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Cooling, shed height and shed orientation affecting dairy cows microclimate

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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
COOLING, SHED HEIGHT, AND SHED
ORIENTATION AFFECTING DAIRYCOWS
MICROCLIMATE
M. H. Hatem
1
; R. R. Sadek
2
and M. Samer
3
ABSTRACT
Eight cowsheds were used, the differences between each
cowshed are orientation (east-west or north-south), cooling
(with or without), and height (5 m or 8 m height). Dry-bulb
temperature, relative humidity, dew point, shaded area, air
velocity, and maximum temperature were measured inside each
shed. The temperature-humidity index (THI) and the shading
efficiency were calculated for each cowshed. The trials were
conducted using lactating Holstein Friesian cows; twenty cows
housed inside each shade structure. Respiration rate, skin
temperature, rectal temperature, moreover, the milk production
of each cow, and feed intake were measured and recorded
throughout the experimental work. Air velocities recorded under
the higher sheds were higher than those recorded under the
lower sheds which enhance the aeration; consequently,
maximum temperatures, and THI recorded under the higher
sheds were less than those recorded under the lower sheds.
Thereby, increasing shed height enhances dairy cows
microclimate under Egyptian conditions (hot climate);
consequently, the milk production increases. The best
orientation is the east-west orientation, which is preferable for
hot climates. The exploitation of cooling has significant effect
on microclimate, cooling enhances the ambient environment
and provides comfortable zone for dairy cows which achieved
high production levels.
Keywords: Open Housing, Open Accommodation, Open-Lot Housing, Dairy Cows,
Heat Stress, Cowshed, Shade Structure, Height, Low Shades, High Shades, Hot
Climate, Orientation, Cooling, Micro-Sprinklers.
1
Professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo
University.
2
Professor, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.
3
Senior Teaching Assistant, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of
Agriculture, Cairo University.
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
INTRODUCTION
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture
(2001), Egypt has 3.4 million dairy cattle that producing 1.6
million tons of milk, which cover 70% of the national needs of
milk. Several researches must be performed aiming to increase
the milk production; especially, Egypt which has hot climatic
conditions (Shawky et al., 1996).
Hatem (1993) cited that, comfortable zone is the range of
temperatures, moistures, and air velocities of which animals can
live and reach acceptable production levels.
Schmidit et al.
(1988) reported that, comfortable range of temperature for dairy
cows is between 40 and 70
o
F (4.5 and 21
o
C). Cows are usually
not adversely affected by the cold until the temperature drops to
5
o
F (-15
o
C), below this temperature a drop in milk production
occurs. Lindley and Whitaker (1996) cited that, the optimum
temperatures range from 16 to 18
o
C. Keown and Grant (1999)
stated that, heat stress in dairy cattle is one of the leading
causes of decreased production and fertility. Stowell (2000)
reported that, when temperature is between 5 and 15
o
C the
cows are most productive, and when the temperature is
between 15 and 25
o
C a small degree loss in production occurs,
when the temperature exceed the upper critical temperature (25
o
C) a great degree loss in production occurs.
On the other side Shawky et al. (1996) mentioned that, Egypt
has hot dry climatic conditions, the temperature reaches its
highest degrees at summer months (July and August), the mean
maximum temperature for summer months is 41
o
C;
consequently, there is a great gap between summer
temperatures and the upper critical temperature for cows, which
causes great losses in milk production. For these reasons,
comfortable housing conditions must be delivered to dairy
cows.
Blowey (1994) stated that, open housing system is the
preferable to be used under hot climatic conditions, with
varying systems of protection from heat stress, depending on
the ambient temperature. The open housing system consists of
shade structure covering a yard. According to the statistics of
the ministry of agriculture (2000), the open housing system is
frequently used in Egypt; about 90% of the dairy cows housing
systems are open housing system. Youssef (1985) suggested
that, shade should be 3.5 to 4.2 m height in areas with clear
sunny afternoons to permit maximum exposure to the relatively
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
cool north sky, which acts as a radiation sink. He added that, in
areas with cloudy afternoons, shades with 2.1 to 2.7 m height
are more effective as they limit the diffuse sky radiation
received by animals under the shades. Schmidit et al. (1988)
reported that, shade structures should be 12 ft (3.65 m) high
and
oriented north-south to allow proper drying of the shaded earth.
Bengtsson and Whitaker (1988) recommended that, the roof
should be a minimum of 3 m high to permit air flow. Lindley and
Whitaker (1996) stated that, the open system required a sun
shade with an eave height of 4 m,
when oriented north-south,
will allow sunshine to strike all parts under the shade at
sometimes during the day. Muller and Botha (1997) mentioned
that, temperature differences between a low-roofed structure of
1.75 m high and a high-roofed structure of 3.15 m high, were
small (0.5
o
C) although longer stress hours per day were
recorded under the low-roofed structure. Stowell et al. (1998)
says that, low shades (1.85 m) were preferable to taller shades
(3.65 m) in hot climatic conditions. Moreover, they added that
more exposure to north had the least daytime heat gain.
Martin (1998) mentioned that, shade structures have
traditionally been oriented north-south (for cold climates) to
encourage sun intrusion under the shade to enhance soil drying
and to spread out the area on which cattle congregate (i.e. cows
follow shade).
Buffington and Collier (1983) mentioned that, the orientation
of a shade structure is crucial. The preferred orientation is east-
west (for hot climates), i.e. the long axis of the building runs in
an east-west direction.
The sprinkler and fan cooling principles are that the
sprinklers create droplets that wet the cows’ hair coat to the
skin. Fans are then used to force air over the cows’ body
causing evaporative cooling to take place on the skin and hair
coat. Heat from the cows’ body causes evaporation of the
moisture. For best results system should be located under
shade. A shaded feed bunk or the holding pens are the two
locations currently recommended (Turner et al., 1997; Meyer et
al. 2002).
The main objectives of this paper are to study the effect of
shed height on dairy cows microclimate, investigate the cooling
impact on dairy cows microclimate and productivity, and
specify the best orientation for shade structures.
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was conducted in Tamya district of Fayyum
governorate, 80 km west of the Egyptian capital Cairo, at
latitude 29.04 and longitude 31.06, during summer months (June
July – August of 2003). The measurements were performed
one day a week (each Friday), five times along daytime in 3
hours intervals (07:00 am 10:00 am 01:00 pm 04:00 pm
07:00 pm).
Eight cowsheds were employed, four are east-west oriented
(i.e. the long axis of the building runs in an east-west direction)
and four are north-south oriented (the orientation was specified
by compass which is made in USA; range: 0~360
o
; accuracy:
0.1
o
), having the same roof material which was built from reed
mats (3×
××
×3 m) and having the same floor constructions. The
housing has an equal number of Holstein Friesian cows (335
cows). The differences between each cowshed are orientation,
cooling (with or without), and height, four cowsheds are 5 m
high and four cowsheds are 8 m high. Consequently, the trials
comprised one cowshed of 5 m height east-west oriented
without cooling (5m-EW-WO), one cowshed of 5 m height east-
west oriented with cooling (5m-EW-W), one cowshed of 5 m
height north-south oriented without cooling (5m-NS-WO), one
cowshed of 5 m height north-south oriented with cooling (5m-
NS-W), one cowshed of 8 m height east-west oriented without
cooling (8m-EW-WO), one cowshed of 8 m height east-west
oriented with cooling (8m-EW-W), one cowshed of 8 m height
north-south oriented without cooling (8m-NS-WO), one cowshed
of 8 m height north-south oriented with cooling (8m-NS-W).
Each shade structure is 150 m long and 36 m wide shading a
yard of 150×
××
×56 m (fig. 1 shows the shade structure for 8 m shed,
the drawing was performed using the AutoCAD program). The
trial was conducted on 160 lactating Holstein Friesian cows;
twenty cows for each shade structure.
Two lines of micro-sprinklers and fans as a cooling system
were located under the shed and mounted affter the feeding
bunks, 180
o
(half-circle) nozzles were used with discharge of 0.1
gpm and nozzle pressure of 25 psi. The fans model is
SCHAEFER having diameter of 90 cm, ½ HP power, 825 rpm,
and 60 Hz.
The measurements were divided to specific measurements
for cowsheds, specific measurements for breeding areas, and
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
specific measurements for animals. The whole measurements
were quantified under each shed at the same time.
The specific measurements for cowsheds were shading area
under the sheds. The shading efficiency was calculated for each
shed five times a day by measuring the shaded area under each
shed and divided by the roof area multiplied by one hundred.
The specific measurements for breeding area were maximum
temperature, relative humidity (RH %), dry-bulb temperature,
and air velocity. The specific measurements for animals were
body temperature, skin temperature, respiration rate, milk
production, and feed intake.
For the cowsheds, shaded area under sheds was measured
by tape (unit: cm, m; range: 0~30 m; accuracy: 1 cm).
For the breading areas, maximum temperature was
measured by max-min thermometer (made in Germany; unit:
o
C;
accuracy: 0.1
o
C; range: -30~50
o
C), relative humidity and dry-
bulb temperature were measured by digital hygrometer-
thermometer [made in USA; display: digital; model: PHILIPS;
source of power: electricity, using adaptor or rechargeable
battery (9 V); unit:
o
C,
o
F, %; accuracy for relative humidity: 0.01
%; accuracy for temperature: 0.01
o
C], and air velocity was
measured by vane anemometer [made in USA; display: digital;
model: Lutron AM-4203HA; source of power: rechargeable
battery (9 V); unit: m/s, km/h, mile/h, knots, ft/min; range:
0.1~25.0 m/s; accuracy: 0.1 m/s] at the same intervals stated
before.
Abd-El-Reheem (1997) Mentioned that skin and rectal
temperatures and respiration rate increase with the increasing
of the ambient temperature; consequently, rectal temperature
was measured by digital thermometer [made in USA; display:
digital; model: DT-01C/DT-OF1; source of power: battery (1.5 V);
unit:
o
C,
o
F; ranges: DT-01C 32.0
o
C~41.9
o
C, DT-01F 89.6
50 cm
6.5 m
Fig.
(
1):
Shade Structure
.
12 m
12 m 12 m
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o
F~107.4
o
F; accuracy: DT-01C ±0.1
o
C (between 35
o
C and 40
o
C)
±0.2
o
C (under 35
o
C or over 40
o
C), DT-01F ±0.2
o
F (between 95
o
F and 102.2
o
F) ±0.4
o
F (under 95
o
F or over 102.2
o
F); having
dimensions of: 1.4 ×
××
× 2.2 ×
××
× 12.9 cm; weight: approx. 10.5 g].
The skin temperature was measured by infra-red
thermometer [made in USA; display: digital; model: RadioShack
22-325; source of power: battery (12 V); unit:
o
C,
o
F; range: -18 ~
200
o
C (0 ~ 400
o
F); accuracy: ± 0.5% of reading; response time:
0.5 second; distance to spot size (D:S): 3:1; operating
environment: 0 to 50
o
C at relative humidity of 10 – 90%].
The respiration rate (breaths/minute) was determined by
timed visual counting of flank movement.
The milk production was recorded for each cow by the farm
central computer which receives data from the milking parlor by
a luminous fibers cable, and feed intake was recorded for each
cow in the farm central computer. The specific measurements
for animals were performed twice a day, at 06:00 pm and 13:00
pm.
All data were evaluated using the SAS program and all
curves and histograms were represented by the Microsoft Excel
program.
The way to estimate heat stress is computing the
temperature humidity index (THI):
THI = T
db
+ 0.36 T
dp
+ 41.2
Where,
T
db
: Dry-bulb temperature;
T
dp
: Dew-point temperature.
When THI is less than 72 there is no stress, between 73 and
77 there is a mild stress, between 78 and 88 there is a significant
stress, between 89 and 99 there is a severe stress. If the THI
exceed 99 a possible death occurs (Keown and Grant, 1999;
Stowell et al., 2001; Meyer et al., 2002); consequently, the
temperature humidity index (THI) was computed for each
cowshed and the results were compared between them, aiming
to estimate the cowshed height who delivers less heat stress.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The obtained results of the measurements which taken in the
different experimental phases were summarized and plotted in
histograms and curves. The diurnal maximum temperatures
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
Jun-06 Jun-13 Jun-20 Jun-27
Day of Experiment
Diurnal Maximum Temp. (
o
C)
5 m-EW-WO
5 m-EW-W
5 m-NS-WO
5 m-NS-W
8 m-EW-W
8 m-EW-WO
8 m-NS-W
8 m-NS-WO
measured under the (5m-EW-WO), (5m-EW-W), (5m-NS-WO), and
(5m-NS-W) cowsheds during summer months were relatively
high compared with the (8m-EW-WO), (8m-EW-W), (8m-NS-WO),
and (8m-NS-W) cowsheds respectively (fig. 2; fig. 3; fig. 4). The
differences of maximum temperatures made by increasing the
shed height from 5 m high to 8 m high were significant (P < 0.05)
and exceed 4
o
C. Therefore the cowshed height has a significant
effect on dairy cows microclimate, thus increasing the cowshed
height enhance the microclimate. When comparing the diurnal
maximum temperatures measured under the (5m-EW-WO), (5m-
NS-WO), (8m-EW-WO), and (8m-NS-WO) cowsheds with those
measured under the (5m-EW-W), (5m-NS-W), (8m-EW-W), and
(8m-NS-W) cowsheds respectively, we found that the diurnal
maximum temperatures were high under sheds without cooling
relatively compared with cowsheds which provide cooling, the
differences were significant (P < 0.01) and reach to 8
o
C.
Fig. (2): Diurnal maximum temperature measured under different
sheds at June (P < 0.05).
Orientation has no significant effect on diurnal maximum
temperatures (P > 0.05), when comparing the diurnal maximum
temperatures measured under the (5m-EW-WO), (5m-EW-W),
(8m-EW-WO), and (8m-EW-W) cowsheds to those measured
under the (5m-NS-WO), (5m-NS-W), (8m-NS-WO), and (8m-NS-W)
cowsheds respectively.
In spite of the fact that the orientation has no significant
effect on diurnal maximum temperatures (P > 0.05), the
orientation has a significant effect on the cowshed shading
efficiency (P < 0.01) which illustrated in figure (5), the cowsheds
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29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
Jul-04 Jul-11 Jul-18 Jul-25
Day of Experiment
Diurnal Maximum Temp. (
o
C)
5 m-EW-WO
5 m-EW-W
5 m-NS-WO
5 m-NS-W
8 m-EW-W
8 m-EW-WO
8 m-NS-W
8 m-NS-WO
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
Aug-01 Aug-08 Aug-15 Aug-22 Aug-29
Day of Experiment
Diunal Maximum Temp. (
o
C)
5 m-EW-WO
5 m-EW-W
5 m-NS-WO
5 m-NS-W
8 m-EW-W
8 m-EW-WO
8 m-NS-W
8 m-NS-WO
east-west oriented have high shading efficiency compared with
cowsheds north-south oriented. It was concluded that, the best
orientation is the east-west orientation.
Fig. (3): Diurnal maximum temperature measured under different
sheds at July (P < 0.05).
Fig. (4): Diurnal maximum temperature measured under different
sheds at August (P < 0.05).
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
7 a.m.
10 a.m.
1 p.m.
4 p.m.
7 p.m.
Time
Shading Effeciency (%)
5 m-EW
8 m-EW
5 m-NS
8 m-NS
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
7 a.m.
10 a.m.
1 p.m.
4 p.m.
7 p.m.
Time
THI
5 m-EW-WO
5 m-EW-W
5 m-NS-WO
5 m-NS-W
8 m-EW-W
8 m-EW-WO
8 m-NS-W
8 m-NS-WO
Fig. (5): Average of shading efficiency measured under all sheds
during summer months (P < 0.01).
The temperature humidity index (THI) evince that, higher
shades (8 m) are preferable to lower shades (5 m), and the
cooling affect the dairy cows microclimate (fig. 6). Also, THI
evince that the best shed is the (8m-EW-W) cowshed.
Fig. (6): Average of THI measured under all sheds
during summer months (P < 0.01).
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
7 a.m.
10 a.m.
1 p.m.
4 p.m.
7 p.m.
Time
Average of Air Velocity (m/s)
5 m-EW-WO
5 m-EW-W
5 m-NS-WO
5 m-NS-W
8 m-EW-W
8 m-EW-WO
8 m-NS-W
8 m-NS-WO
Air velocity measured under all sheds illustrates the upshot
of shed height effect on dairy cows microclimate (fig. 7). The
average of air velocity measured under taller sheds was high
compared with the average of air velocity measured under lower
sheds; differences were significant (P < 0.01). Data show that,
the air velocity under shed is directly proportional to shed
height, whenever the shed height increases the air velocity
under shed increases, which results in increasing of the
volumetric air flow under the higher shade structure. The
increasing of the volumetric air flow helps cows to disperse the
heat energy produced by their bodies; also this dispersion
occurs in huge air volume located under the higher shed (8 m),
consequently the impact of heat energy produced by animals on
animals’ microclimate is negligible, which results in slight effect
on dry-bulb temperatures measured under shed assisted with
the remoteness of the shed which does not radiate heat over
cows such as low sheds. On the other side, lower shade
structure (5 m) has a slight air velocity which has a slight
volumetric air flow under the lower shed; consequently, cows
dissipate their body heat in small air volume which increases
the maximum temperature under the lower shed in addition to
the closeness of the heat radiating roof.
Fig. (7): Average of air velocity measured under all sheds
during summer months (P < 0.01).
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Misr J. Ag. Eng., Vol. 21 (3): 714 – 726 © 2004 Misr Society of Agricultural Engineering
The average of milk production during the whole summer by
cows housed under the (5m-EW-WO), (5m-EW-W), (5m-NS-WO),
(5m-NS-W), (8m-EW-WO), (8m-EW-W), (8m-NS-WO), and (8m-NS-
W) cowsheds were 18.9, 27.9, 17.9, 26.8, 25.1, 35.6, 24.2, and
34.2 kg/day.cow respectively. The average of skin temperatures
at noon were 35.5, 31.8, 35.9, 32.1, 32.9, 29.9, 33.4, and 30.4
o
C
for cows housed under the same sheds respectively. The
average of respiration rates at noon were 81, 75, 83, 76, 77, 68,
79, and 70 (breaths / min) for cows housed under the same
sheds respectively. There are no significant differences between
rectal temperatures for cows housed under different cowsheds
because of the small range between the lower rectal
temperature (38.5
o
C) and the upper one (39.7
o
C) which it does
not occurs as a result of a disease occurs only as a result of
heat stress. The average of feed intake was 19.7, 25.2, 19.4, 24.9,
24.1, 28.1, 23.7, and 27.4 kg D.M./cow.day for cows housed
under the same sheds respectively.
CONCLUSION
The shed height has a significant effect on dairy cows
microclimate, increasing the shed height (to 8 m) enhance
aeration under the cowshed by introducing high air velocities
compared, with lower sheds (5 m), which results in decreasing
of maximum temperatures measured under shed. The results
evince that, the cowshed height affect the dairy cows
microclimate. Thereby, increasing shed height for the shade
structures used to house dairy cows under Egyptian conditions
enhance dairy cows microclimate; consequently, the milk
production increases. The best orientation is the east-west
orientation, which is preferable for hot climatic conditions. The
exploitation of cooling enhances the ambient environment and
provides comfortable zone for dairy cows of which cows reach
to high production levels. The preferable shed is (8m-EW-W).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors would like to acknowledge Eng. Salah El-Tobgy
the owner of the Tobgy farm where the trials were conducted.
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د . ه 
١
,أ .د .قد ر ر
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,م. ز . 
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ارا ا ذأ ,ارا آ ,ةها  -
٢
اا جا ذأ ,ارا آ ,ةها 
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ارا ا   ,ارا آ ,ةها 
را  ما   آ ا عرا  برا أ  ر
٢٠٠٣ )- - أ .( ا را   ا عرا  ارد 
ت   ترا تاذ)
ە,٨
م(
آ ا   ارد ) ق ب
لو- ب (و ا ماا  ارد )نو وأ ا ما (و د نآ
ت ن ارا  تا . رد  آ س ةرا ءاا ,ر  
ءاا ,ىا  ءا ,ا   آ أ ,ءاا  , ا ةراا رد و
 آ  ما  تا  عا آ   م آ ذو)او ا ا ة
 ,ا ةااو ,ااو اء او ا ( .او ةراا د ب 
ءا ا ةءآ آ .  برا أ ورأ  ن ه ,  أ 
ءاا
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 آ  ة .ا ا را  أ ا ته: ا ل ,
ا  ةرا رد ,ا ةرا ردو ,  ة آ جا   ذ  ةو
ا  ةد ةر  ا اآو .   ا  و  ءا
ات را  ا٨ م ةراا تردو ا ةراا ترد آ  و
 آ   أ ا ه  با او ةراا د و ا ا
را  ا تا
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 آ قوا نأ  .   تاءآ  آ
با ا قا  و ا ت و با ا لا  ا  ر
 قوا آ. ا   ا ما ي  ا  آيراا د .
را  ا ا ه ر ة  ه   تا أ آو٨ م
و با ا قا  اوا م  ما. ةدز نأ ارا ه  
ا عرا ا  مااو با ا قا ا و را  
اا جا داد و  , را ءاا ت عرا ةد ارا ه  و
ا  ا هء ا  ماا ا  با ا قا  و
را  يراا دا  , تا عرا ةدز   ارا  آ
تا ه أ  ذو  ةدا ا  مااو تا ه  .
... According to Smith et al. [72] the orientation of dairy barns can affect the total incoming solar radiation resulting in the heat gains of the structure during the summer, this is illustrated by a trial in California which showed that east-west orientation provides greater protection from direct sunlight than a north-south orientation [72] . The effect of the building's orientation on the microclimate of eight similar cowsheds located in Egypt was tested in a study from Hatem et al. [73] . Half of the cowsheds had a north-south orientation and the other half east-west. ...
... Half of the cowsheds had a north-south orientation and the other half east-west. Orientation was found to have a satisfactory result in shading [73] . As a matter of fact, east-west orientation led to a maximum shading efficiency up to 98% for an 8 m high shed while the north-south orientation presented maximum shading efficiency of almost 93%. ...
... Egypt [73] Designing cowshed with the proper height in Egypt 8 m East-West orientated cow-sheds present lower temperatures of 5 °C compared to 3 m cow-sheds during summer months. ...
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Passive cooling systems have already applied with success in urban buildings resulting to energy conservation. This paper presents the most important techniques and systems, concerning passive cooling systems applied in livestock building mentioned in the literature, to date. Passive cooling systems designed for livestock buildings should take into consideration the particular needs of farm animals, with reference to environmental conditions, as well as the specific characteristics of building construction materials. This work focuses on the description of the construction principles of the most common passive cooling systems of farm buildings and to the energy savings due to them. Apart from the comparison of energy savings and effectiveness of each cooling system, some similar systems used in urban buildings, which could be adopted in livestock buildings are, also, described. This study is important as it can be helpful to constructors and producers, aiming to proceed with modern sustainable farming methods. "Anyone clicking on the link below before October 10, 2019 will be taken directly to the final version of the article on ScienceDirect, which they are welcome to read or download. No sign up, registration or fees are required." https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ZbdH1M7zGwbYE
... Multivariate analysis also indicated that each metre increase in eave roof height was associated with decreases of 0.78 • C in AT, 3.31 units in HLI, 1.42 units in THI and was associated with an increase of 0.14 m/s in AS. These results are consistent with those of Hatem et al. [62] who reported that increasing roof height of cowsheds from 5 to 8 m enhanced cowshed microclimate by increasing air velocities, which resulted in a decrease of maximum temperatures and an increase of milk production in Egypt. Currents results suggest that increasing roof height could be a potential intervention that would lead to a decrease in AT within the cowshed, and increase air movement through the shed. ...
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In smallholder dairy farms (SDFs), farmers often build cowsheds using local materials and based on self-accumulated experience without due consideration to reducing the risk of heat stress. This study aimed to characterise the heat stress abatement strategies and microclimate within SDF cowsheds from four typical dairy regions of Vietnam (south lowland, south highland, north lowland and north highland) and identify the housing parameters most associated with the microclimate. The study was conducted on 32 SDFs (eight SDFs per region) in autumn 2017. Twelve housing management variables, illustrating cowshed design and heat stress abatement methods of each SDF, were collected. Six microclimate parameters, collected within the cowshed, were temperature (AT), humidity, air speed (AS), heat load index (HLI), Temperature-humidity index (THI) and accumulated heat load units (AHLU) during a day (06:00 h to 18:00 h). Factor analysis and cluster analysis was applied to group cowsheds of SDFs into clusters where SDFs in the cluster had the same cowshed characteristics. Multivariable linear models were applied to define the parameters most likely to inform future research into heat stress mitigation on SDF. Averaged from 08:00 h to 18:00 h, microclimate inside the cowsheds was considered hot (HLI > 79) in the highland and very hot (HLI > 86) in the lowland regions. Cows in the lowland regions accumulated high heat load (AHLU > 50) by 18:00 h. Cowsheds of SDFs varied widely and grouped into seven cowshed types, but no type was more effective than others in reducing heat stress conditions within cowsheds. Using roof soakers together with fans decreased AT and HLI by 1.3 °C and 3.2 units, respectively, at 14:00 h compared to 11:00 h. Each 100 m increase in altitude was associated with decreases of 0.4 °C in AT, 1.3 units in HLI and 0.8 units in THI (p < 0.001). Each meter increase in the eave height of the cowshed roof was associated with decreases of 0.87 °C in AT, 3.31 units in HLI and 1.42 units in THI, and an increase of 0.14 m/s in AS (p < 0.05). The cowshed parameters that should be prioritised for future research into the amelioration of heat stress in SDF cows include using the roof soakers together with fans, increasing altitude, eave roof height and floor area per cow.
... Similar finding was observed by Joshi (2014) during autumn season and Sinha (2015) during winter season under modified housing system. Hatem et al (2004.) reported that there was decrease in respiration rate with increase in the height of roof. ...
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of modified housing system on physiological parameters like rectal temperature, skin temperature, plasma cortisol level, respiration rate and pulse rate (counts/min) of Murrah buffaloes during autumn and winter seasons. A total of 14 lactating Murrah buffaloes were randomly selected and divided into two groups, on the basis of age, body weight (BW) and parity (P). T1=First group (n=7; BW=544.86kg; P=2.14) of buffaloes was housed under existing loose housing system and T2=Second group (n=7; BW=547.71kg; P=2.28) of buffaloes was housed under modified shed. In the present study, in autumn and winter season the mean rectal temperature were (T1=101.56±0.06 vs. T2=100.94±0.12ºF and T1=100.71±0.10 vs. T2=100.22±0.08ºF), skin temperature were (T1=95.19±0.61 vs. T2=93.01±0.57 ºF and T1=90.27±0.23 vs. T2=89.06±0.27 ºF) and plasma cortisol level (T1=4.04±0.23 vs. T2=3.31±0.21 and T1=3.19±0.12 vs. T2=2.70±0.14 ng/ml) respectively. These parameters were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in buffaloes housed under T2 as compared to T1 in autumn season, respiration rate (T1=37.39±1.02 vs. T2=30.99±1.21 and T1=26.56±0.84 vs. T2=23.81±0.66 counts/min.) was significantly lower in autumn (P less than 0.01) and winter season (P less than 0.0) and pulse rate (T1=60.91±1.17 vs. T2=52.52±1.44 and T1=55.01±0.52 vs. T2=51.27±0.53 counts/min) was significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in buffaloes housed under T2 as compared to T1 in both seasons. The Murrah buffaloes housed under modified shed were improved physiological reactions during the autumn and winter seasons.
... Feeding of nutritionally balanced rations to lactating cows for improvement of milk production and feed conversion efficiency (Sherasia et al., 2016). Hatem et al. (2004) reported an increased dry matter intake by animals housed in a shed with increase height of roof. The DMI was positively correlated with lying time (r= 0.880, P<0.001 and r=0.964, ...
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Present investigation was carried out to study the effect of modified housing system on production performance of crossbred (Karan-Fries) cows during hot humid seasons. For this study 16 lactating crossbred cows in their early lactation were selected based on parity, milk yield and body weights and randomly divided into two groups (G-I and G-II) with eight animals in each group. G-I group was housed under existing loose housing system and G-II under modified housing system. Analysis revealed that, the maximum temperature and THI were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in modified shed as compared to existing shed. Percent cow comfort index was significantly (P less than 0.01) higher in G-II (94.25%) group as compared to G-I (72.75%). There was significant (P less than 0.05) differences of dry matter intake and average daily milk yield of cows and higher mean values were recorded in modified shed as compared to existing shed. Highly significant (P less than 0.01) increase in lying time of cows was recorded in modified shed (53.43%) as compared to existing shed (46.51%). It was concluded that the cows housed inside modified shed during hot-humid season were more comfortable and exhibited improved overall production performance as compared to the animals under existing shed.
... Several studies investigated the effect of barn design on animals' micro-environment, where the barn design including floor design and accordingly, the management of the different components (including cooling or heating systems) inside the barn are known to affect the indoor micro-environment. The most crucial of these bio-environmental components are the temperature and the air velocity which when increased or decreased, directly affected emission rates [11,12,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. ...
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This study investigated the impact assessment of oil spillage on farmlands of some communities in Ilaje Area of Ondo state. Three farmlands were considered in the course of this study. Two of the three farmlands were within the Ikorigho and Otumara communities that recently experienced oil spillage and they are about 300 m from each other. While the third farm was within the Igbokoda community which is geographically similar but has not experienced oil spillage, it was used as control. The farmland was delineated at each area by the grid technique and soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth of the ground. Some physiochemical properties that reflect soil nutrient content and fertility status (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) were determined using standard methods and results from the three areas were compared. There was a significant decrease in the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and organic matter, as well as a significant increase in the electrical conductivity, moisture content and phosphorous content of the oil-spill affected farmlands at Ikorigho and Otumara when compared with the non-affected farmland at Igbokoda. The acidic nature of the farmlands could not be attributed entirely to the oil spill since the control farmland at Igbokoda was slightly acidic. The results show that oil spillage has adversely affected the nutrient level and fertility status of farmland at Ikorigho and Otumara communities, which needs urgent remediation.
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