Article

Fertile Green: Green Facilitates Creative Performance

Authors:
  • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich (LMU); Australian Catholic University (ACU)
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Abstract

The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

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... We found that green impaired the performance of incongruent trials in the color-attended task. According to color-in-context theory, green might affect cognitive performance due to the association between green and positive valence (Elliot and Maier 2014;Lichtenfeld et al. 2012). In fact, previous studies found mixed results about the effect of green on cognition in adults. ...
... In fact, previous studies found mixed results about the effect of green on cognition in adults. For example, Lichtenfeld et al. (2012) found that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhanced the creative performance relative to other colors. In another study (Sun et al. 2020), green had been showed to yield interference effect on an important Navon task. ...
... Secondly, our discussion about the interference effect of green was based on a marginal significant effect (p = 0.061). Given that mixed results about the effect of green on cognition in previous studies (Brooker and Franklin 2016;Lichtenfeld et al. 2012;Sun et al. 2020), more studies are required to address this issue. Overall, these results suggested that the color-meaning association has been established in children, and the presence of color would affect children's cognitive performance. ...
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Perception of color can affect cognition and behavior in humans. Although there has been increasing interest in the effect of red on cognitive performance in adults, little is known about how red affects children's cognition. The current study investigates the role of attention in the effect of red on conflict control among children aged 9-13 years, by the manipulation of selective attention (color-attended vs. color-unattended) to each color (red, green and grey) during the Flanker task with a blocked design. In the color-unattended block, participants judged the orientation of the central arrow (target) regardless of its color. In the color-attended block, participants selectively responded to the target with a pre-cued color before each block. The results showed that participants responded to the red targets faster than the grey targets for the congruent trials in the color-unattended block; however, they responded to the red and green targets slower than the grey targets for the incongruent trials in the color-attended block. These findings suggested that red also affected children's conflict control and the effect was modulated by the attention level of color.
... Natural light also has an effect on circadian cycles (Stone 2009;Viola et al. 2008) and colours impact behaviour at an unconscious level (Elliot and Maier 2014;Küller et al. 2009). These issues have been linked to various cognitive responses including concentration (focus) with the colour red, and increased creativity with blue (Hatta et al. 2002;Mehta & Zhu 2009) and green (Lichtenfeld et al. 2012). ...
... També es considera l'efecte de la llum natural en els cicles circadiaris (Stone 2009;Viola et al. 2008) i dels colors en el comportament a un nivell inconscient (Elliot i Maier 2014; Küller et al. 2009). Els colors s'han vinculat a diverses respostes cognitives, per exemple, la concentració (enfocament) al color vermell, i l'augment de la creativitat al blau (Hatta et al. 2002;Mehta & Zhu 2009) i el verd (Lichtenfeld et al. 2012). ...
... Los colores se han vinculado con diversas respuestas cognitivas. Por ejemplo, la concentración (enfoque), con el color rojo, y el aumento de la creatividad, con el azul (Hatta et al. 2002;Mehta y Zhu 2009) y el verde (Lichtenfeld et al. 2012). ...
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People's priorities have changed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, with impacts on architectural experiences and work spaces in particular as teleworking and technology have become increasingly relevant in this new reality. Moreover, there is increased interest in the impact that spaces have on health, productivity and well-being as variables such as lighting, acoustics, biophilia, shape, composition, size and more influence perception and emotional, cognitive and behavioural states. Evidence-based design makes it possible to scientifically understand information about the situations present before and after an action, providing a more holistic view of the phenomenon through parameterisation and producing an impact on decision-making as seen in the case of this study. This article presents a case study developed through a mixed methodology that combines theoretical research methods to gain scientific knowledge on the topic and trends in the sector, as well as empirical methods to study the specific context of the corporate headquarters at Tous in Manresa. As to the theoretical side of the paper, we have conducted a literature review in the WOS (Web of Science) database, complemented by two trend reports on the future of workspaces. Regarding the empirical study, we programmed three different sources to compile data from workers at different times, spaces and platforms. In parallel, we measured the parameters of the built environment in different locations over two work days. Among the results, the following stand out: the universe of relationships, evidenced by cross-disciplinary departments such as HR (human resources) and IT (computer technology), as well as the relationship between the Product, Sales, R&D and After-Sales departments; the status of employees, with neutral or positive values in cognitive states, and of the environment, space lacking colour and with little brightness and neutral in terms of light colour, atmosphere and ventilation; the detection of the positive aspects to improve and to incorporate; and the measurement of the physical parameters of the environment, high noise level, CO2 within the comfort range, high temperatures and over illuminated or poorly lit spaces, and their perception. Finally, we propose scientific evidence and trends arising from the relationship between objective and subjective data as a result of design strategies focused on people's well-being. These results are taken as the basis for making the changes implemented within a space.
... Color-hierarchies appear as processing advantages for particular colors and influence cognitive functions in humans, however, it is still unclear whether color-hierarchies are the unique properties of the human brain with advanced trichromatic vision and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Wavelengths of incoming lights are not only used for object recognition, but they also differentially affect emotional regulation, target selection, decision making, and executive control of human behavior (Changizi et al., 2006;Elliot, 2015;Elliot et al., 2007;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Meier et al., 2012;Tchernikov & Fallah, 2010). Recent studies in humans indicate significant advantages for particular colors in influencing cognitive functions, which manifest, for example, as an advantage for red in triggering response inhibition (Blizzard et al., 2016). ...
... Other models have emerged from psychophysical studies in humans suggesting that associative learning might play a crucial role in linking particular colors to particular objects (traffic light; elevator buttons, and blood), concepts (alarming, danger, peace, and openness), actions (cancelingstopping and responding), and emotional contexts (aversive, enticing, and romantic; Blizzard et al., 2016;Elliot, 2015;Mehta & Zhu, 2009;Meier et al., 2012). Colors might also be associated with injury, pain or social information conveyed through skin color regarding the emotional state, health, attractiveness, fertility, and hormonal changes (Hughes et al., 2015;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Meier et al., 2012). ...
... Such modulatory effects of the green stop-cues on ensuing behavior has not been reported in humans yet. The proposed models of color-hierarchy in driving avoidance-approach behavior in humans (Elliot, 2015;Mehta & Zhu, 2009) have been mainly focused on the red and blue colors, however in humans green color is associated with positive emotions and feelings (Dzulkifli & Mustafar, 2013;Ikeda, 2019) and creative behavior (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). Further studies in humans, comparing red, green and blue in the context of the same task would be necessary toreveal the order of color-hierarchy in each task and its correspondence with that in monkeys. ...
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Processing advantages for particular colors (color‐hierarchies) influence emotional regulation and cognitive functions in humans and manifest as an advantage of the red color, compared with the green color, in triggering response inhibition but not in response execution. It remains unknown how such color‐hierarchies emerge in human cognition and whether they are the unique properties of human brain with advanced trichromatic vision. Dominant models propose that color‐hierarchies are formed as experience‐dependent learning that associates various colors with different human‐made conventions and concepts (e.g., traffic lights). We hypothesized that if color‐hierarchies modulate cognitive functions in trichromatic nonhuman primates, it would indicate a preserved neurobiological basis for such color‐hierarchies. We trained six macaque monkeys to perform cognitive tasks that required behavioral control based on colored cues. Color‐hierarchies significantly influenced monkeys' behavior and appeared as an advantage of the red color, compared to the green, in triggering response inhibition but not response execution. For all monkeys, the order of color‐hierarchies, in response inhibition and also execution, was similar to that in humans. In addition, the cognitive effects of color‐hierarchies were not limited to the trial in which the colored cues were encountered but also persisted in the following trials in which there was no colored cue on the visual scene. These findings suggest that color‐hierarchies are not resulting from association of colors with human‐made conventions and that simple processing advantage in retina or early visual pathways does not explain the cognitive effects of color‐hierarchies. The discovery of color‐hierarchies in cognitive repertoire of monkeys indicates that although the evolution of humans and monkeys diverged in about 25 million years ago, the color‐hierarchies are evolutionary preserved, with the same order, in trichromatic primates and exert overarching effects on the executive control of behavior. Highlights Color hierarchies significantly modulate inhibition ability in macaque monkeys and manifest as an advantage for red color, compared with green and blue, in triggering response inhibition. Color hierarchies significantly modulate action execution in macaque monkeys and appear as an advantage for red color, compared with blue but not to green color, in triggering response execution. The cognitive effects of color hierarchies were not limited to the trial in which the colored cues were encountered but persisted in the following trials in which there were no colored cues on the visual scene. This indicates that simple processing advantage at retina or early visual pathways does not explain the cognitive effects of color hierarchies. Color hierarchies influence cognitive functions in trichromatic macaque monkeys, with the same order that is seen in humans. Our findings suggest that color hierarchies in primate cognition are not resulting from association of colors with human‐made conventions and instead are evolutionary preserved neurobiological adaptations.
... Positive green effects are also found in the absence of natural elements, as mere exposure to color clues (see [96] for a review). Exposure to green color was indeed correlated to better performances in logic [97] and creativity tasks [98], reduced perception of physical fatigue [99], and was associated with a general feeling of calm [100], in line with the results presented above. Green is often contrasted with red, as these are two antagonistic additive primary colors, which is instead related to greater aggressivity, sexual attraction, and better sports performance [101,102]. ...
... Elliot and Maier [96] hypothesized that colors might have a signal function to maximize animal fitness, eliciting automatic psycho-physiological reactions and orienting the individual behavior. Moreover, the green color is historically associated with positive meanings in popular culture, particularly with fertility, hope, and renewal [98]. Consistently with such studies, Palmer and Schloss [108] argued that human preference for specific tones is both an evolutionary effect and an association of ideas between colors and known objects. ...
Article
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Simulations of urban transformations are an effective tool for engaging citizens and enhancing their understanding of urban design outcomes. Citizens’ involvement can positively contribute to foster resilience for mitigating the impact of climate change. Successful integration of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) into the urban fabric enables both the mitigation of climate hazards and positive reactions of citizens. This paper presents two case studies in a southern district of Milan (Italy), investigating the emotional reaction of citizens to existing urban greenery and designed NBS. During the events, the participants explored in Virtual Reality (VR) (n = 48) and Augmented Reality (AR) (n = 63) (i) the district in its current condition and (ii) the design project of a future transformation including NBS. The environmental exploration and the data collection took place through the exp-EIA© method, integrated into the mobile app City Sense. The correlations between the color features of the viewed landscape and the emotional reaction of participants showed that weighted saturation of green and lime colors reduced the unpleasantness both in VR and AR, while the lime pixel area (%) reduced the unpleasantness only in VR. No effects were observed on the Arousal and Sleepiness factors. The effects show high reliability between VR and AR for some of the variables. Implications of the method and the benefits for urban simulation and participatory processes are discussed.
... Perception based experimental work of Elliot and Aarts (2011), Feltman and Elliot (2011) as well as Luck (2004) lent further credence to the red-superiority effect. Elliot and Maier (2007) bemoaned the absence of theoretical foundation in psychological color effects and proposed their color-in-context (CIC) theory (Elliot & Maier, 2012). First, they argued that some colors carry a unique meaning, acquired through biological orientation reflected in evolutionary processes. ...
... For example, Sorokowski et al (2014) found a black superiority effect. The color green was also found to have a unique psychological influence (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). Also of concern is prominent teams wearing claret uniforms (e.g., Aston Villa, Burnley, West Ham) being lumped into the "other" category while being a shade of red (Horiguchi & Iwamatsu, 2018). ...
Article
Attrill et al. (2008) conducted a far-reaching study in elite English soccer demonstrating in archival research that from 1946 to 2003 seasons, teams wearing red uniforms were more likely to win championships than teams in other uniform colors, won more at home and had a higher average league position (relative to cross-city rivals). Their study was one of only very few that extended the color-in-context theory (Elliot & maier, 2007) to team, ball-oriented long-duration sports. The current investigation returns to the red superiority hypothesis in professional soccer due to weaknesses in the original evidence for this hypothesis. We conducted two studies testing the red superiority hypothesis in professional soccer. In Study 1a, we first reanalyzed the original data and tested the strength of evidence in favor of the red superiority hypothesis. We then updated the English premier league data (1992-2018) and tested uniform color effects on game outcomes. In Study 2, we attempted to broaden the scope of Study 1 and increase statistical power by testing the red superiority effect during the last 20 years of six major European Soccer leagues (NOS
... A potential explanation for the mixed and also negative effects of the color red lies in the inferences that individuals make when exposed to this particular color. Colors carry specific meanings (Labrecque & Milne, 2012;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012), and the color red carries not only positive symbolic meanings, such as love or the perception of being up-todate (Bellizzi, Crowley, & Hasty, 1983), but also negative meanings, such as being associated with the negative notions of transgression (e.g., red traffic lights and stop signs) and mistakes (e.g., teachers often use red to highlight students' mistakes; Elliot et al., 2007). Therefore, because of these potential negative meanings, being exposed to the color red on a specific source (e.g., a product, logo, or packaging) may lead people to make negative inferences about this source. ...
... The color green varies in meanings, many positive, whereas the meanings of red are mostly negative. For example, green can symbolize concepts related to sustainability, growth, life, and hope (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). As such, green may not lead to the same increase in guilt as red. ...
Article
The color red widely appears on food packages. However, understanding of the effects of this color on consumers in the context of food packages remains limited. In particular, the literature stresses the need for a better grasp of the underlying mechanisms that explain the effects of this color when used on food packages. Building on the psychological literature on colors and emotions, this research argues that because the color red carries negative meanings related to transgression, it may prompt consumers to feel some guilt about their consumption. Three studies demonstrate the indirect effect of the color red (versus green or blue) on guilt and eventually on choice through the mediating role of negative cognitive associations. The results also highlight the moderating role of perception of the food product as unhealthy, with the color red leading to stronger negative associations and guilt for unhealthy (vs. healthy) products.
... However, these studies yielded few findings between the psychological impact of indirect experiences with nature, such as biomorphic forms and patterns, materials, and natural images that could enhance creativity and productivity (Joye, 2007;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). Schatz and Bowers (2005) investigated how color design in the workplace influences worker moods, performance, productivity, and satisfaction. ...
... 2007;Herzog & Kropscott, 2004;Joye, 2007) Material connection with nature (Joye, 2007;Koga & Iwasaki, 2013;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Nyrud et al., 2014;Schatz & Bowers, 2005;Tsunetsugu et al., 2007;Reddy et al., 2012) Presence of natural images (Beute & de Kort, 2013;Brown et al., 2013;Chang & Chen, 2005;Felsten, 2009;Herzog, & Kropscott, 2004;Hunter et al., 2010;Kjellgren & Buhrkall, 2010;Lee et al, 2015;Nyrud et al., 2014;Pheasant et al., 2010;Ulrich et al., 1991;White et al., 2010;White & Gatersleben, 2011;Van den Berg et al., 2003) Simulated natural light and air (Reddy et al., 2012) Prospect and refuge (Gatersleben & Andrews, 2013) Mobility & Transitional spaces (Beute & de Kort, 2013;Hartig et al., 2003;Van den Berg et al., 2003) Place (Küller & Lindsten, 1992;Korpela et al., 2009) Risk/Peril (Herzog & Kropscott, 2004;Herzog & Bryce, 2007) Promoting Attention restoration Simulated natural light and air (Reddy et al., 2012) Prospect and refuge (Gatersleben & Andrews, 2013) Mobility & Transitional spaces (Beute & de Kort, 2013;Hartig et al., 2003;Van den Berg et al., 2003) Place (Küller & Lindsten, 1992;Korpela et al., 2009) Risk/Peril (Herzog & Kropscott, 2004;Herzog & Bryce, 2007) Overall happiness Dijkstra et al., 2008;Knight & Haslam, 2010;Larsen et al., 1998;Nieuwenhuis et al., 2014;Qin et al., 2014;Shoemaker et al., 1992;Thomsen et al., 2011) Presence of Animals (Ratcliffe et al., 2013;Windhager et al., 2011) Dynamic &diffuse light/season (Küller & Lindsten, 1992;Nicklas & Bailey, 1996) Biomorphic forms & patterns (Hagerhall et al., 2004;Herzog & Bryce. 2007;Herzog & Kropscott, 2004;Joye, 2007) Material connection with nature (Joye, 2007;Koga & Iwasaki, 2013;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Nyrud et al., 2014;Schatz & Bowers, 2005;Tsunetsugu et al., 2007;Reddy et al., 2012) Presence of natural images (Beute & de Kort, 2013;Brown et al., 2013;Chang & Chen, 2005;Felsten, 2009;Herzog, & Kropscott, 2004;Hunter et al., 2010;Kjellgren & Buhrkall, 2010;Lee et al, 2015;Nyrud et al., 2014;Pheasant et al., 2010;Ulrich et al., 1991;White et al., 2010;White & Gatersleben, 2011;Van den Berg et al., 2003) Simulated natural light and air (Reddy et al., 2012) Prospect and refuge (Gatersleben & Andrews, 2013) Mobility & Transitional spaces (Beute & de Kort, 2013;Hartig et al., 2003;Van den Berg et al., 2003) Place (Küller & Lindsten, 1992;Korpela et al., 2009) Risk/Peril (Herzog & Kropscott, 2004;Herzog & Bryce, 2007) State of consciousness 2 Satisfaction (job, workplace) 2 1 Self-esteem 2 2 Motivation 1 Self-confidence 2 Table 3. (continued) Note. 1 = Indicates a relationship between the biophilic patterns, even though outcomes are not yet directly supported by empirical studies; these may be influenced by biophilic patterns. 2 = Indicates a relationship between biophilic patterns and outcomes that is supported by empirical studies ( < 5 papers). ...
... In light of the color-in-context model, seeing green things might elicit approach motivation and positive emotion and then affect cognition and behavior. Lichtenfeld et al. (2012) tested the effect of color (green, red, blue, and gray) on creativity, and the result indicated that green facilitated creativity. It was approach motivation elicited by green that played an important role in creativity task, the authors held. ...
... Inconsistent with our expectation, this result might suggest that, when using compound letter stimuli, green cannot facilitate global processing although green is often associated with safety, life, and hope, providing us with comfortable and calm feeling. According to previous theory, watching green might elicit approach motivation Lichtenfeld et al., 2012), which could broaden attention scope (Förster et al., 2006). However, this study showed that both larger attention scope and comfortable feeling seemed unable to promote global processing. ...
Article
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This study explored whether the color of letters could influence letter discrimination task performances and whether this effect of color could be modulated by processing level (global vs. local) and attention level of color (color-attended vs. color-unattended). We used the Navon letters in red, green, or white as stimuli at a relatively small (Experiment 1) or large visual angle (Experiments 2, 3, and 4). Each experiment included two tasks: color-attended task in which participants were told to respond only to target letters in a designated color; color-unattended task in which color was task-irrelevant. Experiment 1 found that the responses to red stimuli were significantly faster than those to the other color stimuli in the color-attended task. In Experiment 2, the same pattern occurred only at the local level in the color-attended task. Experiments 3 and 4 further controlled the brightness and chroma of stimuli and the results replicated the enhancement effect of red at the local level in the color-attended task and demonstrated an interference effect of red and green in the color-unattended task. These results suggested that red facilitated letter discrimination at the local processing level, reflecting the effect of avoidance motivation evoked by red on cognition and behavior which was consistent with color-in-context model. Moreover, this study found that the effect of color was modulated by attention level of color, and the interference effect of color in the color-unattended task confirmed that the color effect might mainly arise from controlled processes but not automatic processes.
... aggressiveness, danger, failure) 30-32 , leading to avoidance behaviors 33,34 . By contrast, green is considered to prompt positive associations [35][36][37] . This implicit color-emotion association has already been tested in the context of EFE processing, with emotional faces being displayed either simultaneously with a color background [38][39][40][41][42][43] or after a background used as a priming cue 43,44 or even with the manipulation of the color of the face as such 45,46 . ...
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Studies of the impact of face masks on emotional facial expression recognition are sparse in children. Moreover, to our knowledge no study has so far considered mask color (in adults and in children), even though this esthetic property is thought to have an impact on information processing. In order to explore these issues, the present study looked at whether first- and fifth-graders and young adults were influenced by the absence or presence (and color: pink, green, red, black, or white) of a face mask when asked to judge emotional facial expressions of fear, anger, sadness, or neutrality. Analysis of results suggested that the presence of a mask did affect the recognition of sad or fearful faces but did not influence significantly the perception of angry and neutral faces. Mask color slightly modulated the recognition of facial emotional expressions, without a systematic pattern that would allow a clear conclusion to be drawn. Moreover, none of these findings varied according to age group. The contribution of different facial areas to efficient emotion recognition is discussed with reference to methodological and theoretical considerations, and in the light of recent studies.
... For example, Mehta and Zhu [51] found that a red colored screen background improved task performance in which details were important, while a blue background improved creative task performance. This result was replicated by Lichtenfeld, et al. [52], who also showed a positive effect of green compared with white, grey, red and blue. Important to mention is that in our study, the pictures were used as isolated stimuli separately from the cognitive tasks, while in the studies described above, the colors co-occurred with the task stimuli (background colors). ...
Article
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According to attention restoration theory observing nature has restorative effects on cognitive components, such as working memory, after a cognitive depleting task. Additionally, urban environments are thought to have no effect or even a negative effect on cognitive restoration. Previous research has confirmed that observing actual, as well as digitally presented nature sceneries leads to more restoration of working memory capacity (WMC) than observing (digital) urban sceneries. To further investigate these findings, we conducted an experiment with 72 university students as participants. After a WMC depleting task, participants observed either digitally presented nature scenery, urban scenery or no scenery, and subsequently performed a digit span test, which was used to measure restoration of WMC. Results indicated significant higher performance on the digit span test for those who observed nature scenery in comparison to those who observed urban scenery or no scenery, thereby replicating results from previous research. Observing urban scenery was neither harmful nor helpful in terms of cognitive restoration compared to observing no scenery. These findings provide a foundation for implementing a brief intervention of observing nature in academic settings to facilitate the restoration of WMC.
... The color green may positively impact thinking, relationships, and physical health. Studies have shown that green may inspire creativity (Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier & Pekrun, 2012). ...
Article
Color is a powerful communication element in branding. People reacts to colors from a psychological and deeply personal subconscious level through association. According to research, 93% of buyers focus on the visual appearance when buying a product, and 80% of consumers believe color is responsible for brand recognition. This paper addresses how choosing the right colors in branding design influences the company image, consumer perceptions, and purchase decisions.
... • Seeing shades of green, even very briefly, has been tied to enhanced creative performance (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Studente et al., 2016). • Colours that are relatively unsaturated but light have been linked to viewer energy levels and moods consistent with creative performance (i.e., the positive, slightly energized moods described earlier in this document) (Valdez and Mehrabian, 1994;Martens, 2011). ...
... • Seeing shades of green, even very briefly, has been tied to enhanced creative performance (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Studente et al., 2016). • Colours that are relatively unsaturated but light have been linked to viewer energy levels and moods consistent with creative performance (i.e., the positive, slightly energized moods described earlier in this document) (Valdez and Mehrabian, 1994;Martens, 2011). ...
... Green is a colour which is prominent in our natural world, and is most closely linked with life, growth, and freshness. Green wavelengths are short and promote relaxation while also boosting internal focus and concentration (Elliot & Maier, 2014) and can benefit creative performance (Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier, & Pekrun, 2012). Green is commonly used by marketers in business areas such as finance, health, and wellness, but it is also useful for marketing environmentally friendly items (Cerrato, 2012). ...
Chapter
The chapter delves into understanding change in use of colours in advertising on social media by companies pre and post COVID pandemic. The use of colours play a vital role in influencing customers affectively through peripheral route to persuasion. But COVID had led many companies rethink their strategies of branding and delve deeper to retain and attract customers.
... Why does good design or beauty attract us? German researchers found in 2012 that just glancing at shades of green can boost creativity and motivation (Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier and Pekrun, 2012). It is not surprising from an evolutionary perspective that we associate green shades with life, nourishment and vegetation. ...
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Golden Ratio and Fibonacci numbers have attracted attention from mathematicians, artists, architects, sculptors and musicians for centuries. Golden Ratio was associated with Ancient Greek art and architecture, and named after Greek sculptor Phidias (4th and 5th Century BC). Fibonacci sequence which is closely related to Golden Ratio was discovered by an Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (1170-1250) in 1202. Those two phenomena have created a considerably extensive literature but the studies mainly focused on documenting where we encounter them in human body, in nature, in plants, in animal kingdom, in art and architecture. Golden Ratio was also known as Divine Proportion since commonly observed in nature. Yet, there have been few arguments or attempts to explain real reasons behind the existence of these numbers in nature and in universe. This study documented literature and collected puzzling pieces from various fields such as ancient philosophers, Far East philosophies, Western philosophy, mysticism, economy, sociology, religious scriptures, botany, psychology, astronomy, physics, mathematics and evolutionary approaches. This study aimed to construct a philosophical theory based on a physics phenomenon that widely influenced many fields including art. The information evolved through literature was used to construct an explanation why Golden Ratio and Fibonacci sequence existed in the universe. Starting from Heraclitus (535-475 BC) of Ephesus, there have been claims that all existence is in a constant flow (Panta rhei) motion. This study suggested Golden Ratio and Fibonacci numbers as evidences of a constant universal flow motion which could further be supported by many empirical evidences from the literature.
... The human brain functionally responds to sensory patterns and elements found in the natural environment. When interacting with nature, concentration, thinking, and creativity are improved, and factors related to memory decline are suppressed [31,32]. Such effects are similarly shown in VR-based virtual natural environments [33], and are mainly presented quantitatively through EEG responses and cognitive function tests [34,35]. ...
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There has been increasing academic interest in biophilic design in response to recent environmental and climate change issues, including the COVID-19 pandemic. However, discussions of the utilization of digital technology in providing universal access to nature, and opportunities to experience more diverse nature, are lacking. This study aimed to compare and analyze major theoretical systems for biophilic experiences in a residential environment, and to propose a hybrid framework that combines physical and digital design techniques for comparison and analysis. This paper discusses framework application strategies in line with scales of residential environments. Based on a systematic literature review, this study integrated and derived key elements of biophilic experience for a better quality of life in a modern residential environment and proposed a hybrid framework and strategy based on this. As a result, a hybrid framework of 15 integrated factors for three biophilic experiences was derived, and various strengths and potential opportunities were identified in terms of application depending on the scales. At the unit scale, it was found that the well-being and health of residents improved; at the building scale, the potential for sustainability was highlighted; at the complex scale, there was a contribution to higher residential competitiveness in multi-dimensional aspects. In particular, the biophilic experience-based hybrid framework in this study provided insights into addressing the weaknesses and threats discussed in the existing biophilic design.
... flowers, painted walls, colored curtains and floors) was customizable. The color could be chosen between red/orange [50] and green/blue [45,52]. • Main Lighting: Both brightness and color temperature of the main spotlight illuminating the whole scene could be adjusted. ...
... Kreatives Denken kann außerdem durch externe Faktoren beeinflusst werden. Seitens visueller Einflüsse zeigten sich beispielsweise für die Farbe Grün förderliche Effekte auf das kreative Potenzial von Personen (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). Auch der Grad der Ordnung bzw. ...
Thesis
Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Fragestellung, welches Potenzial sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Embodiment-Theorien für die Pädagogik ergeben kann. Embodiment bzw. Embodied Cognition (dt. verkörperte Kognition) beschreibt eine Sammlung interdisziplinärer Ansätze innerhalb der neueren Kognitionswissenschaften, die kognitive Prozesse nicht rein geistig verorten, sondern als ein Zusammenspiel aus Geist, Körper und Umwelt betrachten. Im Rahmen der Einleitung findet zunächst eine kurze Darstellung des Forschungsbedarfs und eine Erläuterung der Untersuchungsgegenstände statt. Um eine theoretische Basis für die vorliegende Arbeit zu schaffen, werden im Anschluss die Grundgedanken von Embodiment-Ansätzen kontrastierend zu klassischen Kognitionstheorien vorgestellt. Nach einer allgemeinen theoretischen Einführung zu Embodiment erfolgt eine Überleitung zum Bereich der Pädagogik und damit eine Untersuchung der Thematik hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für Lehr- und Lernprozesse. Vor dem Hintergrund der Fragestellung, ob Embodiment zu einem Paradigmenwechsel in der Pädagogik führen kann, bestand das Ziel der Arbeit zum einen darin, bisherige (aus pädagogischer Sicht relevante) Erkenntnisse zu Embodiment aufzubereiten und basierend darauf, anhand zweier empirischer Untersuchungen, konkrete Effekte von Embodiment zu erfassen und hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für Lehr- und Lernkontexte zu diskutieren. Dieses Ziel wurde schrittweise anhand dreier Publikationen verfolgt, welche den Kern der vorliegenden Dissertation bilden und inhaltlich aufeinander aufbauen. Publikation 1 („Embodiment – Die unterschätzte Rolle des Körpers im Lernprozess: Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Schulpädagogik?“) umfasst eine Sammlung und Systematisierung ausgewählter Einzelbefunde der Embodiment-Forschung auf Theorieebene, wobei der Fokus auf der Beleuchtung bisheriger Forschung aus schulpädagogischer Perspektive liegt. Publikation 1 schließt mit dem Fazit, dass sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen zu Embodiment wichtige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für Lehr- und Lernprozesse ergeben können. Publikation 1 ist außerdem der Ausgangspunkt für Publikationen 2 und 3, zwei in Kapitel 3.2 dargelegte empirische Untersuchungen. In Publikation 2 („I sat, I felt, I performed: Posture Effects on Mood and Cognitive Performance“) erfolgt eine theoretische und empirische Auseinandersetzung mit Effekten von Stimmungen und Körperhaltungen auf Aspekte kognitiver Leistung (Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit und -genauigkeit in einem Aufmerksamkeits- und Konzentrationstest). Hierbei liegt der Fokus auf einer vergleichenden Betrachtung aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen. Entgegen den meisten bisherigen Untersuchungen bestand der Anspruch unter anderem in einer weitgehend impliziten Manipulation der Körperhaltung. Basierend auf vorangegangener Literatur, galt es die Hypothesen zu testen, dass 1) aufrechte Körperhaltungen mit positiverer Stimmung korrelieren, 2) aufrechte Körperhaltungen zu einer höheren Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit in einem Konzentrationstest führen, 3) gebeugte Körperhaltungen hingegen eine genauere Bearbeitung fördern sowie, dass 4) Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kognitive Leistung durch Stimmung mediiert werden. Die Teilnehmenden bearbeiteten hierfür einen Konzentrationstest sowie einen Fragebogen zu ihrer Befindlichkeit. Es zeigte sich, dass Personen in der aufrechten Bedingung eine positivere Stimmung empfanden und verglichen mit der gebeugten Bedingung bei dem Konzentrationstest schneller arbeiteten. Effekte auf die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit ließen sich jedoch in der vorliegenden Stichprobe nicht beobachten. Auch eine Mediation der Effekte von Körperhaltung auf Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit durch Stimmung ist in den Daten nicht zu erkennen. Es werden daher mögliche Limitationen und alternative Erklärungen diskutiert. In Publikation 3 („Offene Haltung, offenes Denken? Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kreative Leistung“) galt es, basierend auf dem Studiendesign von Publikation 2, Effekte aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen auf kreative Denkprozesse zu untersuchen. Zur Erfassung des kreativen Denkens wurde sich für einen Test zu divergentem Denken entschieden. Die Daten lassen darauf schließen, dass aufrechte Körperhaltungen nicht nur positive Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit zeigen, sondern außerdem auch förderliche Effekte auf die Ideenflüssigkeit und Originalität bei kreativem Denken haben. Auch hier ließ sich jedoch keine Mediation durch Stimmung erkennen, mögliche alternative Hintergründe werden diskutiert. Zusammenfassend wird, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Dissertation, postuliert, dass Ansätze des Embodiments im Rahmen von Lehr- und Lernprozessen stärkere Berücksichtigung finden sollten.
... The color green is linked to positive emotions such as nature, comfort, and peace [51,52] and is characterized by low anxiety, comfort, and stability [53]. Furthermore, green increases creativity compared to other colors [54], and reduces fatigue and anxiety as well as producing a positive psychological response characterized by high vitality and relaxation [55]. In fact, a previous study found participant's preferred green plants over plants of other colors, and that looking at green plants reduced prefrontal cortex cerebral blood flow, which was effective in promoting positive reactions such as relaxation and vitality [56]. ...
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This study was designed to assess the physiological and psychological benefits of visually looking at foliage plants in adults. This study involved 30 adults in their 20s (11 males, 19 females), and using a crossover design, participants looked at four different types of visual stimuli, namely, real plants, artificial plants, a photograph of plants, and no plants for 5 min. Brain waves were measured while viewing each type of plant, and a subjective evaluation of emotions was performed after each visual stimulus. Semantic differential methods (SDM) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used for the subjective evaluation. During the real plant visual stimulation, relative theta (RT) power spectrum was increased in the bilateral occipital lobes, while relative high beta (RHB) power spectrum was reduced in the left occipital lobe, indicating a reduction in stress, anxiety, and tension. The subjective survey results revealed that when looking at real plants, the participants exhibited significantly higher “comfort,” “natural,” and “relaxed” scores as well as an increase in positive mood conditions. In conclusion, among the four types of plants, visual stimulation with real plants induces physiological relaxation in adults and has a positive psychological effect.
... The colour green has the meaning of fertility, success and growth. All of them have been considered as carefully as possible based on the scientific background (Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). The bumper video from Benjor Village shows the natural potential, culinary potential, and community activities in Benjor Village (Satria 2009; Damiasih and Isdarmanto 2020). ...
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Beach tourism and seaside settlements are perennially popular. Nature's potential as well as the coast's characteristic hybrid art may always entice visitors. The settlements at the foot of the mountain, on the other hand, have their own unique environmental, gastronomic, and cultural identities. Bedugul village (Indonesia), Albarracin village (Spain), Reine village (Norway), Wengen village (Switzerland), Panglipuran village (Indonesia), Hallstatt village (Austria), Patiangan village (Indonesia), and Ora village (Indonesia) are some of the names given to the villages in Indonesia (Greece). They're all mountain communities that have successfully marketed themselves as tourist destinations at the foot of the mountain. The goal of this research is to come up with a viable approach for village branding at the foot of the mountain. This study is a hybrid of action research and development research, with a focus on tourism village acceleration. The Benjor village residents, Benjor village administrators, and a sample of potential visitors were polled for information. The community around Benjor village, the Malang Regency community, and persons outside the Malang Regency were all surveyed for potential visitors. Individual interviews or focus groups, environmental observations, and archives of village office records and Malang Regency government documents were used to gather data. The purpose of this study is to understand the tourism village process before and after therapy. Mining potential excavation yields eleven environmental assets in the form of waterfalls, five culinary assets in the form of chilli sauce, grilled rice, and other similar dishes, and three cultural assets in the form of hadrah, jaranan, and dancing. The development research yielded seven goods that Benjor villagers found to be the most effective in terms of branding. For mountain slope communities, the greatest method is to combine branded items that showcase their artistic, natural, and gastronomic potential.
... In this study, the environmental stimuli presented were black and white comic style vignettes. In the literature, the color green is closely related to the perception of nature and environmental preference (see Lichtenfeld et al. 2012 for a review). In our study, even in the absence of the green color characteristic of nature studies, the effect of naturalness was significant. ...
Article
The environment determines the way in which people interpret social life. In fact, depending on the context, multiple potential attitudes can be evoked by an attitude object. The purpose of this research is to test whether the perception of uncivil behavior and its perpetrators is affected by the physical environment in which this behavior is framed. Specifically, we explore the role of two environmental dimensions – naturalness and openness – in the way we evaluate behaviors that transgress social norms and their agents. In a pilot study, participants (N = 124) considered counter-normative behaviors to be more uncivil and their perpetrators to be less human in natural contexts. In the main study, participants (N = 199) evaluated the naturalness and openness dimensions separately and it was found that naturalness is the one that most influences the negative perception of uncivil behavior and the only one that has an effect on the dehumanization process. The results of this research support the idea that the physical environment plays an important role in the perception of uncivil behavior and the dehumanized view of its agent. The importance of the results within the fields of deviant behavior, social psychology, and environmental psychology are discussed.
... Likewise, green has positive effects on several aspects of consumer behavior. The association of green with fertility or vegetation may provide an explanation for these positive effects [8]. ...
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Recently, we have seen energy-efficient light-emitting diode (LED) light bulbs rapidly replace incandescent ones. However, results of new research are indicative of adverse health impacts of LED lighting, which is characterized by enriched blue light. Our study aims to reveal whether using color priming by attaching red/green traffic-light icons on light bulbs influences consumers’ preferences of light bulbs. We conducted a field study simulating the buying process, in which participants (N = 572) were presented with LED and carbon incandescent bulbs. We alternately displayed two pairs of bulbs: (1) in their original packaging and (2) in packages marked with traffic light icons (red = LED). Our results confirm that traffic light icons significantly (p < 0.01) increase the odds of choosing the healthier carbon bulb. The results highlight the benefits of attaching traffic light icons to light bulb packaging, helping consumers to make more health-conscientious purchasing decisions. Nowadays, this study’s contribution is more significant due to COVID-19 restrictions and stay-at-home policies, since people work or study remotely, which increases their exposure to household lighting. These results may incentivize policymakers to enforce adding traffic light icons to light bulb packaging, thus encouraging LED light bulb manufacturers to reduce the blue light component in order to improve the health aspect of their bulbs.
... Aslam [63] found that green and yellow are associated with luck and good taste. Green is also associated with nature [60,64,65], environmental conscious consumption and sustainability [66,67], ruggedness [39] and a healthy lifestyle [68]. Blue is associated with competence, purple with luxury and black with sophistication and glamour [69]. ...
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This review aims to tackle the challenge of understanding how visual design cues can affect behavioural outcomes in a food context. The review answers two key questions: (1) What are the effects of the most important visual design cues on behavioural outcomes and how can they be explained? (2) What are the research gaps in this area? We start from a comprehensive taxonomy of visual design cues delineating the most important visual design cues. Next, we evaluate the extant research based on a structured, narrative literature review on visual design cues in the food domain. We differentiate between object processed and spatially processed visual design cues in food choice contexts and show how they affect behavioural outcomes through a range of psychological processes (attention, affective-, cognitive-and motivational reactions, food perceptions and attitudes). We end with recommendations which take into account the current food store context, the state-of-art in measuring psychological processes and behavioural outcomes and the specific food-, person-and context-related moderators. This review offers guidance for research to untangle the complexity of the effect of visual design cues in a food choice context.
... The effect (and affect) of colour has long been-and will likely remain to be-a topic of interest to the public eye, pop culture, and sciences. Accordingly, research has addressed various subject areas, such as colour associations (Clarke & Costall, 2008;Crozier, 1999;Kaya & Epps, 2004), affective judgements (Briki & Hue, 2016;Terwogt & Hoeksma, 1995), cross-cultural preferences (Adams & Osgood, 1973;Saito, 1996), and colours' effects on mood (Akers et al., 2012) and behaviour (Labrecque & Milne, 2012;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Wilson, 1966). ...
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Colours are linked to emotional concepts. Research on the effect of red in particular has been extensive, and evidence shows that positive as well as negative associations can be salient in different contexts. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the contextual factor of polarity. According to the polarity-correspondence principle, negative and positive category poles are assigned to the binary response categories (here positive vs. negative valence) and the perceptual dimension (green vs. red) in a discrimination task. Response facilitation occurs only where the conceptual category (valence) and the perceptual feature (colour) share the same pole (i.e., where both are plus or both are minus). We asked participants (n = 140) to classify the valence of green and red words within two types of blocks: (a) where all words were of the same colour (monochromatic conditions) providing no opposition in the perceptual dimension, and (b) where red and green words were randomly mixed (mixed-colour conditions). Our results show that red facilitates responses to negative words when the colour green is present (mixed-colour conditions) but not when it is absent (monochromatic conditions). This is in line with the polarity-correspondence principle, but colour-specific valence-affect associations contribute to the found effects.
... The effect (and affect) of colour has long been-and will likely remain to be-a topic of interest to the public eye, pop culture, and sciences. Accordingly, research has addressed various subject areas, such as colour associations (Clarke & Costall, 2008;Crozier, 1999;Kaya & Epps, 2004), affective judgements (Briki & Hue, 2016;Terwogt & Hoeksma, 1995), cross-cultural preferences (Adams & Osgood, 1973;Saito, 1996), and colours' effects on mood (Akers et al., 2012) and behaviour (Labrecque & Milne, 2012;Lichtenfeld et al., 2012;Wilson, 1966). ...
Article
Full-text available
Colours are linked to emotional concepts. Research on the effect of red in particular has been extensive, and evidence shows that positive as well as negative associations can be salient in different contexts. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the contextual factor of polarity. According to the polarity-correspondence principle, negative and positive category poles are assigned to the binary response categories (here positive vs. negative valence) and the perceptual dimension (green vs. red) in a discrimination task. Response facilitation occurs only where the conceptual category (valence) and the perceptual feature (colour) share the same pole (i.e., where both are plus or both are minus). We asked participants (n = 140) to classify the valence of green and red words within two types of blocks: (a) where all words were of the same colour (monochromatic conditions) providing no opposition in the perceptual dimension, and (b) where red and green words were randomly mixed (mixed-colour conditions). Our results show that red facilitates responses to negative words when the colour green is present (mixed-colour conditions) but not when it is absent (monochromatic conditions). This is in line with the polarity-correspondence principle, but colour-specific valence-affect associations contribute to the found effects.
... 考虑到明度可 能会影响道德概念的加工 [9,10] , 在实验2和实验3中将背 景改为明度为50%的灰色. "和平"、"生命"等积极正向的概念 [21] , 与"谦虚"、"慷 慨"等道德概念在效价上是一致的, 与"贪婪"、"下流" 等不道德概念是不一致的. 本实验未发现红色、蓝色 和黄色等其他颜色对道德判断的影响, 其原因可能是 在效价上, 与这些颜色有关的概念是不确定的. ...
... Specifically, the color red may signal danger or, in achievement contexts, failure (Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman, & Meinhardt, 2007), thus prompting negative emotions. In contrast, green colors can prompt positively connoted associations of hope, growth, and success (Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier, & Pekrun, 2012). In addition, there may be cultural and individual differences in color preference (Taylor, Clifford, & Franklin, 2013), such that it may be useful to allow for adapting color schemes of environments to personal tastes. ...
Chapter
Using control-value theory as a conceptual framework, we review the literature on the role of emotions in learning from multiple inputs. We first provide a conceptual definition of emotion and an overview of the different types of emotions that play a role during learning, including achievement, epistemic, topic, and social emotions. Next, we discuss theoretical propositions about the origins and functions of these emotions. In the third section, we review empirical evidence on emotions during learning from multiple representations, both in terms of the senesory channels used and in terms of structures of multiple representations that guide learners' emotion-prompting appraisals. Most of this evidence has been gathered in studies on technology-enhanced multimedia learning, such as learning with intelligent tutoring systems, simulations, and games. Subsequently, we summarize recent findings on learning from multiple perspectives, such s contradictory perspectives provided in texts on controversial issues or refutation texts targeting conceptual change. In conclusion, we discuss directions for future research and implications for practice.
... Los autores refieren que un ambiente rico en estímulos naturales puede facilitar el fenómeno creativo. El ambiente natural debe estar alejado de la interrupción constante por herramientas tecnológicas y debe ser emocionalmente tranquilizador para lograr el objetivo creativo; a su vez, desde un planteamiento cognitivo y psicológico, el color verde da la impresión de permisividad para seguir adelante(Atchley, Strayer y Atchley, 2012;Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier y Pekrun, 2012).Acorde con otro artículo, las experiencias multiculturales pueden promover la creación por intuición: la asociación y generación de ideas no habituales y el afloramiento de conocimiento poco convencional de culturas lejanas pueden ser útiles para la expansión de soluciones innovadoras en otro ambiente(Leung, Maddux, Galinsky y Chiu, 2008).Jaime Carrizosa Moog ...
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El presente estudio pretende revisar las bases neuropsicológicas y neurobiológicas que subyacen al proceso de creatividad en el ser humano, considerando los resultados de estudios recientes sobre neuroanatomía funcional, genética y valoraciones neuropsicológicas. Mediante la reflexión crítica de estos resultados se pretende motivar al lector a la actualización de estos conocimientos, la aplicación de los mismos y la posible formulación de nuevas preguntas de investigación. De ese modo, la creatividad se puede medir con pruebas que incentivan el pensamiento divergente o el discernimiento interior. Los estudios de neuroimágenes funcionales aclaran con precisión las funciones cognitivas necesarias para la creatividad al localizarlas en estructuras cerebrales y demostrando su interrelación. Así pues, son útiles en el proceso de creatividad: la motivación, la apertura a lo novedoso, la inteligencia, la inspiración y la imaginación. Existen genes identificados que están relacionados con la creatividad. Igualmente, la creatividad se puede incentivar con la marcha, salidas al campo, ocio, reuniones multiculturales y el sueño. Los resultados expuestos en el presente estudio requieren replicación y análisis en contextos diferentes; así, se pueden abrir novedosas oportunidades de aplicación en muchas disciplinas y una apertura a nuevas preguntas de investigación sobre creatividad que permitan aclarar las bases funcionales y eventual traslación a la práctica cotidiana.
... However, other findings suggest that the color red may signal 'danger' or, in achievement contexts, 'failure' (Elliot, Maier, Moller, Friedman, & Meinhardt, 2007) , thus prompting negative emotions, whereas green colors can evoke positive associations of hope, growth, and success (Lichtenfeld, Elliot, Maier, & Pekrun, 2012). Moreover, children tend to connect bright colors with positive, and dark colors with negative emotions (Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994). ...
Drawing on color psychology, two scenario-based experiments were conducted to investigate how hotel room colors affect consumer’s affective responses, attitude, and booking intention. The moderating effects of trip purpose and consumer characteristic (environmental consciousness) were also examined. In Study 1, consumers demonstrated more positive attitude and higher booking intention for a hotel room that featured the cool color scheme than a room that featured the warm color scheme. Meanwhile, feeling of pleasure mediated the effect of hotel room color on booking intention. In Study 2, we found that consumers who are more environmental conscious demonstrated more positive attitude and higher booking intention for a hotel room featuring the green color than a room featuring the red color. Implications and future research are discussed.
Article
The creative industry based on digital technology is the current strength of the creative industry in improving the national economy. In creating a national creative industry, every region in Indonesia is required to create space for creative industry players. The Digital Art Center is a building typology that can accommodate digital creative industry players to carry out all their activities. In the midst of the significant development of the creative industry, a healthy psychological and physical condition is needed to increase the creativity and productivity of industry players. Biophilic Design can help humans achieve prosperity and comfort, as well as increase creativity and productivity of creative industry players by shaping the built environment by creating human interaction with the surrounding natural elements. In addition, creating a space for interaction between humans can increase the sense of kinship and shape the user's psychology to be more positive. Thus, the design of the Yogyakarta Digital Art Center is expected to create human interaction with nature and human interaction that can increase the productivity and creativity of its users.
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Empirically based literature suggests that avoidance/approach motivation arising from color–meaning associations assume a key mediational role in the color effect during psychological functioning. Even if several studies investigated color–meaning associations through different methodological approaches, no study investigated specific color–meaning associations (1) through continuous measures (2) for both positive and negative meanings. In addition, color effects are not unequivocal, and interindividual variability issues are still underexplored. The present study is based on the application of visual analog scales to assess continuous measures of specific color–meaning associations related to both negative and positive meanings that could rely on avoidance/approach motivation. The data analyses compared the distribution of the color–meaning association scores rated by participants (N = 152) on visual analog scales. The results showed strong associations between red color and items that could be related to avoidance motivation. Conversely, green color association scores showed distinct and specific associations that could be related to approach motivation. The results also revealed that blue color could exhibit a similar pattern for some meaning association scores compared with green color, as well as orange compared with red association scores. In addition, the results suggest that color preferences may influence color effects, especially regarding color-related approach motivation. The present study provides new insights about the color effect on psychological functioning and a novel approach to investigate the mediational processes such as avoidance/approach motivation that considers interindividual differences along a continuum.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the influence of perceived brand color emotions on perceived brand creativity, assess the influence of perceived brand creativity on utilitarian and hedonic values, measure the impact of hedonic and utilitarian values on brand loyalty and evaluate the role of different theme park color schemes in influencing these relationships. Design/methodology/approach The study modeled the proposed relationships by analyzing data from an online survey using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Respondents were presented with different color schemes to induce certain emotions before answering questions. Findings The results showed that the valence and arousal of emotions incited by various colors lead to a perception of creativity for theme park products, which then influence both utilitarian and hedonic values and thus brand loyalty. When the model was compared for seven different color schemes for a theme park brand, differences seem sporadic rather than systematic. Research limitations/implications The online nature and timing of the study may have prohibited authentic reactions from consumers as the US theme park industry is currently in its recovery mode. Practical implications While the results did not identify a specific preferred color scheme, theme park executives should continue using a variety of color combinations to generate visitor perceptions of novelty and creativity that would impact their perceived hedonistic and utilitarian values. Originality/value The study empirically tests color influences on a brand’s perceived creativity and its consequences on a brand’s utilitarian and hedonic values and brand loyalty.
Chapter
Contextual influences in the workplace have been increasingly acknowledged as being crucial for enhancing creativity. Among various factors in the context surrounding employees, organizational culture and organizational climate have gained much attention in creativity research over the last decades. However, still many challenges exist about the role of culture and climate on creativity. For example, the literature stresses the importance of the physical work environment but research addressing physical aspects of the organizational context has received little attention. This chapter attempts to provide an overview of existing knowledge by synthesizing previous literature on organizational culture and climate influencing creativity. We focus on key issues and major trends. We further discuss perspectives for future research and important questions that remain to be answered. Finally, the chapter suggests some practical recommendations for organizational promotion of creativity.
Article
Given the large proportion of time spent by the average person indoors, it is imperative to have an understanding of the impacts of long-term and immersive exposure to a variety of architectural features in order to develop a holistic understanding of the impact of building architecture on human function, health, and wellbeing. This review article identifies and categorizes the elements of building architecture that have been demonstrated through empirical research to affect human psychological and physiological function. The architectural stimuli in question are limited to those for which a biological, and thus evolutionary, response has been empirically demonstrated. The intention is to identify architectural stimuli for which responses are biologically ingrained to ensure their applicability both cross-culturally and independent of personal experience. The research indicating the impacts of the built environment on human psychology and physiology is extensive and robust in certain areas and weaker in others. Architectural design features involving light, colour, complexity, viewing nature, olfaction, audition, and some forms of geometry, have been demonstrated to influence human behaviour, health, happiness, and physiological function in myriad ways. However, there are many unsubstantiated affirmations in the literature as to the effects of pareidolia, thigmotaxis, object affordance, the Golden Rectangle, and somatosensory stimuli in architecture. Thus, it has been demonstrated that architecture can impact human health, happiness, and physiological function, and be leveraged to produce specific physical and behavioral outcomes, however, further research is required to validate much of the conjecture currently found in the literature.
Chapter
Shinrin-Yoku describes “bathing in the atmosphere of the forest”. This chapter is about the atmosphere of the forest. It is based on the special climatic factors of forests and their exchange with the environment and the overall atmosphere. We perceive and process the forest atmosphere with all our senses, which includes the structure of the forest and its aesthetics. All these individual elements of the forest atmosphere have concrete health-promoting or even therapeutic effects, which are also demonstrated.
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האם יש הבדל באופן החשיבה שלנו אם אנו יושבים במעגל או נעים במעגל? האם חשיפה לצבע מסוים תגרום לנו לחשוב באופן יצירתי יותר? האם הרעש בכיתה מסייע לכך? לכאורה נראה שאין בשאלות אלה מן הרלוונטיות לתהליך החשיבה, האומנם?! מחקרים בתחום ה'קוגניציה הגופנית' (Embodied Cognition) מוכיחים שלאינטראקציה בין הגוף לסביבה יש השפעה על תודעתנו. הערך מציג מהי 'קוגניציה גופנית' ומדגים אותה בתחום היצירתיות באמצעות חמישה היבטים: צבעים, סמלילים, תנועות, רעש וגילום גופני של ביטויים.
Chapter
Im Zuge des verstärkten Klimaschutzes ist das nachhaltige Bauen ein starker Treiber der Umweltstrategien vieler Länder. Gebäude tragen zu einem erheblichen Teil zum Gesamtenergiebedarf sowie zum Ausstoß von CO2-Emissionen bei und bieten daher ein großes Einsparungspotenzial. Dementsprechend stark werden die Entwicklung und der Bau von nachhaltigen Gebäuden, den sogenannten „Green Buildings“, vorangetrieben. Besonders in China wird der nachhaltige Bau durch strikte Vorgaben aus den Fünfjahresplänen der Zentralregierung rasant weiterentwickelt. Dieses Kapitel beleuchtet den Status Quo sowie die aktuellen Entwicklungen des nachhaltigen Bauens in China und vergleicht sie mit den Entwicklungen in Deutschland. Zugleich werden Einblicke in aktuelle Erkenntnisse aus der Wissenschaft gegeben, die das allgemeine Konzept „Green Building“ und dessen Vorzüge, wie die Auswirkungen auf psychologische und physiologische Faktoren des Wohlbefindens von Individuen, nahbarer machen sollen.
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has highlighted the need to adapt to and rebound from unexpected change and uncertainty. The increasing climate chaos of the Anthropocene additionally underscores the necessity of resilient societies and individuals. Individuals able to problem‐solve in emergent situations are integral to a resilient society, and science education can develop these competencies both individually and collectively. We use the concept of resiliency to argue for science education that enables learners to adapt and respond in the face of disruption, unrest, and disaster. We focus specifically on the ways in which learning how to grow plants indoors can develop resilience on multiple levels while authentically facilitating science and engineering principles. This study seeks to explore how indoor agriculture might support science education for resiliency. We examine a higher‐education project, the “Grow Pod,” involving shipping container agriculture with first‐year undergraduates. We argue that inclusion of indoor agriculture within science education has the potential to support both learning for and as resiliency. In our analysis, we note how the Grow Pod project supports a science education for resiliency through collective learning that helps learners understand plant basics and how to grow food, and a science education as resiliency which includes learning through and rebounding from challenges/mistakes, learning resourcefulness, and experiencing restorative benefits of working with plants.
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Patients with adult spinal deformities, often suffer from the physical shortcomings of rigid braces and psychological hurdles of traditional rigid bracing treatment. The color of flexible braces is a physical element that influences user perception and treatment acceptance. This study aims to investigate the affective valence and preferences of patients with adult spinal deformities toward contextless colors and flexible brace colors, respectively, then understand their color requirements of flexible braces in terms of the color attributes (lightness and chroma). A total of 32 Chinese participants with adult spinal deformities (25 females and 7 males aged 61.9 ± 4.16) participated in the study. Participants are required to score 36 contextless and brace colors using the affective appraisal scale and the colors are measured using spectrophotometer. The experimental results showed that context is an important factor in influencing the affective perception but not the color preferences of participants. Adult spinal deformities patients have a more positive affective connotations toward the brace color with lighter achromatic shades. This study provides new insights for the choosing of colors during the design process of medical orthoses.
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A large number of empirical studies have confirmed that natural landscapes recover our fatigue from work and enhance our positive emotions. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) mentions that the soft fascination of the environment stimulates our creativity. The study focuses on forest landscape and urban streetscape to evaluate which environments support creativity. Besides, through experiencing the different landscapes, how do those environments reflect on the performance of creativity? In addition, creativity is sensitive to emotional responses, therefore, the study explores whether emotion affects creative performance. This study invited 100 students with design background randomly assigned to view a 3-min video with fascination forest landscapes or urban streetscape, and then fill out the PANAS mood scale and ATTA Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking, which led the study to evaluate the emotions and creativity performance generated by the experience of the landscape. The results found that the elaboration of the four dimensions of ATTA was significantly higher in the fascination forest landscape than in urban streetscape; through post hoc, the forest waterscape was better than urban streetscape. Compare to urban streetscape, forest waterscape predicts the elaboration. However, there was no significant effect on adding emotion in this model. The performance of different stages in creativity may be affected by landscape types. The findings suggest that fascination with forest landscape improves elaboration ability, which shows more details of the description, but when adding the emotion variable in the model, it would not be able to predict the elaboration.
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As climate changes and species extinction accelerate, the global community focuses on Green New Deal plans to promote economic development based on environmental sustainability. The Green New Deal should encourage sustainable resilience in the environment and strengthen the community's innate ties with natural resources and biodiversity. This study describes biophilic design for sustainable and resilient residential regeneration from the perspective of the Green New Deal, and suggests potential possibilities for these approaches on a residential regeneration scale. A case study clarifies the applicable features of biophilic design in various fields, such as architectural planning and design, technology, and services, and is subdivided according to the scale of residential regeneration (unit, building, and complex). The results of this study suggest new values for existing Green New Deal policies and contribute to the segmentation of residential regeneration projects and the expansion of related industries.
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In diesem Kapitel stelle ich das theoretische Fundament des Embodied Designs vor. Es basiert auf dem Konzept des Embodiments und der Annahme vielfältiger Wechselwirkungen zwischen Körper, Geist und Umwelt. Um diese Wirkungen besser zu verstehen, präsentiere ich faszinierende Entdeckungen aus der Wissenschaft. Anschließend gehe ich tiefer auf die drei zentralen Säulen des Embodied Designs ein, die sich aus dem Embodiment ableiten. Diese sind die Erlebenszentrierung, die metaphorische Erfahrung und der Interaktionsraum. Während die ersten beiden Säulen auf das kreative Denken an sich bezogen sind, reflektiert der Interaktionsraum die Randbedingungen für erfolgreiche Innovations- und Kommunikationsprozesse. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Entwicklung eines neuen Kommunikationsverständnisses, das als wesentlich für Veränderungen im Kopf und Sprungbretter neuen Handelns betrachtet wird.
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For some students, particular concepts are difficult to understand (Berch & Mazzocco, 2007). Catrambone (1998) identified subgoal labeling as a catalyst for remedying barriers to understanding complex concepts. This study builds on Margulieux and Catrambone’s (2016) research, which examined the effects of subgoal labeling on computer-programming tasks by investigating how performance is impacted by color priming for affective states. Materials used were displayed with red, blue, and green backgrounds as primers. Two control groups with black and no-color backgrounds were used for comparison. The results suggest that color priming did not significantly enhance or inhibit performance. However, there was evidence to suggest that green may be a reliable primer for affect and mood, but not enough to suggest that it be used more than other colors (as evidenced by significant results for the control group). More research should be conducted to examine potential contributing factors for the trends found in this study.
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El presente capitulo presenta resultados parciales de investigacion relacionados con los factores determinantes para la creacion de spin-off universitarias en el Caribe colombiano. Hace parte de una investigacion sobre el mismo tema en Colombia que se encuentra vinculada al Observatorio de Emprendimiento Universitario de la Red Universitaria de Emprendimiento (REUNE). El proyecto aborda los determinantes del contexto desde el reconocimiento del ecosistema emprendedor regional y los factores institucionales de las universidades de la region indagando informacion institucional, economica, transferencia de conocimiento, oficina de transferencia de resultados de investigacion, creacion de empresas y docentes vinculados. Surge desde la necesidad de profundizar en el fenomeno de las empresas basadas en resultados de investigacion originadas en las universidades, en especial por la importancia que ha cobrado el emprendimiento de este tipo en Colombia y la region Caribe. Debido al aumento de politicas publicas asociadas con el particular. El acercamiento de las academias colombianas a los modelos europeos, de la Organizacion para el Crecimiento y el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y norteamericanos con el concepto de la universidad emprendedora y la tercera mision de la universidad. Los datos recolectados hasta el momento, en cuanto a los factores institucionales, desde las fuentes secundarias y primarias, han generado mas interrogantes que respuestas debido a la diferencia de los datos e incongruencias de los mismos.
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This study aims to research the effect of the interface background color choice on the emotion of university students. The study group consisted of 929 Turkish students studying at the vocational colleges of technical and social sciences in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey. In this study, the descriptive method was used. A color effect form developed by the researcher was used. The validity of the tool was controlled by the faculty members in the Guidance and Psychological Counseling Department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The analysis of the findings showed that primary, secondary, and tertiary colors had positive impacts on the participants' perceptions except for gray color. In this negative perception, the boredom perception of the gray was affective. The colors having the most positive perceptions of the participants were white, blue, and red. In the positive perception of these colors, their perception of relaxing and encouraging was effective. In the colors' effect, there were significant differences according to the gender and academic education department. Red, black, white, gray, and purple colors' effect changed according to gender, while red, blue, and purple colors' effect changed according to the education department. As a result, this study, which is conducted with the participation of a large number and the usage of software, is expected to be a good reference on color perception and color design for software interface designers.
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Background and Aims: Ergonomics is associated with the study and systematic design of the workplace to improve human health and well-being. The health and well-being of employees are influenced by a variety of factors. Nature is a new paradigm in occupational ergonomics that has not been well explored in the main texts of ergonomics in relation to human well-being. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the results of joining with nature on staff health, especially well-being in the form of a systematic review study. Methods: By searching articles published from 2000 to 2019 in the field of Biophilic design, 25 articles were selected for the present systematic study based on the research criteria. Non-English language articles excluded. Results: The results of this study showed that Biophilic design is associated with improved human well-being, performance, concentration and stress reduction. Conclusion: Organizations, with the help of ergonomists, should consider such changes in the workplace, and nature-based solutions as strategic programs for improving well-being rather than merely applying a temporary strategy that changes the physical condition of a building or its landscape.
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Review of research into the consequences of easy vs difficult processing; traces fluency effects to the hedonic quality of the processing experience.
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We propose that "growth need strength" is an important individual factor for employees' creative performance. Using an interactionist perspective, we examine the relationship between growth need strength and a supportive work context on self-reported creativity across a wide range of jobs that vary in complexity. Controlling for the effects of individual factors that have been previously linked to creativity (i.e., creative personality, intrinsic motivation, and cognitive style), we find that growth need strength has both a positive main effect on creativity and an interactive effect with context. Furthermore, job complexity moderates this association. Implications for managers are discussed.
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Most contemporary achievement goal conceptualizations consist of a performance goal versus mastery goal dichotomy. The present research offers an alternative framework by partitioning the performance goal orientation into independent approach and avoidance motivational orientations. Two experiments investigated the predictive utility of the proposed approach-avoidance achievement goal conceptualization in the intrinsic motivation domain. Results from both experiments supported the proposed framework; only performance goals grounded in the avoidance of failure undermined intrinsic motivation. Task involvement was validated as a mediator of the observed effects on intrinsic motivation. Ramifications for the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation and future research avenues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two experiments were conducted to explore the process of building on ideas in brainstorming. Although this is presumed to be an important role of brainstorming, this has never been explored experimentally. In one experiment individual and group brainstormers generated ideas which were subsequently presented to these same individuals and groups to combine and build on for additional ideas, either as groups or individuals. The combination process was influenced by whether the participants had previously brainstormed alone or in groups and the phase of the combination period (early vs. late). In a second study participants were presented lists of rare or common ideas to combine and build on either as individuals or groups. Although groups generated fewer combinations than nominal groups, they generated more novel and feasible combinations when combining rare ideas. These findings indicate that groups are able to benefit from the exchange process in building on each other's ideas and are interpreted in the context of past research on idea generation and evaluation in groups.
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This paper argues that color concepts are anchored in certain “universals of human experience”, and that these universals can be identified, roughly speaking, as day and night, fire, the sun, vegetation, the sky, and the ground. Although our color sensations occur in our brains, not in the world outside, and their nature is probably determined to a large extent by our human biology ( which links us, in some measure, with other primates), to be able to communicate about these sensations, we project them onto something in our shared environment. Kay and McDaniel (1978: 621) have claimed that the semantics of basic color terms in all languages directly reflects the existence of pan-human neural response categories. But how can language be directly” linked to neural responses? Language reflects conceptualizations, not the “neural representation of color … in the pathways between the eye and brain” (Kay and McDaniel 1978: 617). The link between the neural representation of color and the linguistic representation of color can only be indirect. The way leads via concepts. Sense data are “private” (even if they are rooted in pan-human neural responses), whereas concepts can be shared. To be able to talk with others about one's private sense data one must be able to translate them first into communicable concepts. This paper argues, then, against the current accounts of color semantics such as those proposed by Kay and McDaniel (1978) or by Rosch (1972); and it proposes a new interpretation of the evolutionary sequence discovered by Berlin and Kay (1969).
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Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a consistent lack of gender differences both in creativity test scores and in the creative accomplishments of boys and girls (which if anything tend to favor girls). As a result, it is difficult to show how innate gender differences in creativity could possibly explain later differences in creative accomplishment. At the same time, the large difference in the creative achievement of men and women in many fields make blanket environmental explanations inadequate, and the explanations that have been proposed thus far are at best incomplete. A new theoretical framework (the APT model of creativity) is proposed to allow better understanding of what is known about gender differences in creativity.
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We examined the relationship between employee creativity and job performance. Further- more, we identified two learning-related personal and situational variables—employee learning orientation and transformational leadership—and examined their effects on employee creativity through employee creative self-efficacy. We found that employee creativity was positively related to employee sales and to supervisor-rated employee job performance. Employee learning orientation and transformational leadership were posi- tively related to employee creativity, and these relationships were mediated by employee creative self-efficacy. We discuss the implications of these findings for creativity theory and research, as well as for management practice.
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The Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) is a new self-report measure of creative achievement that assesses achievement across 10 domains of creativity. It was designed to be objective, empirically valid, and easy to administer and score. Study 1 established test-retest reliability (r = .81, p < .0001) and internal consistency reliability (α = .96) in a sample of 117 undergraduate students. Study 2 established predictive validity of the CAQ against artist ratings of a creative product, a collage (r = .59, p < .0001, n = 39). Study 3 (n = 86) established convergent validity with other measures of creative potential, including divergent thinking tests (r = .47, p < .0001), the Creative Personality Scale (Gough, 1979; r = .33, p = .004), Intellect (Goldberg, 1992; r = .51, p < .0001), and Openness to Experience (Costa & McCrae, 1992; r = .33, p = .002). Study 4 established discriminant validity between the CAQ and both IQ and self-serving bias. Study 5 examined the factor structure of the CAQ. A three-factor solution identified Expressive, Scientific, and Performance factors of creative achievement. A two-factor solution identified an Arts factor and a Science factor.
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Colour is not a quality of an object, but a perception. As such, it can symbolise anything we want it to symbolise. This paper reports the results of a survey of the use of colour in folklore and tradition supported by the Folklore Society and the Colour Group (GB). Drawing attention to the diversity of colour symbolism worldwide, it posits two basic principles, the Principle of Adaptation of Ideas and the Principle of Singularity, to account for apparently contradictory usages.
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Achievement goal theory has been one of the most prominent theories of motivation in educational research for more than 25 years. It has undergone considerable revision during that span, most notably with the distinction between approach and avoidance goals, debate concerning the critical features of performance goals, and the emergence of a multiple goal perspective that emphasizes the positive potential of performance-approach goals alongside mastery goals. This multiple goal perspective has met several criticisms from theorists taking the traditional perspective that emphasizes mastery goals over performance goals. We review these criticisms and the ongoing debate in light of the relevant research. We then spotlight two areas for future research, with the aim of advancing theory development and bridging these perspectives.
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The article examines the use of the color brown in Old Norse-Icelandic literature, which is encoded by brúnn and jarpr . More specifically, it seeks to determine through linguistic categorization the objects about which brown is used and to determine on the basis of its frequency whether for Old Norse-Icelandic brown should be placed in the earlier stages of the evolution of color terms or if it should be assigned to the later stages. The data show that brúnn is the more frequently used term, though the earliest texts suggest that both brúnn and jarpr were contextually restricted. Gradually, brúnn came to be applied to a wider range of objects, whereas jarpr remained a secondary color term. As a basic color term, brúnn should be assigned a fairly late stage in the temporal-evolutionary order of basic color terms.
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Previous research by Hirt, Melton, McDonald, and Harackiewicz (1996) found that mood effects on creativity were not mediated by the same mechanisms as were mood effects on quantitative measures of performance and evaluations of performance, suggesting that mood may simultaneously be working through different processes (dual process view). However, other research (Martin & Stoner, 1996; Sinclair, Mark, & Clore, 1994) supports a single process, mood-as-information model for similar effects of mood on processing. In the present research, we hypothesized that if a single, mood-as-information process accounts for mood effects on both creativity and quantitative performance, then all mood effects should be eliminated if participants are cued that their mood is irrelevant to the task (cf. Schwarz & Clore, 1983). We manipulated participants' moods prior to task performance and presented them with either an enjoyment-based or a performance-based stop rule; half of the participants were cued to the true source of their moods, half were not. Cueing participants eliminated mood effects on quantitative measures of performance (e.g., number generated). However, consistent with a dual-process view, the cueing manipulation did not affect creativity; happy participants generated the most creative responses regardless of stop rule or cue.
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We developed and tested a cross-level model of individual creativity, integrating goal orientation theory and team learning research. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found cross-level interactions between individuals' goal orientation and team learning behavior in a cross-national sample of 25 R&D teams comprising 198 employees. We hypothesized and found a nonlinear interaction between individual learning orientation and team learning behavior: in teams higher in team learning behavior, the positive relationship between learning orientation and creativity was attenuated at higher levels of learning orientation. An individual approach orientation was positively related to creativity only when team learning behavior was high.
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They have in England A coin that bears the figure of an angel Stampèd in gold … (Merchant of Venice II. vii. 55-57) The scholar or casual reader whose interest is drawn to Renaissance English literature discovers very early that, in the fantastic profusion of puns and punning allusions that delighted the hearts of Englishmen in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, second in frequency only to the cuckold's horns is a thin gold coin called the angel. The uses made of it range from the casual pun ‘There's a pair of angels to guide you to your lodgings’ to elaborate metaphors which mold a scene or provide the vehicle for an entire poem, as in Donne's Elegie XI, ‘The Bracelet’.
Book
An integrative introduction to the theories and themes in research on creativity, the second edition of Creativity is both a reference work and text for courses in this burgeoning area of research. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of creativity (Person, Product, Process, Place), the general question of whether creativity is influenced by nature or nurture, what research has indicated of the personality and style of creative individuals from a personality analysis standpoint, and how social context affects creativity. This wide-ranging work then proceeds to coverage of issues such as gender differences, whether creativity can be enhanced, if creativity is related to poor mental or physical health, and much more. The book contains boxes covering special interest items, including one-page biographies of famous creative individuals, and activities for a group or individual to test or encourage creativity, as well as references to Internet sites relating to creativity. Includes all major theories and perspectives on creativity. Consolidates recent research into a single source. Includes key terms defined and text boxes with interesting related material. Single authored for clarity and consistency of presentation.
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Results of 562 studies were integrated by meta-analysis to show the nature, effects, and treatment of academic test anxiety. Effect sizes were computed through the method invented by Glass (Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981). Correlations and effect-size groups were tested for consistency and significance with inferential statistics by Hedges and Olkin (1985). Test anxiety (TA) causes poor performance. It relates inversely to students’ self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Conditions (causes) giving rise to differential TA levels include ability, gender, and school grade level. A variety of treatments are effective in reducing test anxiety. Contrary to prior perceptions, improved test performance and grade point average (GPA) consistently accompany TA reduction.
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Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as an analytic framework for the behavioral effects of landscapes displayed in advertising. In this study, an evolutionary and environmental psychology approach is used to analyze affective reactions to advertising depicting specific natural environments or urban scenes, both prominent ingredients of contemporary advertising imagery. The experimental field study exposed 750 participants at random to one advert of a set of 13 experimental green energy advertisements, each displaying a different biome. Six basic emotional responses (pleasure, arousal, happiness, freedom, safety, and interest) as well as attitude toward the ad and brand attitude were assessed subsequently. Anova and structural equation analysis were used for data analysis. Results of the study confirm the leading opinion on generalized more positive behavioral effects toward visual stimuli representing nature scenes with biospheric contents as opposed to pictures of urban environments or desert settings. In line with earlier empirical research, further findings do not support the hypothesis on an innate preference for savanna landscapes in adults but confirm preferences for images of lush green landscapes with water and familiar biomes. Overall results give significant support to the application of environmental and evolutionary psychology to advertising.
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The main purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to investigate the mean effect size of relevant variables associated with creative person, process, product, and environment. Altogether, 2,013 effect sizes from 111 studies were analyzed. The unweighted grand mean effect size of the 111 studies was 0.69, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.63. Such result was significantly different from 0 at t (110)=11.52, p.01. When the averaged effect size of each study was weighted with the sample size of that study, the weighted grand mean effect size was 0.72. The important findings were: (a) the mean effect sizes associated with problem-solving creativity and verbal creativity were significantly larger than those associated with emotional creativity and nonverbal creativity, (b) variables having a large mean effect size were prestige of honors/awards, working circumstances favorable for creativity, defining problem, and retrieving knowledge, (c) most of the mean effect sizes of the problem solving procedures on the measures of problem solving exceeded the medium (0.5) of Cohen's guidelines. Areas to be further explored are suggested.
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The dedicated work of numerous scholars has, over the last 10 years, led to some radical advances in our understanding of the nature and implications of creativity. This work has been summarized in 2 recent handbooks - Mark Runco's Creativity Research Handbook and Robert Sternberg's Handbook of Creativity. In this article I use these handbooks as a starting point to take stock in both what has been accomplished and what still needs to be done in our attempts to understand creativity. I begin by noting that both handbooks clearly describe the major approaches being used in studies of creativity and the findings resulting from each approach. A careful review of the chapters presented in these handbooks, however, brings to the fore a number of issues. For example, we need critical comparative tests contrasting the merits of different methods and theories, elaboration and extension of our traditional samples and our traditional measures, and more attempts to develop integrative models. However, some topics, such as the demands of practical innovation, cross-field differences in the nature of creative thought, and the effects of creativity on people and social systems need more thorough treatment. By laying a foundation for cumulative research along those lines, publication of these handbooks represents an important step toward development of a coherent, scientific model of the creative act.
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Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient. BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good. YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. BLACK and GREY are passive; RED is active. The color component Brightness, as determined by comparing data on WHITE, GREY, and BLACK, is strongly associated with positive Evaluation, but also with negative Potency. Eighty-nine previous studies of color and affect were analyzed. They generally support these findings, and, together with the fact that there are very few exceptions in our data or the literature, lead one to believe that there are strong universal trends in the attribution of affect in the color domain.
Article
A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article presents the rationale and procedures for conducting a process analysis in evaluation research. Such an analysis attempts to identify the process that mediates the effects of some treatment, by estimating the parameters of a causal chain between the treatment and some outcome variable. Two different procedures for estimating mediation are discussed. In addition we present procedures for examining whether a treatment exerts its effects, in part, by altering the mediating process that produces the outcome. Finally, the benefits of process analysis in evaluation research are underlined.
Article
Participants completed the Big Five NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992) as a personality measure, the Wonderlic Personnel Test (Wonderlic, 1992) as an intelligence measure, and four measures of creativity: Guilford’s (1967) unusual uses divergent thinking test; the Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviours; a self-rated measure of creativity; and the Barron–Welsh Art Scale to measure creative judgement. Extraversion was significantly related to all four measures of creativity. Intelligence failed to add any incremental variance in predicting the creativity scores. Multiple regression indicated that up to 47% of the variance in divergent thinking scores can be accounted for by the Big Five personality traits. Personality correlates to creativity vary as a function of the creativity measure.
Article
The present study conceptualized social intelligence as a performance construct and thus is based on Thorndike’s idea of social intelligence as a mental ability distinct from abstract and mechanical intelligence (1920). So far, there has been only limited success in identifying a unitary social intelligence construct distinct from academic intelligence. The objects of our study were twofold. First, we intended to demonstrate the multidimensionality of social intelligence. We postulated three cognitive ability domains (i.e., social understanding, memory, and knowledge). These domains were operationalized in a multitrait-multimethod design applying verbal, pictorial, and video-based performance measures. Secondly, we intended to demonstrate that social intelligence can be differentiated from academic intelligence. One hundred eighteen high school and first year psychology students (80 of them females, mean age 19.7 years) were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the postulated factor-structure within social intelligence. Correlational and regression analysis yielded generally low validity coefficients between social and academic intelligence except for the social memory tests. Still, residual analysis showed unique common variance within the social memory domain. Consequently, the study provided evidence for the structure of the social intelligence performance model according to the postulated design and demonstrated the discriminability of SI from academic intelligence.
Article
Achievement goal researchers and theorists have relied primarily on the distinction between performance goals and mastery goals in differentiating competence-based strivings. In this article, an argument is made for incorporating the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation into the performance-mastery dichotomy. Historical, theoretical, and empirical reasons for attending to the approach-avoidance distinction are offered, and a revised, trichotomous framework of achievement goals comprising mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals is described and reviewed. This trichotomous framework is discussed in the broader context of a hierarchical model of achievement motivation that attends to the motivational foundation underlying achievement goals per se. Avenues for further theoretical development are also overviewed, including consideration of a mastery-avoidance goal construct.
Article
Previous work suggests that trait behavioral activation may link to creativity, a possibility the authors empirically examine in this article. This research is grounded in the dual pathway to creativity model and experiments on approach orientation, and the authors propose that behavioral activation potentiates creativity when and because it facilitates global and flexible processing. Four experiments support this hypothesis and also reveal that when external cues sustain or facilitate local and bottom-up processing, trait behavioral activation negatively relates to creativity. Possible explanations and avenues for new research are discussed.
Article
In their seminal work, Basic Color Terms, the linguist-anthropologists Brent Berlin and Paul Kay analyzed the color terms of close to one hundred of the world's languages, belonging to a variety of linguistic families and/or groups.1 They challenged the thesis of relativism in the encoding of color and advanced an alternative hypothesis, arguing that there was a universal inventory of eleven basic color terms, located in the color space where English speakers place the most typical examples of black, white, red, orange, yellow, brown, green, blue, purple, pink, and grey. Comparing the vocabularies of languages possessing fewer than these eleven categories, they demonstrated that basic color terms do not appear at random in the diachronic development of a language, but in an invariable seven-stage sequence illustrated below: The scheme is to be interpreted as follows: all languages possess basic terms for the black and white foci; if a language contains three terms, then it contains a term for red; if a language contains four terms, then the fourth term will be either yellow or green; if a language contains five terms, then it contains terms for both yellow and green; if a language contains six terms, then it contains a term for blue; if a language contains seven terms, then it contains a term for brown; and if a language contains eight or more terms, then it contains a term for purple, pink, orange, grey, or some combination of these. Berlin and Kay concluded that "color lexicons with few terms tend to occur in association with relatively simple cultures and simple technologies, while color lexicons with many terms tend to occur in association with complex cultures and complex technologies (to the extent that complexity of culture and technology can be assessed objectively)."2 Old Norse-Icelandic has eight basic color terms (svartr, hvítr, rauðr, grœnn, gulr, blár, brúnn, and grár (gránn), making it an early stage VII language.3 For lack of data, it is, of course, impossible to assess precisely the evolutionary sequence of these terms, but it is noteworthy that an examination of Snorri Sturluson's use of color terms in Gylfaginning reveals not only a limination of color terms to include only a handful (svartr, hvítr, rauðr, grár, and grœnn),4 but also an introduction of color terms, beginning with black (svartr) and ending with green (grœnn) that matches the evolutionary sequence proposed by Berlin and Kay with the notable exception only of grár.5 Obviously, there is no way of knowing Snorri Sturluson's reasonings behind this order, but it is tempting to speculate that in some way he tried, through his use of color terminology, to give expression to what Berlin and Kay call "a relatively simple culture" and bring his readers close to seeing the world through the eyes of his and their pagan forebears, as these pagans described it in their myths and legends.6 According to Berlin and Kay's temporal-evolutionary order, grey (grár) would have been among the last terms added to the Old Norse-Icelandic basic color lexicon. This order is contradicted by Snorri Sturluson, and, indeed, Berlin and Kay's placement of grey, the only achromatic basic color term added from stage II onwards in their stage VII of language development, has been called into question. Stanley R. Witkowski and Cecil H. Brown note that "four of their seven error cases involved the premature appearance of gray" and comment that "[e]vidence adduced since then . . . shows, many more exceptional cases, so many, in fact, that gray is now considered a 'wild card' color . . . which can be encoded at any point after the early stages."7 It is the aim of this article to demonstrate through linguistic categorization the objects about which the hue adjective grár is used and to determine on the basis of its frequency in a selection of texts whether for Old Norse-Icelandic one should place grey in the later stages or assign it to the early stages as Siegfried Wyler did for Old English.8 Wyler points out that "'[g]rey' is, in...
Book
This chapter describes the color appearance model developed by Robert William Gainer Hunt. This model is the most extensive, complete, and complex color appearance model that has been developed. The Hunt model is designed to predict a wide range of visual phenomena including the appearance of related and unrelated colors in various backgrounds, surrounds, illumination colors, and luminance levels ranging from low scotopic to bleaching levels. In this sense, it is a complete model of color appearance for static stimuli. Hunt's model does not attempt to incorporate complex spatial or temporal characteristics of appearance. To make reasonable predictions of appearance over such a wide range of conditions, the Hunt model requires more rigorous definition of the viewing field. brightness; colorimetry
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Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we report a series of experiments demonstrating that a brief glimpse of red evokes avoidance motivation and undermines intellectual performance, and that it has these effects without conscious awareness or intention. We close with thoughts on the need for rigorous scientific work on color psychology.
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Perceptual similarity was examined in a remote culture (Himba) and compared to that of Western observers. Similarity was assessed in a relative size judgement task and in an odd-one-out detection task. Thus, we examined the effects of culture on what might be considered low-level visual abilities. For both tasks, we found that performance was affected by stimuli that were culturally relevant to the tasks. In Experiment 1, we showed that the use of cow stimuli instead of the standard circles increased illusory strength for the Himba. In Experiment 2, only the Himba showed more accurate detection based on category differences in the displays. It is argued that that Categorical Perception in Experiment 2, based on its presumed Whorfian origins, was the more reliable procedure for examining the effects of culture on perception.
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The dual pathway to creativity model argues that creativity—the generation of original and appropriate ideas—is a function of cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence, and that dispositional or situational variables may influence creativity either through their effects on flexibility, on persistence, or both. This model is tested in a number of studies in which participants performed creative ideation tasks. We review work showing that cognitive flexibility, operationalised as the number of content categories surveyed, directly relates to idea originality, but that originality can also be achieved by exploring a few content categories in great depth (i.e., persistence). We also show that a global processing mode is associated with cognitive flexibility, but only leads to high originality in tasks that capitalise on cognitive flexibility. We finally show that activating positive mood states enhance creativity because they stimulate flexibility, while activating negative mood states can enhance creativity because they stimulate persistence. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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Presents a description of the theory and research underlying the present author's (see record 1979-30156-001) Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) and describes a study involving 453 undergraduates that investigated the stability of factor structure of this test as a function of different rating-scale formats. The 2 core dimensions, energetic arousal (including tiredness) and tense arousal (including calmness), are believed associated with a variety of arousal-related characteristics, including physiological changes, sleep–wake cycles, exercise effects, various mood states, and various concomitants of stress. Analyses indicated that the factor structure of activation descriptors remained essentially the same with each scale. The importance of the underlying arousal model in relation to the activation descriptors is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared 3 conditions for administering creativity tests by E. P. Torrance (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking; 1974) and by M. A. Wallach and N. Kogan (Wallach-Kogan Creativity Battery; 1965). Ss were 112 New Zealand 6th graders. The 3 conditions were (a) untimed, gamelike; (b) conventional testlike; and (c) administration of measures under testlike conditions on 2 adjacent days, using the 2nd testing as the predictor. The conventional testlike condition seems optimal. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies examined achievement goals as predictors of self-reported cognitive/metacognitive and motivational study strategies and tested these study strategies as mediators of the relationship between achievement goals and exam performance in the normatively graded college classroom. The results support hypotheses generated from the trichotomous achievement goal framework. Mastery goals are positive predictors of deep processing, persistence, and effort; performance-approach goals are positive predictors of surface processing, persistence, effort, and exam performance; and performance-avoidance goals are positive predictors of surface processing and disorganization and negative predictors of deep processing and exam performance. Persistence and effort mediate the relationship between performance-approach goals and exam performance, whereas disorganization mediates the relationship between performance-avoidance goals and exam performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers the definition and assessment of creativity and presents a componential framework for conceptualizing this faculty. Including domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills, and task motivation as a set of necessary and sufficient components of creativity, the framework describes the way in which cognitive abilities, personality characteristics, and social factors might contribute to stages of the creative process. The discussion emphasizes the previously neglected social factors and highlights the contributions that a social psychology of creativity can make to a comprehensive view of creative performance. (99 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter overviews the nascent, yet growing literature utilizing the expanded 2×2 achievement goal framework, which employs a full crossing of the performance-mastery and approach-avoidance distinctions. This framework is first presented in historical context and discussed from a conceptual standpoint. The antecedents and consequences that have been linked to the goals of the 2×2 model are then overviewed. Finally, we offer prescriptions for application in education based on the available literature, and recommend directions for further investigation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)