Syndecan-4 Regulates Early Neutrophil Migration and Pulmonary Inflammation in Response to Lipopolysaccharide

Article (PDF Available)inAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 47(2):196-202 · March 2012with46 Reads
DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2011-0294OC · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Proteoglycans (PGs) and their associated glycosaminoglycan side chains are effectors of inflammation, but little is known about changes to the composition of PGs in response to lung infection or injury. The goals of this study were to identify changes to heparan sulfate PGs in a mouse model of gram-negative pneumonia, to identify the Toll-like receptor adaptor molecules responsible for these changes, and to determine the role of the heparan sulfate PG in the innate immune response in the lungs. We treated mice with intratracheal LPS, a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, to model gram-negative pneumonia. Mice treated with intratracheal LPS had a rapid and selective increase in syndecan-4 mRNA that was regulated through MyD88-dependent mechanisms, whereas expression of several other PGs was not affected. To determine the role of syndecan-4 in the inflammatory response, we exposed mice deficient in syndecan-4 to LPS and found a significant increase in neutrophil numbers and amounts of CXC-chemokines and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In studies performed in vitro, macrophages and epithelial cells treated with LPS had increased expression of syndecan-4. Studies performed using BEAS-2B cells showed that pretreatment with heparin and syndecan-4 decreased the expression of CXCL8 mRNA in response to LPS and TNF-α. These findings indicate that the early inflammatory response to LPS involves marked up-regulation of syndecan-4, which functions to limit the extent of pulmonary inflammation and lung injury.

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    • "SYN4-deficient animals have an increased risk of negative evolution when exposed to bacteria [19]. Finally, pre-treatment of lung epithelial cells with SYN4 was observed to inhibit the inflammatory properties of bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides and proinflammatory cytokines [11]. Data collected in humans regarding these proteins are scarce, and the real role of LIP2 and SYN4 as biomarkers for defining the etiology and severity of CAP is poorly defined. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background In this study, we evaluated the lipocalin-2 (LIP2) and syndecan-4 (SYN4) levels in children who were hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP in order to differentiate bacterial from viral infection. The results regarding the LIP2 and SYN4 diagnostic outcomes were compared with the white blood cell (WBC) count and C reactive protein (CRP) levels. Methods A total of 110 children <14 years old who were hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP were enrolled. Serum samples were obtained upon admission and on day 5 to measure the levels of LIP2, SYN4, and CRP as well as the WBC. Polymerase chain reaction of the respiratory secretions and tests on blood samples were performed to detect respiratory viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results CAP was considered to be due to a probable bacterial infection in 74 children (67.3 %) and due to a probable viral infection in 16 children (14.5 %). Overall, 84 children (76.4 %) were diagnosed with severe CAP. The mean values of the WBC count and the LIP2 and SYN4 levels did not differ among the probable bacterial, probable viral, and undetermined cases. However, the CRP serum concentrations were significantly higher in children with probable bacterial CAP than in those with probable viral disease (32.2 ± 55.5 mg/L vs 9.4 ± 17.0 mg/L, p < 0.05). The WBC count was the best predictor of severe CAP, but the differences among the studied variables were marginal. The WBC count was significantly lower on day 5 in children with probable bacterial CAP (p < 0.01) and in those with an undetermined etiology (p < 0.01). The CRP and LIP2 levels were significantly lower 5 days after enrollment in all of the studied groups, independent of the supposed etiology of CAP (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). No statistically significant variation was observed for SYN4. Conclusions Measuring the LIP2 and SYN4 levels does not appear to solve the problem of the poor reliability of routine laboratory tests in defining the etiology and severity of pediatric CAP. Currently, the CRP levels and WBC, when combined with evaluation of clinical data, can be used to limit the overuse of antibiotics as much as possible and to provide the best treatment to the patient.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "Whether proteoglycan families other than syndecans and glypicans are involved remains to be determined. Previously, in a mouse model of inflammation, a specific upregulation of SDC4 in the lungs has been detected [37]. Further analysis showed that TNF-α stimulation of endothelial cells upregulates SDC4 expression [38]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis has an important role in cancer progression where it contributes to metastatic dissemination of several cancer types (e.g., colon, breast, prostate). Tumor cell–derived CCL2 was shown to promote the recruitment of CCR2+/Ly6Chi monocytes and to induce vascular permeability of CCR2+ endothelial cells in the lungs. Here we describe a novel decoy protein consisting of a CCL2 mutant protein fused to human serum albumin (dnCCL2-HSA chimera) with enhanced binding affinity to glycosaminoglycans that was tested in vivo. The monocyte-mediated tumor cell transendothelial migration was strongly reduced upon unfused dnCCL2 mutant treatment in vitro. dnCCL2-HSA chimera had an extended serum half-life and thus a prolonged exposure in vivo compared with the dnCCL2 mutant. dnCCL2-HSA chimera bound to the lung vasculature but caused minimal alterations in the leukocyte recruitment to the lungs. However, dnCCL2-HSA chimera treatment strongly reduced both lung vascular permeability and tumor cell seeding. Metastasis of MC-38GFP, 3LL, and LLC1 cells was significantly attenuated upon dnCCL2-HSA chimera treatment. Tumor cell seeding to the lungs resulted in enhanced expression of a proteoglycan syndecan-4 by endothelial cells that correlated with accumulation of the dnCCL2-HSA chimera in the vicinity of tumor cells. These findings demonstrate that the CCL2-based decoy protein effectively binds to the activated endothelium in lungs and blocks tumor cell extravasation through inhibition of vascular permeability.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "These findings are consistent with the higher expression level of heparinase detected in lung biopsy samples of human patients with nonpulmonary sepsis [31]. The antiadhesive role of ESL in the lung is further supported by the observation that in syndecan-4 knockout mice, intratracheal LPS stimulation leads to threefold more neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage compared with wild-type mice [142]. The role of CD44 binding to hyaluronan in neutrophil recruitment into the lung is unclear [143][144][145][146]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil recruitment in most tissues is limited to postcapillary venules, where E- and P-selectins are inducibly expressed by venular endothelial cells. These molecules support neutrophil rolling via binding of PSGL-1 and other ligands on neutrophils. Selectins extend ≤38 nm above the endothelial plasma membrane, and PSGL-1 extends to 50 nm above the neutrophil plasma membrane. However, endothelial cells are covered with an ESL composed of glycosaminoglycans that is ≥500 nm thick and has measurable resistance against compression. The neutrophil surface is also covered with a surface layer. These surface layers would be expected to completely shield adhesion molecules; thus, neutrophils should not be able to roll and adhere. However, in the cremaster muscle and in many other models investigated using intravital microscopy, neutrophils clearly roll, and their rolling is easily and quickly induced. This conundrum was thought to be resolved by the observation that the induction of selectins is accompanied by ESL shedding; however, ESL shedding only partially reduces the ESL thickness (to 200 nm) and thus is insufficient to expose adhesion molecules. In addition to its antiadhesive functions, the ESL also presents neutrophil arrest-inducing chemokines. ESL heparan sulfate can also bind L-selectin expressed by the neutrophils, which contributes to rolling and arrest. We conclude that ESL has both proadhesive and antiadhesive functions. However, most previous studies considered either only the proadhesive or only the antiadhesive effects of the ESL. An integrated model for the role of the ESL in neutrophil rolling, arrest, and transmigration is needed. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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