Article

Hypoxia Reduces Arylsulfatase B Activity and Silencing Arylsulfatase B Replicates and Mediates the Effects of Hypoxia

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2012; 7(3):e33250. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033250
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This report presents evidence of 1) a role for arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) in mediating intracellular oxygen signaling; 2) replication between the effects of ARSB silencing and hypoxia on sulfated glycosaminoglycan content, cellular redox status, and expression of hypoxia-associated genes; and 3) a mechanism whereby changes in chondroitin-4-sulfation that follow either hypoxia or ARSB silencing can induce transcriptional changes through galectin-3. ARSB removes 4-sulfate groups from the non-reducing end of chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and is required for their degradation. For activity, ARSB requires modification of a critical cysteine residue by the formylglycine generating enzyme and by molecular oxygen. When primary human bronchial and human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to 10% O(2) × 1 h, ARSB activity declined by ~41% and ~30% from baseline, as nuclear hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α increased by ~53% and ~37%. When ARSB was silenced, nuclear HIF-1α increased by ~81% and ~61% from baseline, and mRNA expression increased to 3.73 (± 0.34) times baseline. Inversely, ARSB overexpression reduced nuclear HIF-1α by ~37% and ~54% from baseline in the epithelial cells. Hypoxia, like ARSB silencing, significantly increased the total cellular sulfated glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) content. Both hypoxia and ARSB silencing had similar effects on the cellular redox status and on mRNA expression of hypoxia-associated genes. Transcriptional effects of both ARSB silencing and hypoxia may be mediated by reduction in galectin-3 binding to more highly sulfated C4S, since the galectin-3 that co-immunoprecipitated with C4S declined and the nuclear galectin-3 increased following ARSB knockdown and hypoxia.

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    • "ARSB has been implicated in reactive oxidative species (ROS) production and the activation of ROS-mediated inflammatory cascades [38]. ARSB also has the ability both to replicate and mediate the effects of hypoxia in human tissue [39]. PAI-1 was recently identified as a hypoxia inducible gene, and has long been established as a biomarker of inflammation [40]. "
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