Role of cyclin D1 amplification and expression in vulvar carcinomas
Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany. Human pathology
(Impact Factor: 2.77).
03/2012; 43(9):1386-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2011.11.014
Cyclin D1 (CCND1) belongs to the family of D-type cyclins involved in cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and cell migration. CCND1 was found to be amplified and overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including some vulvar carcinoma cell lines. To determine the relationship of CCND1 copy number changes and CCND1 protein expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis, 183 vulvar carcinomas were analyzed on a tissue microarray. Amplification was observed in 32 (22.4%) vulvar cancer specimens and was statistically related to the presence of regional lymph node metastases (P < .001). Detectable CCND1 expression was found in 139 (83.2%) of vulvar carcinomas, and 76 (45.5%) exhibited a moderate or strong expression. Increased levels of CCND1 expression were significantly related to higher patient age (P = .013), positive pN category (P = .004), and negative human papillomavirus status (P < .001). Basaloid as well as verrucous, warty-type, and mixed vulvar carcinomas showed lower CCND1 expression levels than keratinizing or nonkeratinizing tumors (P < .001 and P = .032, respectively). Elevated CCND1 expression levels and amplification of the CCND1 gene were closely connected in the present analysis (P < .001). Patient prognosis was independent from CCND1 amplification status and expression level (P = .57 each). In conclusion, CCND1 is amplified and overexpressed in a substantial proportion of vulvar carcinomas and associated with the occurrence of locoregional lymph node metastases, especially in human papillomavirus-negative tumors.
Available from: Jeng-Wei Lu
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ABSTRACT: Deregulated cell cycle can contribute to the unscheduled proliferation in cancer cells. Overexpression of cell cycle regulators CDK4 and Cyclin D1 has been reported in many cancers. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical implications of CDK4 and Cyclin D1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The levels of mRNA and protein were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 59 paired HCC and the neighboring noncancer tissues. The relationship between CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis was investigated. Our data demonstrated that the mRNA level of CDK4 was up-regulated (p = 0.019), while that of Cyclin D1 was down-regulated (p = 0.002), in HCC. Immunohistochemical data confirmed that CDK4 protein was increased in 73 % and Cyclin D1 protein was decreased in 66 % of HCC samples. Overexpression of CDK4 was correlated with HBV (p = 0.054, borderline significant), tumor size (p = 0.014), and stage (p = 0.010). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high CDK4 was correlated with a poor survival rate (I vs. II, p < 0.001; I vs. III, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (p = 0.002), stage (p = 0.021), and high CDK4 score (I vs. II-III, p < 0.001) were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (p = 0.007) and high CDK4 score (I vs. II-III, p < 0.001) were independent factors for overall survival of HCC. The expression of Cyclin D1 was not correlated with CDK4 expression, tumor grades, survival rate, and any clinicopathological parameters. CDK4 could provide a clinical prognostic marker for HCC progression.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate cyclin D1 and fascin immunoreactivity in normal, reactive and neoplastic vulvar skin correlating the findings with p16 protein and Ki67 expression.
66 vulvar biopsy or resection specimens demonstrating normal appearances, reactive epidermal changes, usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN), differentiated-type VIN (dVIN), p16-positive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and p16-negative SCC were examined immunohistochemically for cyclin D1, fascin, Ki67 and p16 protein. Where applicable, expression patterns were compared in microanatomically distinct areas, particularly at the invasive front (deep tumour margin) of SCC.
Normal epidermis showed parabasal Ki67 and cyclin D1 staining while fascin labelled cells in the lower one-third of the epithelium. Reactive and dVIN specimens demonstrated mildly increased Ki67 and cyclin D1 expression that maintained parabasal polarity, whereas uVIN and p16-positive SCC were characterised by loss of cyclin D1 staining. However, in 14 of 20 p16-positive SCC small infiltrative tumour groups and single infiltrating cells at the invasive front showed a cyclin D1-positive/ Ki67-negative phenotype. In contrast, p16-negative SCC generally showed diffuse and concordant cyclin D1 and Ki67 labelling, including at the invasive margin. Fascin expression was increased in all VIN and SCC lesions.
Variations in cyclin D1 and Ki67 expression between p16-positive and p16-negative vulvar SCCs suggest different mechanisms of invasion in these tumour subgroups. Fascin is upregulated in vulvar squamous neoplasia but immunostaining does not discriminate in situ from invasive lesions nor putative human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent SCCs.
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ABSTRACT: Studies on individual types of gynecological cancers (GCs), utilizing novel expression technologies, have revealed specific pathogenetic patterns and gene markers for cervical (CC), endometrial (EC) and vulvar cancer (VC). Although the clinical phenotypes of the three types of gynecological cancers are discrete, the fact they originate from a common embryological origin, has led to the hypothesis that they might share common features reflecting regression to early embryogenesis. To address this question, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their profiles. Our data identified both common features (pathways and networks) and novel distinct modules controlling the same deregulated biological processes in all three types. Specifically, four novel transcriptional modules were discovered regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Integration and comparison of our data with other databases, led to the identification of common features among cancer types, embryonic stem (ES) cells and the newly discovered cell population of squamocolumnar (SC) junction of the cervix, considered to host the early cancer events. Conclusively, these data lead us to propose the presence of common features among gynecological cancers, other types of cancers, ES cells and the pre-malignant SC junction cells, where the novel E2F/NFY and MAX/CEBP modules play an important role for the pathogenesis of gynecological carcinomas.
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