Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates EC coupling and heart failure in mice through regulation of FKBP12.6
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
(Impact Factor: 3.84).
03/2012; 302(9):H1860-70. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00702.2011
Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. The cardiovascular transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 has been linked to experimental heart failure in mice, but the mechanisms by which it regulates myocardial function remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to determine how CHF1/Hey2 affects development of heart failure through examination of contractility in a myocardial knockout mouse model. We generated myocardial-specific knockout mice. At baseline, cardiac function was normal, but, after aortic banding, the conditional knockout mice demonstrated a greater increase in ventricular weight-to-body weight ratio compared with control mice (5.526 vs. 4.664 mg/g) and a significantly decreased ejection fraction (47.8 vs. 72.0% control). Isolated cardiac myocytes from these mice showed decreased calcium transients and fractional shortening after electrical stimulation. To determine the molecular basis for these alterations in excitation-contraction coupling, we first measured total sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and calcium-dependent force generation in isolated muscle fibers, which were normal, suggesting a defect in calcium cycling. Analysis of gene expression demonstrated normal expression of most genes known to be involved in myocardial calcium cycling, with the exception of the ryanodine receptor binding protein FKBP12.6, which was expressed at increased levels in the conditional knockout hearts. Treatment of the isolated knockout myocytes with FK506, which inhibits the association of FKBP12.6 with the ryanodine receptor, restored contractile function. These findings demonstrate that conditional deletion of CHF1/Hey2 in the myocardium leads to abnormalities in calcium handling mediated by FKBP12.6 that predispose to pressure overload-induced heart failure.
Available from: Chad S Weldy
- "Echocardiographic experiments was performed to measure heart function and chamber dimensions such as left ventricular wall thickness (LV WT), left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, in%) using a VisualSonics VEVO 770 system equipped with a 707B scan head, as previously described [39,40]. Mice were lightly anesthetized with 1% isoflurane when performing echocardiography. "
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ABSTRACT: Strong associations have been observed between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In particular, exposure to traffic related PM2.5 has been associated with increases in left ventricular hypertrophy, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. As much of traffic related PM2.5 is derived from diesel exhaust (DE), we investigated the effects of chronic DE exposure on cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in the adult mouse by exposing mice to DE combined with either of two mouse models of cardiac hypertrophy: angiotensin II infusion or pressure overload induced by transverse aortic banding.
Wild type male C57BL/6 J mice were either infused with angiotensin II (800 ng/kg/min) via osmotic minipump implanted subcutaneously for 1 month, or underwent transverse aortic banding (27 gauge needle 1 week for observing acute reactions, 26 gauge needle 3 months or 6 months for observing chronic reactions). Vehicle (saline) infusion or sham surgery was used as a control. Shortly after surgery, mice were transferred to our exposure facility and randomly assigned to either diesel exhaust (300 or 400 mug/m3) or filtered air exposures. After reaching the end of designated time points, echocardiography was performed to measure heart structure and function. Gravimetric analysis was used to measure the ventricular weight to body weight ratio. We also measured heart rate by telemetry using implanted ambulatory ECG monitors.
Both angiotensin II and transverse aortic banding promoted cardiac hypertrophy compared to vehicle or sham controls. Transverse aortic banding for six months also promoted heart failure in addition to cardiac hypertrophy. In all cases, DE failed to exacerbate the development of hypertrophy or heart failure when compared to filtered air controls. Prolonged DE exposure also led to a decrease in average heart rate.
Up to 6-months of DE exposure had no effect on cardiac hypertrophy and heart function induced by angiotensin II stimulation or pressure overload in adult C57BL/6 J mice. This study highlights the potential importance of particle constituents of ambient PM2.5 to elicit cardiotoxic effects. Further investigations on particle constituents and cardiotoxicity are warranted.
Available from: Stephen C Kolwicz
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ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that cardiac myosin can use 2-deoxy-ATP (dATP) as an energy substrate, that it enhances contraction and relaxation with minimal effect on calcium-handling properties in vitro, and that contractile enhancement occurs with only minor elevation of cellular [dATP]. Here, we report the effect of chronically enhanced dATP concentration on cardiac function using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (TgRR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Hearts from TgRR mice had elevated left ventricular systolic function compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both in vivo and in vitro, without signs of hypertrophy or altered diastolic function. Isolated cardiomyocytes from TgRR mice had enhanced contraction and relaxation, with no change in Ca(2+) transients, suggesting targeted improvement of myofilament function. TgRR hearts had normal ATP and only slightly decreased phosphocreatine levels by (31)P NMR spectroscopy, and they maintained rate responsiveness to dobutamine challenge. These data demonstrate long-term (at least 5-mo) elevation of cardiac [dATP] results in sustained elevation of basal left ventricular performance, with maintained β-adrenergic responsiveness and energetic reserves. Combined with results from previous studies, we conclude that this occurs primarily via enhanced myofilament activation and contraction, with similar or faster ability to relax. The data are sufficiently compelling to consider elevated cardiac [dATP] as a therapeutic option to treat systolic dysfunction.
Available from: jci.org
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ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used a transcriptional high-throughput luciferase reporter assay to screen 3,756 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds for induction of BMPR2 signaling. The best response was achieved with FK506 (tacrolimus), via a dual mechanism of action as a calcineurin inhibitor that also binds FK-binding protein-12 (FKBP12), a repressor of BMP signaling. FK506 released FKBP12 from type I receptors activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), ALK2, and ALK3 and activated downstream SMAD1/5 and MAPK signaling and ID1 gene regulation in a manner superior to the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine and the FKBP12 ligand rapamycin. In pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) from patients with idiopathic PAH, low-dose FK506 reversed dysfunctional BMPR2 signaling. In mice with conditional Bmpr2 deletion in ECs, low-dose FK506 prevented exaggerated chronic hypoxic PAH associated with induction of EC targets of BMP signaling, such as apelin. Low-dose FK506 also reversed severe PAH in rats with medial hypertrophy following monocrotaline and in rats with neointima formation following VEGF receptor blockade and chronic hypoxia. Our studies indicate that low-dose FK506 could be useful in the treatment of PAH.
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