A third gyrovirus species in human faeces

Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA.
Journal of General Virology (Impact Factor: 3.18). 03/2012; 93(Pt 6):1356-61. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.041731-0
Source: PubMed


Until 2011 the genus Gyrovirus in the family Circoviridae consisted of a single virus (Chicken anemia virus or CAV) causing a common immunosuppressive disease in chickens when a second gyrovirus (HGyV) was reported on the skin of 4 % of healthy humans. HGyV is very closely related to a recently described chicken gyrovirus, AGV2, suggesting that they belong to the same viral species. During a viral metagenomic analysis of 100 human faeces from children with diarrhoea in Chile we identified multiple known human pathogens (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, parechoviruses and rotaviruses) and a novel gyrovirus species we named GyV3 sharing <63 % similarity with other gyrovirus proteins with evidence of recombination with CAV in its UTR. Gyroviridae consensus PCR revealed a high prevalence of CAV DNA in diarrhoea and normal faeces from Chilean children and faeces of USA cats and dogs, which may reflect consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens. Whether GyV3 can infect humans and/or chickens requires further studies.

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Available from: Isidore Bonkoungou, Sep 18, 2015
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    • "HGyV1 may be a member of the skin virome [4], although Chu et al. [6] were unable to detect gyroviruses in skin swabs from healthy individuals. Novel gyroviruses have been detected in stools from patients with diarrhoea with a prevalence of 1–9.3%, while no gyrovirus was detected in stools from healthy individuals [5, 6]. The present study showed a higher prevalence of gyroviruses (AGV2/HGyV1) in stools from patients with diarrhoea (15%), while 35% of healthy children also had evidence of AGV2/HGyV1 DNA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Chicken anaemia virus, CAV, was until recently the only member of the Gyrovirus genus. 6 novel gyroviruses, AGV2, HGyV1, and GyV3-6, have since been discovered in human and chicken samples. Methods. PCR amplification of the VP2 gene was used to detect AGV2/HGyV1, GyV3, and CAV in a range of clinical samples including stool, respiratory, CSF, and HIV-positive plasma. Screening of fresh local chicken meat was also performed. Results. AGV2/HGyV1 or GyV3 was detected in stools from healthy children (17/49, 34.7%) and patients with diarrhoea (22/149, 14.8%). 1.2% (3/246) nasopharyngeal respiratory samples were positive. No AGV2/HGyV1 or GyV3 was detected in nasal swabs from wheezing patients, in CSF from patients with meningitis, and in HIVpositive plasma. CAV was found in 51% (25/49) of stools from healthy children and 16% (24/149) in diarrhoea samples. Screening of 28 chicken samples showed a higher prevalence of gyrovirus (20/28, 71%) compared to CAV (1/28, 3.6%). Phylogenetic analysis of the CAV VP1 gene showed South African sequences clustering with Brazilian isolates from genotypes D2 and A2. Conclusion. Novel gyroviruses, including CAV, are present in the South African population with diarrhoea and respiratory illness as well as in healthy children. Their presence suggests an origin from chicken meat consumption.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Advances in Virology
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    • "In 2011, a novel human virus was identified on the surface of human skin and was designated human gyrovirus (HGyV), due to its homology with the chicken anemia virus [8]. In 2012, another gyrovirus species named GyV3 was detected in diarrhoea and normal faeces from Chilean children in the USA, which may reflect consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens due to the low sequence similarity with other gyroviruses [9]. Another gyrovirus (GyV4) was identified in human stool samples and in chicken meat sold for human consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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    • "As of 2012 in China, two gyrovirus species have been designated GyV3 and GyV4. GyV3 was detected in samples of diarrhea and normal feces from Chilean children in the USA, and these had a low level of sequence similarity with other gyroviruses, which may reflect the consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens9; GyV4 was identified in human stool and in chicken meat sold for human consumption in Hong Kong in 201210. In the same year, HGyV DNA was detected in four samples in Italy11. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen that causes severe immunosuppression in young chickens. We have characterized 13 CAVs isolated from different commercial farms in southern China between 2011 and 2012. We discovered 92 variable residues compared to 37 other CAV complete genome sequences from other parts of the world listed in GenBank; these residues have not been previously observed. All of the Chinese CAV genomes that were characterized in this study had a glutamine at position 394, a hallmark of highly pathogenic CAVs. We also discovered that intra-group genetic recombination plays a role in generating genetic diversity in natural populations of CAV. The GD-J-12 isolate was a possible recombinant between GD-C-12 and GD-M-12 in the genomic region that encompassed both the coding and non-coding regions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Scientific Reports
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