005% Chl-0.5% CHS, 405 nm, 76 J/cm²) considerably inhibited (83%) the growth of dominating sprout pathogenic microfungus Fusarium graminearum in vitro. Moreover, obvious delay of fungus growth by 4 days after treatment was observed. The efficiency of antifungal treatment strongly depended on used Chl-CHS complex concentration. The coating of wheat grains with Chl-CHS (0.005% Chl–0.5% CHS) and illumination with visible light (405 nm; 76 J/cm²) inactivated the molds on the surface of grains by 79%. It is important to note, that no grain surface microstructure damage observed by SEM imaging have been found. No inhibiting effects on seed germination process, viability, average weight of grains, length of seedlings and content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the seedlings or eventually visual quality after Chl-CHS coating of grains and illumination with visible light have been observed. In conclusion, chlorophyllin-chitosan coating in the concert with visible light has great potential as cost-effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable strategy for better microbial control of highly contaminated sprouts.
... Betalains as a whole have some challenges as a food colorant, such as a tendency to degrade upon exposure to light and high temperature and an unappealing earthy taste at higher concentrations. However, they have several advantages over other natural food colors, e.g., anthocyanins, such as higher water solubility, tinctorial strength, and stability at acidic to neutral pHs (Giridhar et al. 2015, Martins et al. 2016, Mumford et al. 2018, Tumolo & Lanfer-Marquez 2012. ...
Article
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There is an increasing consumer demand for natural colors in foods. However, there is a limited number of available natural food sources for use by the food industry because of technical and regulatory limitations. Natural colors are less stable and have less vibrant hues compared to their synthetic color counterparts. Natural pigments also have known health benefits that are seldom leveraged by the food industry. Betalains, carotenoids, phycocyanins, and anthocyanins are major food colorants used in the food industry that have documented biological effects, particularly in the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The color industry needs new sources of stable, functional, and safe natural food colorants. New opportunities include sourcing new colors from microbial sources and via the use of genetic biotechnology. In all cases, there is an imperative need for toxicological evaluation to pave the way for their regulatory approval. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Volume 11 is March 25, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Few companies like Alfa Aesar and Thermo Fisher Scientific produce these kinds of chlorophyllin in standard value and assay. Cooper chlorophyllin is a chlorophyll-derived food colorant, commercially available as a complex mixture of different chlorin molecules [13]. Since the chlorophyllin is soluble in water, adding acetone and centrifuges processes is no longer necessary for chlorophyll extraction in chlorophyllin. ...
Article
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Chlorophylls and turbidity are related parameters deemed important in predicting water quality, especially in the freshwater fisheries sector. In other hand, chlorophyll contents in vegetation are often used as a measure for estimating plant health. To ensure the chlorophyll content, appropriate analysis techniques are needed, which include, yet not limited to, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), acetone extraction analysis, and measuring turbidity using expensive equipment. Measurements using these methods are still not reliable, especially for smallholders. In addition, calibration of a digital camera for these purposes requires several efforts of preparing a series of chemical analyses and the qualities of newly developed cameras have increased. Thus, calibration needs to be taken into account for improving the accuracy in estimating chlorophyll contents. This study posits fundamental findings germane to the potential use of chlorophyllin for calibrating the optimal instrument, like consumer-grade cameras. Sodium copper chlorophyllin is commonly used as food additive and ingredients, and medical treatments. However, we can gain another benefit of chlorophyllin, particularly for developing low-cost optical instruments for estimating chlorophyll content through hydro-color-based with promising accuracy.
... ucm106626.htm) in the US. This modified chlorophyll derivative is more stable and water-soluble although only approved for use in citrus beverages (Tumolo & Lanfer-Marquez, 2012;Viera Alcaide, Pérez Gálvez, & Roca, 2019). ...
Article
This work investigates the potential for anionic polysaccharides, such as alginate and xanthan gum, to impart solution and color stability to dilute solutions of copper chlorophyllin (Cu-ChP) buffered at acidic pH. Under cold storage, both polysaccharides tested were shown with sufficient loading to mitigate Cu-ChP aggregation at pH 3.0 and 5.0; xanthan gum use required lower loadings than the sodium alginate tested. Analysis of polysaccharide stabilized Cu-ChP solutions by dynamic light scattering suggests complex formation does occur; this is likely driven by electrostatic interactions between copper cations coordinated at the pigment core and the heavily anionic surfaces of the polyccharide matrices created by the large number of uronic acid substituents on the hydrocolloids.. During accelerated stability testing at elevated temperature (40 °C), pure Cu-ChP controls readily aggregated and lost the solution color distribution, while both polysaccharides maintained both solution and color stability through the initial 5-day test; xanthan gum showed the best promise in this regard, maintaining solution stability and most of the original color through 14 days at both pH tested. CIE a* and b* color data further show more than half of the original green tones and nearly all of the original yellow tones are preserved during heating with either polysaccharide present. Despite this, the slight transition in overall color towards more olive-green tones suggest a level of pheophytinization (metal ion loss) occurs. Finally, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) provides initial insight into the stabilization of Cu-ChP solutions by these polysaccharides and suggests that the weaker, yet stable, association of the pigment source with xanthan gum compared to the sodium alginate tested may be key to its superiority as a stabilizer.
... As a result of these changes, chlorophyllin is more stable than chlorophyll [17]. Its most common form is a sodium/copper derivative used as a food additive and in alternative medicine [18]. As a food coloring agent, copper complex chlorophyllin is known as natural green 3 and has the E number E141. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to flavor and conserve food, to treat health disorders and to prevent diseases including epidemics. They can provide biologically active molecules and lead structures for development of modified derivatives with enhanced activity or reduced activity. The isolation and identification of active principles and elucidation of the mechanism of action of a drug is of paramount importance. One such compound is chlorophyllin, a water soluble analogue of the ubiquitous green pigment chlorophyll. It acts as an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. Further anti-cancer effects of chlorophyllin including antioxidant activity, inhibition of enzymatic activity that converts inert procarcinogens into active carcinogens, stimulation of enzymatic activity that promotes the elimination of toxic substances from the body and antitumor activity have likewise been evidenced by controlled studies. Phytotherapy of snails by photodynamic chlorophyllin is a new approach to control the epidemic fasciolosis. Photosensitive chlorophyllin is degraded very fast without the formation of toxic byproducts, therefore, it is environmentally sound and economically safe also. Keywords: Spinach; Chlorophyllin; Therapeutic effect; Photodynamic product; Chlorophyll; Medicinal plant.
... CHL can be transformed into water-soluble form by saponification, a reaction that magnesium central atom is replaced with copper. In vivo and clinical studies in pharmacological researches of both chla and CHL revealed that they provided the therapeutic uses such as wound healing, antiinflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-mutagenesis, and anti-carcinogenesis [50,51]. ...
Chapter
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the major causes of liver cancer especially hepatocellular carcinoma that has high incidence and mortality rate in many countries. Owing to the climate that is suitable for fungal growth, the avoidance of AFB1 exposure from agricultural product contamination is too difficult. This up-to-date review aims to collect insight on how edible plants attenuate AFB1-toxicity. Cruciferous vegetables, green tea, purple rice, turmeric, green vegetables, ginger, Dialium guineense, Parkia biglobosa, carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables, Allii Fistulosi Bulbus, and rosemary have reported their capabilities to alleviate AFB1-toxicity though several mechanisms. All these plants showed anti-genotoxic activity while some of them are able to reduce hepatotoxicity, liver cancer, and oxidative stress and modulate metabolism enzymes induced by AFB1. Furthermore, a few edible plants could handle AFB1 in pre-exposure phase including anti-AFB1 biosynthesis and AFB1 absorption. Although the detoxification mechanisms of AFB1 activated by various edible plants have been investigated in pre-clinical study for a decade, clinical trial is still rarely clarified. Further study associating with a protective effect on AFB1 toxicity still needs to be carried out especially in the clinical study.
... IPPAS C-1509 can be used as chlorophyll producers. Chlorophyllin obtained from chlorophyll serves as a bioactive food additive [39] and as an odor corrigent for geriatric patients [40]. ...
Article
A search for strains capable of simultaneously producing high amounts of several biologically valuable compounds and/or having high biomass productivity has been carried out. The growth characteristics and biochemical composition of 12 microalgae and cyanobacteria strains from the IPPAS Collection in the exponential and stationary growth phases were studied. All the strains had high growth rates (doubling time 6-22 h). The strains of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200, Chlorella sp. IPPAS C-1210, Nannochloris sp. IPPAS C-1509, Cyanidium caldarium IPPAS P-510 and Vischeria sp. IPPAS H-242 demonstrated the highest biotechnological potential and can be used for the production of various types of biofuel, pigments, feed and food additives, including those with high content of eicosapentaenoic (20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) acid content. microalgae, cyanobacteria, biochemical composition, fatty acids, valuable metabolites, growth characteristics This work was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation [no. 14-14-00904]
... 38 However, chlorophyllin, also known as E141, is commonly used as a food dye and additive in canned foods, in a water-soluble sodium-copper form without any toxic effect. 39 All these reasons make chlorophyllin as another good candidate to be tested for its effects on breast cancer cells. ...
Article
Full-text available
Glutathione (GSH) and enzymes related to this antioxidant molecule are often overexpressed in tumor cells and may contribute to drug resistance. Blockade of glutathione transferases (GSTs) has been proposed to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorophyllin that has antioxidant properties, and also interferes with the activity of GST P1‐1, on breast cancers in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo studies were conducted using an N‐methyl‐ N‐nitrosourea (MNU)‐induced chemical carcinogenesis model in laboratory rats. DNA damage, GST activity, and GSH levels were determined in liver and tumor tissues. Treatment with chlorophyllin increased the GSH levels in the liver and significantly decreased DNA damage in the blood, liver, and tumor tissues. Even though tumorigenesis was delayed in rats receiving chlorophyllin before MNU injections, once the tumors emerged, the progression of tumor appeared to be faster than in the animals that received the carcinogen only. Out of nine breast cell lines, GST P1‐1 expression was detected in MCF‐12A, MDA‐MB‐231, and HCC38. Concomitant incubation with chlorophyllin and docetaxel did not significantly affect cell proliferation and viability. Chlorophyllin displayed genoprotective effects that initially delayed tumorigenesis. However, once the tumors were established, it may act as a promoter that facilitates tumor growth, potentially by a mechanism independent of cell proliferation and viability. Our results underline the pros and cons of antioxidant treatment in cancer, even if it has a capacity to inhibit GST P1‐1.
... In this regard, several dyes have been used as sensitisers such as anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll which are easily extracted from natural sources (11,12) . Chlorophyllin (CHL) is the most critical derivative molecules of natural green pigment chlorophyll(chl) (13) , CHL as a hydrophilic molecule, is more soluble in water than chlorophyll and is more stable in moderate light, heat, oxygenated conditions, extreme absorption in the visible light and low pH (14)(15)(16)(17) . Chlorophyll and their derivatives are common light-sensitive compounds of photosensitizers and are selectively retained by tumour cells (18,19) . ...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Chlorophyll is a light harvesting pigment, which absorbs light in the visible spectrum of sunlight and promotes electron transfer, Chlorophyllin (CHL) is one of the most important derivative molecules of chlorophyll. Nowadays, chlorophyll pigment and its derivatives are utilised in organic photosynthetic solar cells for their desirable photovoltaic properties. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is an essential technique. It is extensively used to study electroactive species to interpret the intermediates of reactions, supply information about the thermodynamics of oxidation-reduction reactions and elucidate the kinetics of electron transfer reactions. Materials and Methods: Prior to the electrochemical study, the working gold (Au) electrode surface was prepared by immersing it in the various concentrations of chlorophyllin for a period time. The electrolyte was degassed by using N2 for approximately 30 minutes inside a Faraday cage before any electrochemical experiment. A three electrode system was used with, Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode, graphite as a counter and the working electrode (Au). Results and Discussion: As a route to develop new chemical systems for artificial photosynthesis, this work reports the effectiveness of different parameters in transferring electrons between chlorophyllin (CHL) pigment and the working electrode surface (gold). These parameters such as the adsorption time, the electrolyte nature and chlorophyllin concentration are investigated. The use of chlorophyllin as a redox mediator is examined, with a gold electrode being employed. The importance of gold electrode surface preparation in determining the mechanism of redox is described, and the environment of the adsorption process of the different concentrations of chlorophyllin on the surface of the gold electrode has been elucidated in this study. Conclusiones: The electrochemical method showed that the cyclic voltammetry responses of studied adsorption chlorophyllin pigment on the gold electrode were more efficient. In addition, the redox reaction was successful electrochemically in aqueous solution than the organic solution. It was suggested that electrons reduce to the chlorophyllin pigment by adding active species in the bulk solution homogeneous transfer. Finally, detections of chlorophyll on spinach leaves using various methods are reported.
... In the present work, it was studied the sodium-copper chlorophyllin (Cu-Chl), a water-soluble salt that is semi-synthetic derivative of the natural green pigment chlorophyll in which a copper (Cu 2+ ) ion is contained in the center of the porphyrin macrocycle. Even with its semi-synthetic nature, this compound is available as food colorant with some potential benefits [9] such as antimutagenic [10] and antioxidant [11]. Therefore, besides the nonlinear optical properties presented in this molecule, it is completely applicable in living systems for some specific purpose. ...
Article
This work reports on the singlet excited-state absorption spectrum of sodium-copper chlorophyllin using three distinct methods of Z-Scan measurement: white-light continuum Z-Scan technique ranging from 470 to 780 nm, tunable Z-Scan technique with femtosecond pulses (490–700 nm) and 532 nm Z-Scan technique with 100 ps pulse width. A transition from reverse saturation absorption (RSA) to saturable absorption (SA) was observed at 570 nm, and at 532 nm RSA was tested showing potential application as optical limiting device. Pump-probe technique was used to measure lifetime of the first singlet excited state (22 ps) and no evidence of triplet conversion was observed.
... 2,3 From health aspect, chlorophyll and chlorophyllin are provide benefits to human body. 4,5 Chlorophyll have antioxidant and antiinflamatory properties that prevent chronic diseases such as cancer. [6][7][8] However, changes of chlorophyll structure into its derivatives made it loses its activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Suji (Dracaena angustifolia (Medik.) Roxb.) leaves are famous chlorophyll source used as food colorant in Indonesia and other south-east Asian countries. Its chlorophyll has unique characteristics which can degrade through enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This article summarizes traditional application of Suji leaves, the characteristics of Suji leaf chlorophyll, postharvest stability, and several ways to retain its green color. Potential development of Suji leaf extract as food colorant or food ingredients are also discussed.
... Additionally, the salt addition in both aqueous phases in order to maintain the osmotic balance between both phases was studied as well as the incorporation of sodium alginate as thickening agent. Finally, the use of the formulated double emulsion as carriers of chlorophyllin (CHL) in the W 1 phase and/or lemongrass essential oil (LG-EO) in the oil phase as examples of active compounds due to their high antioxidant capacity to be encapsulated and delivered in food systems was assessed (Cheel et al. 2005;Guerra-Rosas et al. 2017;Lopez-Carballo et al. 2008;Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This work aimed at obtaining an optimized formation procedure of water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions as potential templates to carry hydrophilic (e.g., chlorophyllin; CHL) and/or hydrophobic (e.g., lemongrass essential oil; LG-EO) active compounds. As a first step, the impact of the hydrophobic surfactant (i.e., Span 80 or PGPR), sodium alginate or NaCl concentration as well as the homogenization method (i.e., high-shear homogenization, ultrasonication, or microfluidization) on the particle size of the primary W1/O emulsions was evaluated. The inner phase (W1/O) formulated with PGPR (4% w/w) and sodium alginate (2% w/w) with NaCl (0.05 M) and treated by high-shear homogenization (11,000 rpm, 5 min) presented the smallest particle size (d[4;3] ≈ 0.51 μm). As a second step, the primary W1/O emulsion was subsequently dispersed in a secondary aqueous phase (W2) at varying hydrophilic surfactant (i.e., lecithin or Tween 20), sodium alginate or NaCl concentrations and magnetic stirring rate (rpm and time) to obtain double emulsions (W1/O/W2). The formation of stable W1/O/W2 emulsions with d[4;3] of 7 μm was achieved with the use of lecithin (2% w/w), sodium alginate (2% w/w) with NaCl (0.05 M) and treated by low-intensity UT homogenization (5600 rpm, 2 min) followed by 24 h of magnetic stirring. The incorporation of CHL and LG-EO in the inner aqueous phase and lipid phase respectively did not change the double emulsion characteristics. Overall, this study presents an effective two-step optimized procedure to form stable double emulsions as potential delivery systems for functional compounds.
... It is hydrophilic at one end and lipophy;lic at the other end in nature and more stable to light and acid as compared to natural chlorophyll. (Tumolo & Lanfer-Marquez, 2012). It is an approved colorant and food additive in various countries it is a bioactive compound with antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory properties. ...
Preprint
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Background: The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Renochlor tablet in comparison with Renochlor syrup for the Management of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Chronic Kidney Disease. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate (Already proven) comparative performance of Tablet and Syrup dosage forms/Formulations and correlation of TGS-beta 1 as indicator of kidney function status in Chronic Renal failureHypothesis : to Access the efficacy of sodium copper chlorophyllin complies through Controlled randomized trial using primary end point as e GFR and secondary as decrease in fibrosis marker TGFb1 and albumin creatinine ratio. Study design: It was a Prospective, Observational, Randomized, Open labelled, Multicentre, Parallel-Group, Two-arm, clinical trial to evaluate comparative performance of Tablet and Syrup dosage forms/FormulationsMethod: It was a Prospective, Observational, Randomized, Open labelled, Multicentre, Parallel-Group, Two-arm, clinical trial to evaluate comparative performance of Tablet and Syrup dosage forms/Formulations and correlation of TGS-beta 1 as indicator of kidney function status as an add on to the standard of care ( pl give standard care details) for the management of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF). In the study, patients were randomized in the ratio of 1:1. All the subjects were asked to take Renochlor Tablet (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin) plus Standard Care of Treatment (1 tablet of 40 mg Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex (active ingredient), TID) or Renochlor Syrup (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex) plus Standard Care of Treatment (10 ml TID, Each 10 ml contains 40 mg of Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin). The study medication was continued for 90±5 days with periodic follow-up of 30 days. On visit 2 visit 3visit 4 and visit 5 from start of treatment. This was CTRI registered trial (CTRI/2021/04/032987) with 5 clinical trial sites across India. Results: The study showed the percentage increased eGFR from baseline to end of study treatment for Renochlor Tablet (n=22) and Renochlor Syrup (n=21). The eGFR increased by 12.45 %, 13.53 % and 27.33 % in respective visits in patients treated with Renochlor Syrup. The eGFR increased by 11.27 %, 23.64 % and 36.04 % in respective visits in patients treated with Renochlor Tablets. The mean percentage reduction in Serum Creatinine was by8.82%, 16.5%, 23.5% in Renochlor Tablet; whereas mean percentage reduction in Serum Creatinine was by 9.44%, 8.89%, 17.8% in Renochlor Syrup The mean percentage reduction in Albumin to Creatinine Ratio was by 20.08%, 26.09%, 29.91% in Renochlor Tablet whereas mean percentage reduction in Albuminn to Creatinine Ratio was by 22.48%, 26.27%, 30.76% in Renochlor Syrup ( remove – sign). The mean percentage reduction in Serum Urea was by 11.64% in Renochlor Tabletwhereas mean percentage reduction in Serum Urea was by 9.76% in Renochlor Syrup ( remove – sign).The mean percentage reduction in Blood Urea Nitrogen was by 10.38%, 21.27%, 22.40% in Renochlor Tablet whereas mean percentage reduction in Blood Urea Nitrogen was by 10.99%, 11.06%, 14.51% in Renochlor Syrup. The mean percentage reduction was observed in Serum Electrolytes in both Renochlor Syrup. The mean percentage reduction in TGF β-1 was by 14.56% in Renochlor Tablet whereas in Renochlor Syrup was by 10.55% when compared with baseline to end of study visit.( Above differences in the clinical parameters of Tablet group and Syrup group are statistically significant.There were 10 clinical adverse events ( AEs) reported in 10 patients. Out of total 10 AES, 04 AEs were reported in Renochlor Tablet and 06 AEs were reported in Renochlor Syrup. There were no SAEs (Serious Adverse Events) reported in overall conduct of the clinical study. Conclusion: Both dosage forms on RENOCHLOR,ie syrup and tablets (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex) is safe and efficacious . Reduction in TGF β-1 , S Creatinine, BUN , ACR ration. Increase in eGFR. Clinically and statistically significant in chronic renal failure, However tablets in Renochlor Tablet proved marginally superior in primary and secondary efficacy end points when compared with Renochlor Syrup
... Cu compounds can also be used as pesticides (Cu pentahydrate sulphate-bloom stone, Cu acetoarsenite-Paris green, etc.), Egyptian blue, Voroneţ blue, pigments used in lithography and pyrotechnics. Their uses also extend to the food industry as colouring agents [GILBERT, et al., 2003;TUMOLO and MARQUEZ 2012] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy metals are important pollutants in the environment and can cause problems for the organisms, and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain can have adverse effects on human health. Regulations on the legally accepted amounts of heavy metals in food and in the body are very precise. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the level of heavy metals in cow milk from different localities in the Baia Mare area, considered a very polluted area. The physical–chemical parameters and heavy metals in milk were determined. The determination of heavy metals in milk was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or ICP– MS used to identify and quantify the Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn elements. The highest concentrations of Pb were observed in samples collected in Firiza locality with an average value of (43.22±0.62) (μg/L) and the lowest concentrations are for the samples analyzed in Săcălăşeni (11.53±0.33) (mg/L) (μg/L). Cd in milk did not show very large variations between localities, so the lowest concentrations were recorded in Săcălăşeni (4.32±0.13) and the highest ones were observed in the locality Firiza (10.93±0.39) (μg/L). The highest concentrations were observed for the Zn in milk, with an interval between (2255.20±7.14) (μg/L) in Săcălăşeni and (3855.80±5.11) (μg/L) for the analyzed samples from Firiza.
... However, the one exception to this attribute is the reported prooxidant activity of chlorophylls in lipophilic environments under light conditions [146], where positive results have also been obtained [147]. With this exception, previous reviews described different aspects of the antioxidant capacity of chlorophylls [148][149][150][151][152], but we compiled the research formulated from diverse perspectives starting with the fundamental studies of the antioxidant capacity of chlorophyll standards, through the search of new sources of dietary antioxidants, to the ongoing studies of the in vivo chlorophyll antioxidant actions. However, in contrast to the carotenoid studies, knowledge is limited regarding the yield of chlorophyll metabolites, their absorption and transportation processes, their metabolic pathways, and their precise oxidation mechanisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chlorophylls and carotenoids are natural pigments that are present in our daily diet, especially with the increasing tendency towards more natural and healthy behaviors among consumers. As disturbed antioxidant homeostasis capacities seem to be implicated in the progress of different pathologies, the antioxidant properties of both groups of lipophilic compounds have been studied. The objective of this review was to analyze the state-of-the-art advances in this field. We conducted a systematic bibliographic search (Web of Science™ and Scopus®), followed by a comprehensive and critical description of the results, with special emphasis on highly cited and more recently published research. In addition to an evaluative description of the methodologies, this review discussed different approaches used to obtain a physiological perspective, from in vitro studies to in vivo assays using oxidative biomarkers. From a chemical viewpoint, many studies have demonstrated how a pigment’s structure influences its antioxidant response and the underlying mechanisms. The major outcome is that this knowledge is essential for interpreting new data in a metabolic networks context in the search for more direct applications to health. A promising era is coming where the term “antioxidant” is understood in terms of its broadest significance.
... In this regard, several dyes have been used as sensitizers such as anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll which are easily extracted from natural sources (11,12) . Chlorophyllin (CHL) is the most critical derivative molecules of natural green pigment CHL (13) , CHL as a hydrophilic molecule, is more soluble in water than chlorophyll and is more stable in moderate light, heat, oxygenated conditions, extreme absorption in the visible light and low pH (14)(15)(16)(17) . Chlorophyll and their derivatives are common light-sensitive compounds of photosensitizers and are selectively retained by tumour cells (18,19) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Chlorophyll is a light harvesting pigment, which absorbs light in the visible spectrum of sunlight and promotes electron transfer, Chlorophyllin (CHL) is One of the most important derivative molecules of chlorophyll. Nowadays, chlorophyll pigment and its derivatives are utilised in organic photosynthetic solar cells for their desirable photovoltaic properties. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is an essential technique. It is extensively used to study electroactive species to interpret the intermediates of reactions, supply information about the thermodynamics of oxidation-reduction reactions and elucidate the kinetics of electron transfer reactions. Materials and Methods: Prior to the electrochemical study, the working gold (Au) electrode surface was prepared by immersing it in the various concentrations of chlorophyllin for a period time. The electrolyte was degassed by using N2 for approximately 30 minutes inside a Faraday cage before any electrochemical experiment was performed. A three electrode system was used with, Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode, graphiteas a counter and the working electrode (Au). Results and Discussion: As a route to develop new chemical systems for artificial photosynthesis, this work reports the effectiveness of different parameters in transferring electrons between chlorophyllin (CHL) pigment and the working electrode surface (gold). These parameters such as the adsorption time, the electrolyte nature and concentration and chlorophyllin concentration are investigated. The use of chlorophyllin as a redox mediator is examined, with a gold electrode being employed. The importance of gold electrode surface preparation in determining the mechanism of redox is described, and the environment of adsorption process of the different concentrations of chlorophyllin on the surface of the gold electrode has been elucidated in this study. Conclusiones: The electrochemical method showed that the cyclic voltammetry responses of studied adsorption chlorophyllin pigment on the gold electrode were more efficient. In addition, the redox reaction was successful electrochemically in aqueous solution thanthe organic solution. It was suggested that electrons reduce to the chlorophyllin pigment by adding active species in the bulk solution homogeneous transfer. Finally, detections of chl on spinach leaves using various methods are reported.
... Thus, this protective efficacy of phyto-product against the initiation and progression of certain diseases pave the way to evaluate the possibility of a phyto-derived compound Chlorophyllin to protect against the daily hazards of pesticide (toxicity) due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, fishes, etc. Chlorophyllin (CHL), a chlorophyll derivative salt was chosen for the purpose of our study. The anti-genotoxic, anti-carcinogenic (Das, Samadder, Mondal, et al., 2016;Das, Samadder, Das, et al., 2016;Gradecka-Meesters et al., 2011;Nagini et al., 2015;Vesenick et al., 2012), an wound healing accelerant (Tumolo & Lanfer-Marquez, 2018), and anti-diabetogenic (Patar et al., 2018) property of CHL was the platform of choosing this phyto-product which was found to be completely non-toxic at any dose in mammalian model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Pesticide toxicity has become one of the major environmental menaces affecting all types of life forms of the ecosystem. Pesticides get washed off from agricultural fields into nearby water bodies and enter the aquatic organisms. Their bio-accumulated form finally reaches the human race, through consumption of pesticide infested aquatic animals, causing several physiological dysfunctions. Hence it becomes necessary to find a therapeutic cure/a preventive measure to stop the health hazard issues of pesticide. With this projection a search for a phyto-based-product was made whose primary objective would be to lower the pesticidal toxicity in fish and simultaneously in the human race. Methods In this study we tried to check whether the phyto-chemical, Chlorophyllin (CHL), known for its anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant activities, could render any kind of protection against Cypermethrin (CM) induced-toxicity in fish model and mammalian cell line L6. Both the model L6 and fish were pre-treated with CHL prior to exposure of CM. Different scientific parameters like % cellular cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nuclear condensation, etc were checked to validate the possibility of CHL in protecting CM-induced toxicity. Results The overall results revealed that pre-treatment with CHL could restrict the ROS generation leading to modulation in associated cytokine proteins expression NFkβ and IFNγ. Further, CHL lowered nuclear condensation and elevated expression of DNA repair proteins p53 and PARP, showing a kind of pre-activation of signalling cascades for overall protection against the severity of pesticidal toxicity. Conclusion Thus, this phyto-based preventive approach would possibly solve many areas of human health issues related to pesticide toxicity in future.
... Therefore, CuChl shows hydrophilic property and is highly soluble in water. More importantly, the stability of CuChl is enhanced compared to the original chlorophyll 2) . CuChl is also nontoxic and has the functionality of deodorant, so that it is used as a functional food additive 3 ) . ...
Article
The stability of copper chlorophyllin dye, a derivative of the naturally occurring chlorophyll, was improved by the intercalation into the interlayer space of a layered inorganic host material. As the layered inorganic compounds, hydrotalcite was used. The copper chlorophyllin could be inserted between the layers either by the reconstruction method or by the ion exchange method. We found the preparation condition for the composite materials that successfully included the dye molecules between the layers. The obtained composite samples showed high durability under visible light irradiation. The intercalation of the copper chlorophyllin into the hydrotalcite layers effectively suppressed the elution of the dye molecules by water or ethanol. We proposed the potential application of these highly stable composite materials as environmentally friendly natural dye-based colorants.
... Copper chlorophyllin ( Figure 16) is a complex for copper producing by replace Mg 2+ by Cu 2+ . This complex is a good food colorant, cosmetics and possibility anti carcinogenic and antioxidant 35 . The great majority use of azo dyes and their complexes is in hair colouring, leather and fur especially coordination compounds of cobalt and chromium based azo dye 36 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Coordination compounds and organometallics have very special place in chemistry due to their different structural arrangements and application in various fields. They also play vital role in biological system particularly in human and plant life. The blood oxygen carrier haemoglobin is a coordination compound of iron which is essential for human life, also the chlorophyll is a coordination compound of magnesium essential for plant the life and the continuation of the life on this planet. These compounds are not only biologically important but also comprise a group of drug like molecules and medicines. Coordination compounds such as platinum, palladium and ruthenium complexes are anti-cancer drugs. Also, many of the coordination compounds are anti-bacterial. The coordination compounds have been showed effective behaviour against many diseases like Alzheimer’s and malaria. Recently coordination compounds used as antivirus such as coronavirus. In present review, we highlighted the most important coordination complexes that show a significant role in the field of medicine.
... IPPAS C-1509 can be used as chlorophyll producers. Chlorophyllin obtained from chlorophyll serves as a bioactive food additive [39] and as an odor corrigent for geriatric patients [40]. ...
Article
A search for strains capable of the simultaneous production of high amounts of several biologically valuable compounds and/or high biomass productivity has been carried out. The growth characteristics and biochemical composition of 12 microalgal and cyanobacterial strains from the IPPAS Collection were studied at the exponential and stationary growth phases. All of the strains had high growth rates (a doubling time of 6–22 h). The strains Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200, Chlorella sp. IPPAS C-1210, Nannochloris sp. IPPAS C-1509, Cyanidium caldarium IPPAS P-510, and Vischeria sp. IPPAS H-242 demonstrated the highest biotechnological potential and can be used for the production of various types of biofuel, pigments, and feed and food additives, including those with a high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20 : 5 Δ5, 8,11, 14, 17).
... Chlorophyll is the most abundant plant pigment on the earth, functioning for photosynthesis in plants and algae. Sodium copper chlorophyllin (CHL) is one of the most widely used semi-synthetic and water-soluble forms of chlorophylls that is widely used as a food and beverage color agent (Tumolo and Lanfer-Marquez, 2012). CHL is also used as a therapeutic agent. ...
Article
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLDs) along with metabolic syndrome and Type-2 diabetes (T2D) are increasingly prevalent worldwide. Without an effective resolution, simple hepatic steatosis may lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by hepatocyte damage, chronic inflammation, necrosis, fatty degeneration, and cirrhosis. The gut microbiome is vital for metabolic homeostasis. Conversely, dysbiosis contributes to metabolic diseases including NAFLD. Specifically, diet composition is critical for the enterotype of gut microbiota. We reasoned that green pigment rich in vegetables may modulate the gut microbiome for metabolic homeostasis. In this study, C57BL/6 mice under a high fat diet (HFD) were treated with sodium copper chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, in drinking water. After 28 weeks of HFD feeding, liver steatosis was established accompanied by gut microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal impairment, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. Administration of CHL effectively alleviated systemic and intestinal inflammation and maintained tight junction in the intestinal barrier. CHL rebalanced gut microbiota in the mice under high fat feeding and attenuated hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and reduced body weight. Fecal flora transplants from the CHL-treated mice ameliorated steatosis as well. Thus, dietary green pigment or the administration of CHL may maintain gut eubiosis and intestinal integrity to attenuate systemic inflammation and relieve NASH.
Article
Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) has a genetic damage inhibitory capacity due to its antioxidant action. For this reason, it was considered to investigate its role in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster and its relationship with the frequency of somatic mutation induced by gamma rays. Results indicated that SCC alone prolonged the lifespan only in females, but in combination with 20 Gy of gamma rays, the aging delay in both sexes was significant. In addition to confirming that the porphyrin reduces the frequency of mutation, the individuals with the highest mutation load are the individuals who die more quickly, and once they are eliminated, the survivor individuals treated with 20 Gy or with SCC + 20 Gy, died at the same rate. The results together indicate that SCC not only inhibits induced genetic damage, but it also has beneficial effects that probably cause an aging delay of the treated population that need to be investigated.
Article
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Seaweeds are marine autotrophic organisms with numerous bioactive compounds of interest. Several seaweed products are available in the form of food or medicine due to their myriad beneficial biomolecules like anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. The information presented herein gives an overview of the current knowledge of seaweed nutritional values and their potential application as nutraceutical supplements for health benefits in terms of mineral content, vitamins, fatty acids, antioxidants and dietary fibres. Seaweeds rich in essential fatty acids and vitamin B 12 (cobalamin) can be an alternative food for vegetarians, as vegetables and fruits are poor sources of these elements. Seaweed-based functional food products and supplements have great potential health benefits and can potentially help to improve malnutrition. ARTICLE HISTORY
Article
This study developed a way to separate lipid, polysaccharide, protein and chlorophyll from wet Chlorella spp. (85% moisture content, wt) by using three-phase partitioning (TPP). The optimum conditions for the key steps were researched and defined as (I) cell disruption at the following conditions: biomass concentration 20 g/L, bath temperature 90 °C, duration 2.5 h, enzyme concentration 12 g/L, enzyme hydrolysis time 4 h; and (II) TPP at 40% (NH4)2SO4 (wt, %), sample solution/t-butanol 1: 2 (V/V), room temperature. The extraction yield of lipid and the poysaccharide preservation rate by the optimized procedure were 80.24%, 90.63%, respectively. The protein removal rate was 78.87%. The results provided a promising towards the industrial separation of lipid, polysaccaride, protein and chlorophyll.
Article
Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS) the carbon backbone of sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), a widely used chlorophyll derivative, and its breakdown products are analyzed to elucidate their electronic structure and physicochemical properties. Using various sample preparation methods and complementary spectroscopic methods (including UV/VIS, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), a comprehensive insight into the SCC breakdown process is presented. The experimental results are supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations allowing a detailed assignment of characteristic NEXAFS-features to specific C-bonds. SCC can be seen as a model system for the large group of porphyrins, thus this work provides a novel and detailed description of the electronic structure of the carbon backbone of those molecules and their breakdown products. The achieved results also promise prospective optical pump - X-ray probe investigations of dynamic processes in (chlorophyll containing) photosynthetic complexes to be analyzed more precisely.
Article
Environmental pollution and freshwater crisis are the main pushing forces for upgrading new insights in wastewater treatment. Wastewater generated from various sources is an abundant source of various nutrients; their recovery could be a better perspective to compensate for the demands of the increasing population. Physicochemical or bacterial wastewater treatment processes are inefficient in removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P), are highly energy demanding, and generate secondary sludge. Microalgae offer a better alternative in wastewater treatment because they can consume different inorganic components in wastewater, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and some metals for growth and biomass production. They accomplish pollutants removal coupled with the production of valuable biomass for the generation of bioenergy and commercial products in an eco-friendly manner. The present review focuses on the details of different types of wastewater along with various challenges of microalgal cultivation systems applied in wastewater treatment. The improvements and recent advances in the remediation of wastewater involving microalgae are discussed. Different microalgal growth models and photorespirometry to assess the overall functioning of microalgae in wastewater are also summarized. Furthermore, various industrially important products that can be sustainably obtained from microalgal biomass through wastewater bioremediation are also highlighted. Finally, future perspectives in this field are presented.
Article
Chlorophyllin is a semi-synthetic mixture of sodium copper complexes synthesized from chlorophyll. In the present investigation the copper-chlorophyllin (Cu-chlorophyllin) and soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin (Na-Cu-chlorophyllin) complexes were synthesized from leaves of Aloe vera. The synthesized compounds were estimated for the chlorophyll content. Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes showed high content of total chlorophyll (4.862 µg/mg). The synthesized compounds were characterized for its morphology by SEM, EDAX, FTIR and XRD. The complexes showed the presence of phytochemicals like phenols (21.62 µg/mL) and phytosterols (444.66 µg/mL) associated with it. The Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes showed antimicrobial activity with moderate results against S aureus, B cereus and maximum zone of inhibition against S typhi (23.6±0.33 mm).The complexes showed excellent free radical scavenging activity for DPPH with 61.84 % scavenging and IC50 value of 33.74 µg/mL. The complexes also exhibited moderate lethality of 30 % on brine shrimp after 72 h with an LC50 value 328.94 µg/mL. Since, Na-Cu-chlorophyllin complexes exhibited excellent bioactivity, it can be utilized extensively in various food, cosmetic, herbal medicine and pharma industries.
Article
The complex formation between metals (Ni, Co, Zn, Fe, Pb, Sn and Ag) and natural chlorophyll extracted from green leaves was monitored in the present study. The respective metallochlorophyllin was prepared by the reaction of metal chloride or nitrate (1M) to chlorophyll extracted from Ficus leaves extract. All synthesized metallochlorophyllins were stable and Na-Cu-chlorohyllin (E141) which is permitted to add in food and are listed in European Directive 94/36/EC on food colouring materials, was identified in commercially available food commodities (candies). In this study different synthesized metallochlorophyllins were characterised by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, HPLC, AAS and HR-MS techniques. Many food commodities (i.e. candy, chips, drink, and cream biscuits) were monitored for metallochlorophyllins and Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin was detected only in real candy samples.
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Bamboo is prone to mould infection and discolouration. Traditional methods of preventing mould are to peel off the green and yellow layers, and then anti-mould treatment was performed. Though these methods were efficient, the original green colour of bamboo was removed and resulted in resources waste because of the removal of the green portions. This paper presented an anti-mould property method of Moso bamboo surface by using a green colour preservation process. The results revealed that the outer bamboo skin processed a certain anti-mould effect. Based on this result, the green colour preservation method involving the alkali solution and the copper salt solution treatment processes could improve the anti-mould property of the Moso bamboo surface as well as the green colour by removing the covering wax and opening the stoma. Compared with the control, the treated specimen’s mould growth was delayed by 11 days. The mould area was reduced by half, which exhibited a green colour with a low a* value of −14.91.
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Chlorophylls are the major pigments present in photosynthetic plants but their application in foods is limited due to their lack of solubility in aqueous media and their susceptibility to degradation during processing and storage. These problems might be overcome by the addition of sodium caseinate (NaCas) whose hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups may result in electrostatic and steric stabilization. In the present work, 1% and 3% (w/w) chlorophylls in NaCas dispersion or in ethanol (control) were prepared and their color stability under light treatment for 5 h and light-shed storage for 10 days was studied along with their interaction mechanism, using electrostatic, spectroscopic and morphological methodologies. Chlorophylls remained 58.72% and 53.84% in NaCas dispersions compared with the control (41.29% and 45.93%) after light treatment for low- and high-dose treatment, respectively, suggesting that NaCas improved the solubility and stability of the pigments. Additionally, 1% and 3% (w/w) chlorophylls in NaCas dispersion remained stable at 60.49% and 57.62% compared with the control (44.81% and 48.17%) for the 10 day storage during which the zeta-potential of the dispersions changed from −31.7 to −52.2 mV and from −36.7 to −56.2 mV with a well-defined diameter (∼221-245 nm). The data obtained from electron microscopy, together with the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, suggests that chlorophylls were entrapped in NaCas dispersions mainly via hydrogen bonds.
Chapter
Incorporation of a vast number of additives in foods is permitted to fulfill a wide range of functions. During processing and storage, they may undergo chemical alterations in line with their intended actions. Examples are the reaction of nitrite with myoglobin to produce the reddish-pink color typical of cured meat and the reaction of sulfite with intermediates of the Maillard reaction and ascorbic acid oxidation to prevent nonenzymatic browning. On the other hand, degradation of additives may occur, such as the degradation of carotenoids and citral, resulting in loss of color and flavor, respectively. Additives may also undergo unintended interactions with other additives and food constituents, with desirable or undesirable consequences on food quality and human health. This chapter discusses the chemical changes, reactions, and interactions of some additives: antioxidants, colorants, flavorings, sulfites, and nitrites/nitrates. This type of information is vital to the food sector, since it provides the necessary background so that beneficial alterations can be enhanced and detrimental effects minimized.
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The current study targeted the production of sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), a natural food colorant from the green microalga, Chlorella minutissima. SCC was produced following the protocol of Humphrey (1980) and examined for its purity through copper test, flame test, and absorbance study. To develop an efficient SCC production process, standardization of two major solvents, NaOH and CuSO4 were conducted, where 3% NaOH and 5% CuSO4 were standardized. Application of these concentrations to varied biomass weights resulted in an SCC yield of up to 65.3 ± 2.3 mg g⁻¹, suggesting a need for optimizing the solvent to biomass concentration. Multifactor optimization of the variables (NaOH, CuSO4, and biomass) resulted in higher SCC yield (73.3 ± 2.7 mg g⁻¹) alongside around 2-fold reduction in the consumption of both the solvents. Thus, an optimized SCC production protocol from microalgae, in general, was developed. The stability of SCC under varying temperature and time was tested, and it was found to remain stable at a wide temperature range between 4 °C to 90 °C. Cost comparison of the optimized production process to SCC’s current commercial value projected two times higher revenue by commercialization of microalgal SCC, contributing to the development of an economic microalgal biorefinery.
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Human enteroviruses (HEVs) pose an ongoing threat to global public health. Particularly, enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71), the main pathogen causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), has caused ongoing outbreaks globally in recent years associated with severe neurological manifestations and several deaths cases. Currently, no effective antivirals are available for the prevention or treatment of EV-A71 infection. In this study, we found that sodium copper chlorophyllin (CHL), a health food additive and an over-the-counter medicine for anti-cancer or reducing the odor of urine or feces, exhibited potent inhibitory activity against infection by divergent EV-A71 and coxsackievirus-A16 (CV-A16) isolates at low micromolar concentration with excellent safety. Their antiviral activities were confirmed by a colorimetric viral infection and qRT-PCR assays. A series of mechanistic studies showed that CHL did not target the host cell, but block the entry of EV-A71 and CV-A16 into the host cell at the post-attachment stage. In the mouse model, CHL could significantly reduce the viral titer in the lungs and muscles. Since CHL has used in clinics for many years with excellent safety, it has potential to be further developed into a prophylactic or therapeutic to prevent or treat HFMD caused by EV-A71 or CV-A16 infection.
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Microalgae have been considered as an efficient microorganism for wastewater treatment with simultaneously bioenergy and high value-added compounds production. However, the high energy cost associated with complicated biorefinery (e.g. microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, extraction, conversion, and purification) is a critical challenge that inhibits its large-scale application. Among different nutrition (e.g. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous) sources, food processing wastewater is a relative safe and suitable one for microalgae cultivation due to its high organic content and low toxicity. In this review, the characteristic of different food wastewater is summarized and compared. The potential routes of value-added products (i.e. biofuel, pigment, polysaccharide, and amino acid) production along with wastewater purification are introduced. The existing challenges (e.g. biorefinery cost, efficiency and mechanism) of microalgal-based wastewater treatment are also discussed. The prospective of microalgae-based food processing wastewater treatment strategies (such as microalgae-bacteria consortium, poly-generation of bioenergy and value-added products) is forecasted. It can be observed that food wastewater treatment by microalgae could be a promising strategy to commercially realize waste source reduce, conversion and reutilization.
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The identification of substances that prevent or minimize the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation is an essential undertaking. The aim of this paper was to evaluate and compare the radioprotective potential of chlorophyllin, protoporphyrin and bilirubin, with amifostine®, an US Food & Drug Administration approved radioprotective. Using the somatic mutation and recombination assay in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, it was found that pretreatment (1-9 h) with any of the porphyrins or amifostine® alone, did not affect the larva-adult viability or the basal frequency of mutation. However, they were associated with significant reductions in frequency of somatic mutation and recombination compared with the gamma-irradiated (20 Gy) control as follows: bilirubin (69.3%)> chlorophyllin (40.0%)> protoporphyrin (39.0%)> amifostine® (19.7%). Bilirubin also caused a 16% increase in larva-adult viability with 3 h of pretreatment respect to percentage induced in 20 Gy control group. Whilst amifostine® was associated with lower genetic damage after pre-treatment of 1 and 3 hours, this did not attain significance. These findings suggest that the tested porphyrins may have some potential as radioprotectant agents.
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The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding 0.3% w/w adenine diet for 28 days. After induction, animals were treated with sodium copper chlorophyllin at dose 2.7, 5.4, and 10.8 mg/kg for the next 28 days. The biochemical and urines parameters like creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin, total protein creatinine clearance, urea clearance, and glomerular filtration rate were assessed on days 0, 14, and 28. Plasma TGF-β1, COX-2, and IL-6 levels were assessed. Various oxidative stress parameters and TGF-β1 expression were determined in the kidney. Histopathology of the kidney was studied with different stains. Sodium copper chlorophyllin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in urine output and relative kidney weight. The treatment with sodium copper chlorophyllin significantly improved kidney function by normalizing biochemical and urine parameters. Treatment with SCC significantly reduced circulatory inflammatory mediators—TGF-β1, COX-2, and IL-6. Additionally, the treatment also significantly reduced oxidative stress and TGF-β1 expression in kidney tissues. Histopathology studies showed inhibition in the kidney damage due to the treatment of SCC. The sodium copper chlorophyllin treatment attenuated adenine-induced chronic kidney disease in rats.
Article
Herein, a two-stage cultivation process was devised to overcome low pigment content of algal biomass grown in heterotrophy. Post-treatment conditions (i.e., light intensity, temperature, pH and salinity) were initially tested for dense heterotrophically-grown Chlorella sp. HS2 cultures in a multi-channel photobioreactor (mcPBR), and the results clearly indicated the influence of each abiotic factor on algal pigment production. Subsequently, the optimal post-treatment conditions (i.e., 455 μmol m-2 s-1, 34.8℃, pH 8.23 and 0.7% (w/v) salinity), in which highest accumulation of algal pigments is expected, were identified using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Compared to the control cultures grown in mixotrophy for the same duration of entire two-stage process, the results indicated a significantly higher pigment productivity (i.e., 167.5 mg L-1 day-1) in a 5-L fermenter following the post-treatment at optimal conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that the post-treatment of heterotrophic cultures can be successfully deployed to harness the nascent algae-based bioeconomy.
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Food production involves innumerable chemical reactions that may generate substances that are toxic to the human body. These substances can be produced in different ways, in varying amounts and degree of toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of toxins during food processing, as well as theconsequences of their ingestion. This study was based on extensive literature research. The main reactions leading to toxic compounds are: lipid degradation, hydrogenation, pyrolysis and smoking. Some of the formed substances are: peroxides, trans fatty acids, heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dietitians need to know how toxins form during the various foods processing methods, as well as their health risks for consumers. It is also necessary to propose processing techniques that ensure the consumer's wellbeing and retain the nutritional properties of the food.
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Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans, where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB(1). However, neither AFB(1) pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted an unblinded crossover study to establish AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters among four human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla cotreatment in three of those volunteers. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an Institutional Review Board-approved dose of 14C-AFB(1) (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 mL water, followed by normal eating and drinking after 2 hours. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hours, and 14C- AFB(1) equivalents were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla or CHL, respectively. Protocols were repeated thrice for each volunteer. The study revealed rapid human AFB(1) uptake (plasma k(a), 5.05 + or - 1.10 h(-1); T(max), 1.0 hour) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hours) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB(1) absorption and reduced Cmax and AUCs (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.
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This study was made to determine the extent of absorption of chlorophyll phytol from the intestine of man, and the importance of chlorophyll as a source of the phytanic acid that accumulates in Refsum's disease. Uniformly ¹⁴C-labeled pheophytin a (the Mg-free derivative of chlorophyll a) was fed to normal human subjects and to patients with Refsum's disease. Feces were collected and analyzed. In all subjects, 90-95% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the feces, still largely in the form of pheophytin a. The phytol radioactivity recovered in the feces averaged about 95% of that in the administered material, which indicates that there had been little absorption of the phytol moiety. Similarly, after 250 g of cooked spinach had been fed to a normal subject, almost the entire phytol content was found in the feces. Less than 5% of the ingested spinach phytol was accounted for in the thoracic duct lymph of another subject. It was concluded that not more than about 5% of the ingested chlorophyll phytol is absorbed by man, whether normal or afflicted with Refsum's disease. On this basis we conclude that the major portion of the phytanic acid that accumulates in Refsum's disease could not be derived from dietary chlorophyll.
Article
A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) system with photodiode array detection was used to analyze chlorophyllin copper complex (CCC). Analysis revealed significant differences In the porphyrin compositions of CCC samples from 5 industrial sources. Copper isochlorin e4 was identified as a major component in most commercial materials. Copper complexes of chlorin e6 and pheophorbide a and unidentified porphyrins with either chlorin- or non-chlorin-type spectra were found in some samples. The variability of porphyrin compositions in commercial preparations may affect the medicinal efficacy of CCC; therefore, analysis of porphyrin composition is important for CCC quality control.
Article
Chronic hypochromic anemia is characterized primarily by a deficiency of hemoglobin. Iron is adequately effective in treatment, although this element composes only a small portion of the hemoglobin molecule. It is thus of interest to inquire whether other factors may be lacking besides iron and, if so, whether these factors when supplied can assist in the formation of hemoglobin.In addition to a lack of iron there may occur sometimes a deficiency of other substances useful in the formation of hemoglobin, such as substances which occur in liver. Material contained in bile pigment perhaps may be wanting. Bile pigment1 has been shown to exert a favorable effect on the regeneration of hemoglobin in cases of chronic hypochromic anemia. As a working hypothesis it has been assumed that the pigment aids in the synthesis of hemoglobin by supplying material suitable for the heme portion of the molecule. Because of the
Article
Two antioxidative components in commercial preparations of sodium copper chlorophyllin were isolated as their methyl esters. Through the identification of the methyl esters by comparison with authentic samples and the saponification of the methyl esters, disodium copper isochlorin-e4 and trisodium copper chlorin-e6 were demostrated to be included in sodium copper chlorophyllin as constituents. The antioxidative activities of both sodium copper chlorins on Fe2+ and ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates were about 8-fold greater than that of sodium copper chlorophyllin. The two components were concluded to play a principal role in the antioxidative action of sodium copper chlorophyllin.
Article
The eventual physiological beneficial effects of chlorophyll present in foods have been raised questions and caused some doubts among consumers. Disclosing reports from mass media ascribing to the molecule of chlorophyll manifold therapeutic effects, nearby miraculous, oppose to the lack of full approval by the academic community. This article provides an overview about this topic and points out recent scientific findings regarding this subject. Considering that degradation products could be quite different during senescence, post-harvest and food processing procedures, as well as during the digestion process, each case in particular has been discussed. Also, the importance of molecular modifications has been highlighted in view of the potential antioxidant, antimutagenic and chemopreventive properties. Unfortunately, the scientific evidences are still not strong enough to support consistent health protecting roles for chlorophyll. Although, diversified mechanisms have been pointed out to explain the potential health benefits, some of them are still far from confirmation on human beings and strategies for further investigations should be incentivated. In addition, studies related to the biological function of phytol should be performed as phytol absorbed into the bloodstream in its free form has been found to play important functions no only on the metabolism of lipids but on the modulation of metabolic processes as well.
Article
Chlorophylls are the most abundant plant pigments in nature. Recent studies have shown that chlorophyll derivatives can exhibit health-promoting activities, apart from their use as food and pharmaceutical colorants. Nevertheless, information regarding their absorption is almost inexistent. In the present model study with dogs the apparent absorption was calculated, based on chlorophyll content in food, minus the excreted chlorophyll, and the eventual appearance of any chlorophyll derivative in the bloodstream was investigated. Spinach was added to a commercial dog food and animals in the experimental group were held on this diet for 10 days. Chlorophylls a and b were transformed into their respective pheophytins during the G.I. passage. Beyond pheophytinization no other important degradation occurred. The apparent absorption of the chlorophyll derivatives ranged from 2.5 to 4.0%, with an average of 3.4%. In a second experiment, where dogs consumed a diet containing 10% dried spinach, no chlorophyll derivatives could be found in the peripheral blood until 150 min after consumption, which seems to evidence either their low absorption or their quick metabolization. Consequently, a low systemic exposure to chlorophylls or their derivatives is expected.
Article
Five commercial samples of sodium copper chlorophyllin, a green food colorant, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using diode-array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the constituents were identified using authentic standards, whereas others were identified tentatively based on their absorption spectra and mass data. The composition of three of the samples was very similar, whereas the other two were quite different. In the three former samples, the three largest peaks could be assigned to Cu chlorin e6, Cu chlorin p6, and Cu isochlorin e4. In one of the two other samples, these three compounds were also among the largest peaks, whereas Cu chlorin e6 was a small peak in the last sample and Cu chlorin p6 was absent altogether. Porphyrins were also present in the samples, while except in one of the samples chlorins derived from chlorophyll b were largely absent.
Article
Chlorophyllin (CHL), a sodium/copper derivative of chlorophyll, has been used to treat a number of human conditions with no toxic effects being reported. Recent studies have described the anti-mutagenic activity of CHL in several short-term genotoxicity assays; however, this compound has not been reported to inhibit carcinogen-DNA binding in vivo, and it has yet to be evaluated as an anti-carcinogen in any species. The chemopreventive properties of CHL were studied in trout using inhibition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-DNA binding as an end-point. Chlorophyllin and AFB1 were coadministered in the diet, and carcinogen-DNA binding levels were determined in liver after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Linear increases in AFB1-DNA binding occurred with time of treatment at each CHL dose level (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 p.p.m.). Each increase in CHL dose produced a concomitant decrease in AFB1-DNA binding, resulting in a series of curves of decreasing slope. At the highest CHL dose level of 2000 p.p.m., AFB1-DNA binding was inhibited by 70%. These results suggest that CHL should be a potent inhibitor of AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in this model. In the Salmonella assay, CHL exhibited potent anti-mutagenic activity against AFB1 and two heterocyclic amines when incubated in the presence of trout liver activation systems. CHL also inhibited the mutagenic activity of AFB1-8,9-epoxide in the absence of a metabolic activation system. Dietary CHL substantially inhibited liver AFB1-DNA binding in vivo, even when AFB1 was given by i.p. injection to avoid direct AFB1-CHL interaction in the diet or gut. Collectively, these studies support a CHL inhibitory mechanism involving complex formation with the carcinogen in the gut coupled with electrophile scavenging or further complexing in the target organ.
Article
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest in sodium copper chlorophyllin (Cu-Chl) as a food colourant and supplement owing to its beneficial biological activities. Studies have revealed that this green pigment inhibits experimental carcinogenesis and interacts with proteins and genotoxic agents. Health-related activities have also been associated with the prevention of lipid peroxidation. However, intestinal absorption of this pigment has been considered insignificant, raising questions of whether eventual biological properties are related to pre- or post-absorptive actions. In this study, intestinal absorption of Cu-Chl and its appearance in serum and organs were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis in rat feeding experiments. The effect of ingested Cu-Chl on lipid peroxidation was analysed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and antioxidant enzyme activities in hepatic and brain tissues of oxidative stress-induced rats. RESULTS: The two main components of commercial Cu-Chl, namely Cu-chlorin e6 and Cu-chlorin e4, showed different digestive behaviours, and only Cu-chlorin e4 was found in serum, liver and kidneys. Antioxidant activity in vivo could be observed in brain and seemed to be related to in situ protection but not to antioxidant enzyme modulation. CONCLUSION: As at least one of the major components of Cu-Chl is effectively absorbed, further pharmacokinetic studies are encouraged to access absorption rates and the role of ingested copper chlorophyllins in mammals. Copyright
Article
The growth rate, survival, blood and urine factors, and ability to conceive, were normal in albino rats, who were fed up to three percent of potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin in their diets over their life span. There was no other indication of toxicity. No gross or microscopic pathology could be attributed to this diet. No metal toxicity was evident and photosensitization did not occur.
Article
The growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence associating diets rich in fruits and vegetables with prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer has stimulated interest in plant food phytochemicals as physiologically active dietary components. Chlorophyll and its various derivatives are believed to be among the family of phytochemical compounds that are potentially responsible for such associations. Dietary chlorophyll is predominantly composed of lipophilic derivatives including chlorophyll a and b (fresh fruits and vegetables), metal-free pheophytins and pyropheophytins (thermally processed fruits and vegetables), as well as Zn-pheophytins and Zn-pyropheophytins (thermally processed green vegetables). Water-soluble derivatives including chlorophyllides, pheophorbides, as well as a commercial-grade derivative known as sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) also contribute to the diversity of dietary chlorophyll derivatives. Although the use of chlorophyll derivatives, especially SCC, in traditional medical applications is well documented, it is perhaps the potential of chlorophyll as a cancer preventative agent that has drawn significant attention recently. Biological activities attributed to chlorophyll derivatives consistent with cancer prevention include antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, mutagen trapping, modulation of xenobiotic metabolism, and induction of apoptosis. Although most research has focused on commercial-grade SCC, the extent to which natural chlorophyll derivatives modulate biomarkers of cancer risk is also being explored. Recent research efforts have also included investigation of the impact of digestive factors on chlorophyll structure and bioaccessibility as a means to better understand the extent to which these pigments may be bioavailable in humans and therefore have more systemic impact in the prevention of cancer.
Article
Sodium/copper chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll that exhibits antimutagenic activity in several short-term genotoxicity assays and inhibits carcinogen-DNA binding in vivo. The effect of CHL pretreatment on the excretion of mutagens in the urine and feces of male Sprague-Dawley rats has been studied using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Animals were given 1 percent CHL in the drinking water for 2 days before administering a single dose of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ) by oral gavage. Rats pre-treated with CHL had higher levels of mutagens in the urine and feces compared with animals given IQ alone; 48 hr after IQ administration, the total mutagenic dose excreted was <4% in controls vs. 18% in rats given CHL. Mutagenicity required the presence of an activation system, was unaffected by treatment with β-glucuronidase or arylsulfatase, and in both the urine and feces was accounted for by increased elimination of unmetabolized parent compound. The results support the view that CHL may operate in vivo as a “desmutagen” or interceptor molecule, interacting with IQ in the gut and tissues, and reducing carcinogen bioavailability. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
These products are commercially obtained in the United States to the extent of about 80,000 pounds annually by extraction of about 32,000,000 pounds of alfalfa, for the most part by only three concerns. They are finding increasing use, not only in the manufacture of popular deodorants but also in medicinal preparations for treating anemia and hypertension, as a healing agent and in oral hygiene.
Article
Copper(II) chlorophyllin, consisting of copper(II) pheophorbide a, copper(II) chlorin e6, copper(II) rhodin g7 and copper (II) chlorin e4, was prepared and separated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The components of copper(II) chlorophyllin were determined on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column using a mobile phase of methanol-water (97:3, v/v) containing 1% (v/v) of acetic acid. Linear calibration plots were obtained for copper(II) chlorophyllin in the concentration range of 0–30 μg cm−3 with photometric detection at 407 or 423 nm. The detection limits of copper(II) pheophorbide a, copper(II) chlorin e6, copper(II) rhodin g7 and copper(II) chlorin e4 were 3.5, 1.5, 3.3 and 1.4 ng cm−3 with relative standard deviations (n = 10) of 1.8, 1.6, 5.2 and 3.6%, respectively. The reversed-phase HPLC method proposed here was demonstrated to be useful for the determination of the components of sodium copper(II) chlorophyllin
Article
Porphyrins which are widespread in nature can interfere with the actions of certain carcinogens and mutagens, and have also been used clinically in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors. Porphyrins such as chlorophyll, chlorophyllin (CHL) and hemin are known to inactivate various mutagens by forming complexes with them. Tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (TBAP) has been developed as a photosensitizer for PDT and its metal complex, MnTBAP has been shown to be efficacious in a variety of in vitro and in vivo oxidative stress models of human diseases. In the present study, we have found that TBAP and hemin exert concentration-related inhibition of his+ reversion in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and significantly reduced both incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors when topically applied prior to treatment of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in female ICR mice. Covalent DNA binding of DMBA in mouse skin was also significantly inhibited by topical application of TBAP or hemin as well as CHL. These results suggest the chemopreventive potential of compounds containing a porphyrin nucleus.
Article
The distribution of chlorophyll is considered, followed by an historical survey leading to the establishment of the chemical constitution of chlorophylls a and b. Their use as permitted food colours in many countries is discussed. A section gives the commercial production of coppered chlorophyll products for food colouring. Finally, the laboratory preparation, analysis and chromatographic examination of chlorophyll are described in some detail.
Aqueous and acetone extractions of some common vegetables inhibited the activation of 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene in the Ames Salmonella gene reversion mutagenesis/mammalian microsomal activation assay. The potency of the inhibitory activity was correlated with the chlorophyll content of the acetone extracts. The aqueous fractions contained sufficient histidine to interfere with the interpretation of the result. However, grouping the aqueous extracts from vegetables yielding low, medium, and high levels of histidine allowed comparison between antimutagenic activity and chlorophyll content. Increasing chlorophyll contents corresponded to increasing antimutagenic activities in all 3 groups. Sodium copper chlorophyllin demonstrated comparable inhibitory activity when compared at the same chlorophyll level.
Article
The antioxidant activity of six natural isolated chlorophyll derivatives and Cu-chlorophyllin was investigated by measuring their protective action against lipid oxidation. For this, the β-carotene bleaching method and the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay were employed. The results obtained by the β-carotene bleaching method showed that all chlorophyll derivatives presented a dose-dependent response. Pheophorbide b and pheophytin b were the strongest natural antioxidant compounds, whose activities were comparable to BHT. The high antioxidant activity found for pheophorbide b, in comparison to pheophorbide a, demonstrated the importance of the aldehyde group for functionality. On the other hand, by the DPPH assay, all natural pigments showed low antioxidant activity when compared to Trolox. Cu-chlorophyllin, tested by both methods, presented a higher antioxidant activity than that of natural chlorophylls, showing the importance of the nature of the chelated metal in the porphyrin ring. The mechanism of antioxidant activity displayed by the natural chlorophyll derivatives does not seem to be based on the ability to donate hydrogen but maybe, on the protection of linoleic acid against oxidation and/or preventing decomposition of hydroperoxides.
Article
Dietary fibers and chlorophyllin have shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects against co-administered carcinogens. To test the possibility of chemoprevention by such dietary supplements on subacutely induced acrylamide (ACR) toxicity, Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered 2.5% sodium alginate, 5% glucomannan, 5% digestion resistant maltodextrin, 2.5% chitin or 1% chlorophyllin in the diet, and starting one week later, co-administered 0.02% ACR in the drinking water for 4 weeks. For comparison, untreated control animals given basal diet and tap water were also included. Neurotoxicity was examined with reference to gait abnormalities and by quantitative assessment of histopathological changes in the sciatic and trigeminal nerves, as well as aberrant dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Testicular toxicity was assessed by quantitation of seminiferous tubules with exfoliation of germ cells into the lumen and cell debris in the ducts of the epididymides. Development of testicular toxicity as well as neurotoxicity was evident with ACR-treatment, but was not suppressed by dietary addition of fibers or chlorophyllin, suggesting no apparent beneficial influence of these dietary supplements on experimentally induced subacute ACR toxicity.
Article
Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, the ubiquitous pigment in green and leafy vegetables, whereas indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is present in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower. In rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), CHL and I3C reportedly promoted or enhanced the incidence of colon tumors when they were administered after, or during and after the carcinogen exposure, respectively. The same compounds given post-initiation inhibited the formation of colonic aberrant crypts induced by heterocyclic amines, such as 2-amino-3-methylimidazo&lsqb;4,5- f &rsqb;quinoline (IQ), but tumor suppression was not examined in the latter studies. In the present investigation, male F344 rats were treated with IQ or DMH during the first 5 weeks of a 1 year study; IQ was given in the diet (0.03%), whereas DMH was administered once a week by s.c. injection (20 mg/kg body wt). Beginning 1 week after the last dose of IQ or DMH until sacrifice, rats received 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1% (w/v) CHL in the drinking water or 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1% I3C in the diet. Compared with controls given carcinogen alone, 0.1% I3C treatment suppressed the multiplicity of IQ-induced colon tumors, and CHL inhibited in a dose-related manner the incidence of IQ-induced liver tumors. However, 0.001% CHL increased significantly the multiplicity of DMH-induced colon tumors while having no effect on the colon tumors induced by IQ. These results indicate that both the choice of carcinogen as well as the dose of the tumor modulator can be important determinants of the events that occur during post-initiation exposure to CHL or I3C. Based on the present findings and data in the literature, it is possible for CHL and I3C to act as tumor promoters or anticarcinogens, depending upon the test species, initiating agent and exposure protocol.
Article
It was first demonstrated in Salmonella that higher and lower concentrations of chlorophyllin (CHLN) may have effects in opposite directions, higher doses inhibiting and lower doses promoting the mutagenic activity of certain tobacco-related nitrosamines. Previous work of our group demonstrated that CHLN may have both a promoter and an inhibitory effect on mutagenesis in Drosophila. The present paper reviews the evidence obtained in our laboratory using gamma rays as the mutagenic agent, that higher and lower pretreatment concentrations of CHLN are associated with inhibitory and promoting effects, respectively, as in Salmonella. Employing the wing spot test, 48h larvae were pretreated with various concentrations of CHLN from 0 to 69 mM and then treated with 10 Gy gamma rays. With the highest concentration of CHLN, an approximate 54% reduction in mutagenesis was observed. At 35 mM a remnant of this inhibitory effect was found in that a significant decrease was limited to the twin spot category. Evidence of promotion was first seen at 4.3mM CHLN, an effect which persisted for the remaining five lower concentrations, the most pronounced evidence of promotion being found at the four lowest concentrations, 0.03-1.1 mM CHLN. It should be noted that no evidence of genotoxicity was found for CHLN alone, an observation consistent with the several reports in the literature. The results are taken as strong evidence that pretreatment with low concentrations of CHLN promotes DNA damage induced by gamma rays in somatic cells of Drosophila.
Article
Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll that exhibits cancer chemopreventive properties, but which also has been studied for its possible cancer therapeutic effects. We report here that human colon cancer cells treated with CHL accumulate in S-phase of the cell cycle, and this is associated with reduced expression levels of p53, p21, and other G(1)/S checkpoint controls. At the same time, E2F1 and E2F4 transcription factors become elevated and exhibit increased DNA binding activity. In CHL-treated colon cancer cells, bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments provided evidence for the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), a pivotal enzyme for DNA synthesis and repair, was reduced at the mRNA and protein level after CHL treatment, and the enzymatic activity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Immunoblotting revealed that expression levels of RR subunits R1, R2, and p53R2 were reduced by CHL treatment in HCT116 (p53(+/+)) and HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells, supporting a p53-independent mechanism. Prior studies have shown that reduced levels of RR small subunits can increase the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to clinically used DNA-damaging agents and RR inhibitors. We conclude that by inhibiting R1, R2, and p53R2, CHL has the potential to be effective in the clinical setting, when used alone or in combination with currently available cancer therapeutic agents.
Article
We hypothesized that chlorophyllin (CHLN) would reduce benzo[a]pyrene-DNA (BP-DNA) adduct levels. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed to 4 microM BP for 24 hr in the presence or absence of 5 microM CHLN, we measured BP-DNA adducts by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protocol included the following experimental groups: BP alone, BP given simultaneously with CHLN (BP+CHLN) for 24 hr, CHLN given for 24 hr followed by BP for 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP), and CHLN given for 48 hr with BP added for the last 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP+CHLN). Incubation with CHLN decreased BPdG levels in all groups, with 87% inhibition in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To examine metabolic mechanisms, we monitored expression by Affymetrix microarray (U133A), and found BP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, as well as up-regulation of groups of interferon-inducible, inflammation and signal transduction genes. Incubation of cells with CHLN and BP in any combination decreased expression of many of these genes. Using reverse transcription real time PCR (RT-PCR) the maximal inhibition of BP-induced gene expression, >85% for CYP1A1 and >70% for CYP1B1, was observed in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To explore the relationship between transcription and enzyme activity, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to measure the combined CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. BP exposure caused the EROD levels to double, when compared with the unexposed controls. The CHLN-exposed groups all showed EROD levels similar to the unexposed controls. Therefore, the addition of CHLN to BP-exposed cells reduced BPdG formation and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, but EROD activity was not significantly reduced.
Article
An antioxidative component in the commercial preparations of sodium copper chlorophyllin was isolated as its methyl ester. The methyl ester was identified as copper chlorin-e6 trimethyl ester by comparison with the authentic sample.
Article
The mechanism responsible for the modification of mutagenicity by chlorophyllin has been investigated using mutagenic compounds with different mechanisms of action, including the monofunctional alkylating agents, N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU) and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS); nitrosamines related to tobacco products, i.e. dimethyl-nitrosamine (DMN), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-2-butanone (NNK); the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and two of its metabolites, i.e. (-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (7,8-diol) and (+)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-oxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE); and a complex mutagenic mixture, an extract and subfractions of Swedish moist oral snuff (SMOS). Mutagenicity was monitored with the Ames Salmonella/microsome assays (STY) and hprt V79 point mutation assay (V79). The effects of chlorophyllin on the mutagenicity of the nitrosamines in the STY assays were found to be complex. In the presence of either NNN or NNK, low concentrations of chlorophyllin actually potentiated the mutagenicity > 2-fold. However, at higher, but still non-toxic concentrations, chlorophyllin decreased the mutagenicity of both compounds. The same type of dose-response relationship for chlorophyllin was indicated in the V79 assay system with DMN, although the effect was much weaker. The results with STY were further confirmed by replacing chlorophyllin with another porphyrin compound, hemin. In contrast, biliverdin, a porphyrin structure without the central metal ion, was unable to potentiate the mutagenicity of NNK in STY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Chlorophyllin (CHL), the water soluble sodium/copper salt of chlorophyll, was investigated for its effect on colorectal cancer risk in the rat-dimethyldrazine colon carcinogenesis model. Ninety weanling Fisher 344 male rats were treated with five weekly injections of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), 20 mg base/kg body weight. Rats had been previously divided into three groups, consuming either rat chow and water (Group I), rat chow and CHL 1.5 mM in water throughout the experiment (Group II), or water and rat chow during DMH injection, adding CHL 1.5 mM to the drinking water after completion of the DMH treatments. At sarcifice, the incidence and yield of colorectal tumors were as follows: Group I 10% and 0.1; Group II, 23% and 0.27; and Group III, 47% and 0.53 (p less than 0.005 for incidence and = 0.003 for yield). These data demonstrate that, though it is well established that CHL is an antimutagen, CHL in this colorectal carcinogenesis model acted as a tumor promoter.
Article
Using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay, we compared the antimutagenic activities of chlorophyllin, retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E against solvent extracts of coal dust, diesel emission particles, airborne particles, fried beef, and tobacco snuff. The results show that chlorophyllin inhibited 69% of the mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff and over 90% of that of the other 4 complex mixtures. Retinol inhibited 29-48% of the mutagenic activity of all 5 complex mixtures. beta-Carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E inhibited, if any, less than 39% of the activity of the complex mixtures studied. Vitamin C enhanced the mutagenicity of airborne particles. These results indicate that for these dietary and environmental complex mixtures chlorophyllin is a more effective antimutagen than retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E.
Article
Chlorophyllin, the sodium and copper salt of chlorophyll, was tested for its ability to inhibit the mutagenic activity of a variety of complex mixtures--extracts of fried beef, fried shredded pork, red grape juice, red wine, cigarette smoke, tobacco snuff, chewing tobacco, airborne particles, coal dust and diesel emission particles--in strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium. Chlorophyllin was highly effective against the mutagenicity (90-100% inhibition) of 8 of these 10 mixtures. The mutagenicity of the other 2 mixtures was inhibited 75-80% at the highest concentration of chlorophyllin studied. Control and reconstruction experiments showed that chlorophyllin was not toxic to Salmonella at the concentrations used. The antimutagenic activity of chlorophyllin was heat-stable. The mechanism of the antimutagenicity of chlorophyllin in these experiments is not known; however, chlorophyllin is an antioxidant. Scavenging of radicals and/or interaction with the active group of mutagenic compounds may be responsible for its antimutagenic activity. The data reported here indicate that chlorophyllin is potentially useful as an antimutagenic agent.
Article
The methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella mutagenicity test were described previously (Ames et al., 1975b). The present paper is a revision of the methods. Two new tester strains, a frameshift strain (TA97) and a strain carrying an ochre mutation on a multicopy plasmid (TA102), are added to the standard tester set. TA97 replaces TA1537. TA1535 and TA1538 are removed from the recommended set but can be retained at the option of the investigator. TA98 and TA100 are retained. We discuss other special purpose strains and present some minor changes in procedure, principally in the growth, storage, and preservation of the tester strains. Two substitutions are made in diagnostic mutagens to eliminate MNNG and 9-aminoacridine. Some test modifications are discussed.