Basic Clinical and Laboratory Features of Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever

Department of Preventive Medicine, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-5119, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 11/2011; 204 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S810-6. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir299
Source: PubMed


The filoviruses Marburg and Ebola cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. Beginning with the 1967 Marburg outbreak, 30 epidemics, isolated cases, and accidental laboratory infections have been described in the medical literature. We reviewed those reports to determine the basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral HF. The most detailed information was found in descriptions of patients treated in industrialized countries; except for the 2000 outbreak of Ebola Sudan HF in Uganda, reports of epidemics in central Africa provided little controlled or objective clinical data. Other than the case fatality rate, there were no clear differences in the features of the various filovirus infections. This compilation will be of value to medical workers responding to epidemics and to investigators attempting to develop animal models of filoviral HF. By identifying key unanswered questions and gaps in clinical data, it will help guide clinical research in future outbreaks.

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    • "n humans . The typical clinical symptoms known from hantavirus - infected patients in the Old and New World include high fever , hemorrhages , thrombocytopenia , abdominal pain , flu - like symptoms , and finally organ failure – symptoms known to be also caused by many other hemorrhagic fever viruses including arena - , filo - , and flaviviruses ( Kortepeter et al . , 2011 ; Heinz and Stiasny , 2012 ; McLay et al . , 2014 ) . Recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases , like MERS coronavirus on the Arabian Peninsula ( de Groot et al . , 2013 ) or Ebola virus in West Africa ( Baize et al . , 2014 ) , demonstrate a high necessity for intensive studies of highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses in order to be prepared"
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    ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d´Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d´Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In Côte d´Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Microbiology
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    • "The trend of worldwide epidemic becomes the serious consideration for this infection[1] [2]. The Ebola virus infection has main clinical manifestation as acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic episode[3] [4] [5]. The problem of hemostatic disturbance can be seen. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus infection is the present public health problem. The trend of worldwide epidemic becomes the serious consideration for this infection. The Ebola virus infection has main clinical manifestation as acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic episode. The problem of hemostatic disturbance can be seen. Focusing on the pathophysiology, selenium plays an important role in the blood clotting regulation. The study on the selenoprotein of the Ebola virus can be useful for further understanding on the pathology of the infection. Here, the authors use metallomics analysis for assessment of Ebola virus genome. According to this study, the selenoprotein portion within Ebola virus genome can be detected at position 1046-1115.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
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    • "Ebola viruses transmit through direct contact with infectious bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, saliva, and tears, from EVD patients or wild animal carriers, such as nonhuman primates (NHPs) [10] [11], and the incubation period is 2e21 days [10] [12]. In the early stages, EVD patients usually show symptoms like fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, and headache, while both internal and external bleeding, as well as kidney and liver dysfunction, will arise as the course of EVD progresses [10] [12]. The fatality rate of EVD is 40e90%, according to the historical analyses of Ebola outbreaks [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus infection can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). Patients usually show severe symptoms, and the fatality rate can reach up to 90%. No licensed medicine is available. In this review, development of therapeutics for treatment of Ebola virus infection and EVD will be discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Microbes and Infection
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