Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity

School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 12/2011; 106 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S5-78. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511005460
Source: PubMed


Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many inflammatory markers than lean people do, and these are believed to play a role in causing insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. Blood concentrations of inflammatory markers are lowered following weight loss. In the hours following the consumption of a meal, there is an elevation in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the bloodstream, which is exaggerated in obese subjects and in type 2 diabetics. Both high-glucose and high-fat meals may induce postprandial inflammation, and this is exaggerated by a high meal content of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and partly ablated by inclusion of certain antioxidants or antioxidant-containing foods within the meal. Healthy eating patterns are associated with lower circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Among the components of a healthy diet, whole grains, vegetables and fruits, and fish are all associated with lower inflammation. AGE are associated with enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. SFA and trans-MUFA are pro-inflammatory, while PUFA, especially long-chain n-3 PUFA, are anti-inflammatory. Hyperglycaemia induces both postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation. Vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids decrease the circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. Potential mechanisms are described and research gaps, which limit our understanding of the interaction between diet and postprandial and chronic low-grade inflammation, are identified.

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Available from: Fred Brouns, Jan 29, 2015
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    • "Metabolic syndrome vascular pathologies and involve inflammation, endothelial dysfunction [5], and oxidative stress [6]. Few investigations have studied the effects of whole foods on inflammatory biomarkers [7] and foods rich in polyphenols seem to provide significant benefit to endothelial function [8]. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that whole soy food consumption is associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk in Asian populations [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ScopeSystemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Epidemiological evidence supports an association between whole soy food consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over study was to evaluate the effects of soy nut consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function and to assess whether isoflavone metabolism to secondary products, equol, and/or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), modifies these responses.Methods and resultsn = 17 adults at cardiometabolic risk were randomly assigned to the order of two snack interventions, soy nuts, and macronutrient-matched control snack, for four weeks each, separated by a two week washout period. Outcome measures included biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycemic control (ELISA and clinical analyzers), endothelial function, and arterial stiffness (peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT)), and isoflavone metabolites (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that consuming soy nuts improved arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index using PAT (p = 0.03), despite lack of improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. Addition of equol and/or ODMA production status as covariates did not significantly change these results.Conclusion Soy nuts when added to a usual diet for one month provide some benefit on arterial stiffness in adults at cardiometabolic risk.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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    • "The inflammation is characterized by an abnormal array of adipose tissue-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines such TNF-a and interleukins like IL-1b [30]. Liver inflammation seems to play an important role in these metabolic disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: The desert gerbil, Psammomys obesus, is a unique polygenic animal model of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes), and these pathological conditions resemble to those in human beings. In this study, the animals were fed ad libitum either a natural diet (ND) which contained desertic halophile plants or a standard laboratory diet (STD) or a diet which contained eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), hence, termed as EPA diet (EPAD). In EPAD, 50% of total lipid content was replaced by EPA oil. By employing real-time PCR, we assessed liver expression of key genes involved in fatty acid metabolism such as PPAR-α, SREBP-1c, LXR-α and CHREBP. We also studied the expression of two inflammatory genes, i.e., TNF-α and IL-1β, in liver and adipose tissue of these animals. The STD, considered to be a high caloric diet for this animal, triggered insulin resistance and high lipid levels, along with high hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α and CHREBP mRNA expression. TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA were also high in liver of STD fed animals. Feeding EPAD improved plasma glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol levels along with hepatic lipid composition. These observations suggest that EPA exerts beneficial effects in P. obesus.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochimie
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    • "Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and it for example decreases hepatic glucose production and has anti-inflammatory effects [12]. Dietary components including fatty acids (FA) could play a role in low-grade inflammation [5]. The biomarkers of dietary fat (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary and endogenous fatty acids could play a role in low-grade inflammation. In this cross-sectional study the proportions of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (EMFA) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and adiponectin were measured and their confounder-adjusted associations examined in 1373 randomly selected Finnish men aged 45–70 years participating in the population based Metsim study in Eastern Finland. The sum of n-6 EMFAs, without linoleic acid (LA), was positively associated with concentrations of CRP and IL-1Ra (rpartial=0.139 and rpartial=0.115, P<0.001). These associations were especially strong among lean men (waist circumference <94 cm; rpartial=0.156 and rpartial=0.189, P<0.001). Total n-3 EMFAs correlated inversely with concentrations of CRP (rpartial=−0.098, P<0.001). Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) correlated positively with CRP (rpartial=0.096, P<0.001). Cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) was associated with high concentrations of adiponectin (rpartial=0.139, P<0.001). In conclusion, n-6 EMFAs, except for LA, correlated positively with the inflammatory markers. Palmitoleic acid was associated with CRP, whereas, interestingly, its elongation product, cis-vaccenic acid, associated with anti-inflammatory adiponectin.
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