Distraction Osteogenesis for Tracheostomy Dependent Children With Severe Micrognathia

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery (Impact Factor: 0.68). 03/2012; 23(2):459-63. DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182413db8
Source: PubMed


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pediatric populations is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations resulting in decreased pharyngeal airway, which in severe cases leads to tracheostomy dependence. The purpose of this study was to use distraction osteogenesis to improve the airway and decannulate the tracheostomy. This study involved 11 OSA tracheostomy-dependent patients (age range, 4 months to 6 years) who underwent bilateral distraction in the mandibular body using extraoral distraction devices. Following a latency period of 4 days, gradual distraction at a rate of 1 mm/d was performed followed by a consolidation period of 10 weeks. Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction of the face and neck before and after the mandibular lengthening aided in quantitative volumetric evaluation of mandibular volume and airway volume. The results demonstrated mandibular elongation of a mean of 30 mm on each side, an increase in mandibular volume by an average of 29.19%, and increase in pharyngeal airway by an average of 70.53%. Two to 3 months following the last lengthening, all 11 patients were decannulated with improvement of signs and symptoms of OSA and elimination of oxygen requirement. Mean follow-up was 2.0 years. The oxygen saturation level rose to more than 95%, and the apnea index respiratory disturbance index was less than 2 episodes per hour for all patients. Bilateral mandibular distraction is a useful method in younger children to decannulate permanent tracheostomy expanding the hypoplastic mandible and concomitantly advance the base of tongue and hyoid bone increasing the pharyngeal airway.

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    • "The indications of distraction osteogenesis in craniomaxillofacial field are increasing in the last 2 decades mainly in severe cases of hypoplastic bones and in the treatment of maxillofacial asymmetry as seen in hemifacial microsomia1–3 or lengthening of severely hypoplastic mandible as seen in Pierre Robin or Treacher Collins syndromes, resulting in obstructive sleep apnea.4,5 Other indications of distraction are the treatment of hypoplastic maxilla in cleft palate patients.4,6,7 "
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    ABSTRACT: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-β, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The duplication of the mandible is an extremely rare case, which was first described by McLaughlin in 1948 as a case report of duplication of the mouth, the tongue and the mandible. Betty in 1956 and Davies in 1973 reported similar cases. The duplication of the mandible may be associated with the Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). A low hairline, short neck with cervical vertebral fusion and painless limitation of the head movement are the characteristic findings of this syndrome. The incidence of the syndrome varies from 1/30,000 to 1/40,000. Although autosomal recessive inheritance was suggested, no familial inheritance was found in some cases. A very rare case of mandibular duplication in association with KFS, whose duplicated mass was removed following distraction, has been reported.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Although a number of mandibular and occlusal problems may be addressed by orthodontic treatment alone, dentofacial osteotomies are often needed to achieve desired functional or cosmetic results. With the increased popularity of mandibular distraction osteogenesis in recent years, the role of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon is crucial in the multidisciplinary care of patients with such problems. OBJECTIVE To review the history and evolution of mandibular osteotomies and distraction osteogenesis and to discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages, and recent advances of these techniques. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE and PubMed searches without date limits, confined to publications in English, German, and French languages were used to search for terms mandibular advancement, mandibular osteotomy, orthognathic surgery, mandibular distraction osteogenesis, prognathism, and retrognathism in the respective languages. References not found on the sources noted were found in print form in the New York Medical College Library when needed. Particular techniques, as originally described or relating to mandibular osteotomies and mandibular distraction osteogenesis, were critically reviewed. FINDINGS The goal of surgical mandibular modification procedures is to correct a variety of craniofacial abnormalities for both functional and aesthetic purposes. Multiple techniques of both mandibular osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis have been shown to be effective. Their effectiveness and utility is primarily determined by the specific craniofacial defect and desired outcome, as well as surgeon preference and patient compliance. CONCLUSIONS While mandibular osteotomy has evolved tremendously, distraction osteogenesis continues to grow as a leading method of surgical correction for a variety of craniofacial defects. Current research shows significant strides in making distraction more effective and efficient to use for both the surgeon and the patient. With the growing popularity of these procedures, the up-to-date knowledge of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon in these advances is of utmost importance.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
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