Perioperative music and its effects on anxiety, hemodynamics, and pain in women undergoing mastectomy

Nurse Anesthesia Track, Union University, School of Nursing, Jackson, Tennessee, USA.
AANA journal 08/2011; 79(4 Suppl):S21-7.
Source: PubMed


There is increasing interest in evaluating the use of nonpharmacologic interventions such as music to minimize potential adverse effects of anxiety-reducing medications. This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effects of a perioperative music intervention (provided continuously throughout the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods) on changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, anxiety, and pain in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer undergoing mastectomy. A total of 30 women were assigned randomly to a control group or to the music intervention group. Findings indicated that women in the intervention group had a greater decrease in MAP and anxiety with less pain from the preoperative period to the time of discharge from the recovery room compared with women in the control group. Music is a noninvasive and low-cost intervention that can be easily implemented in the perioperative setting, and these findings suggest that perioperative music can reduce MAP, anxiety, and pain among women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.

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    • "Those in the intervention group chose music from a genre (i.e., New Age, classical, easy listening , or inspirational) and then listened throughout the perioperative period to music that the researchers selected and that met the criteria of that genre; those in the control group used the earphones but heard no music. At the time of discharge from the recovery room, those in the intervention group had a greater decrease in MAP, felt less anxious, and reported less pain than did those in the control group (Binns-Turner et al. 2011). In a trial that randomized patients in a preoperative waiting room either to one of two music interventions (i.e., music via headphones or broadcast music) or no music, both groups of patients who listened to music exhibited decreased perioperative anxiety as measured by the VAS and heart rate variability; this was not true of patients in the control group. "
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    • "The literature search revealed 13 clinical controlled trials with a total of n = 606 breast cancer patients (Figure 1), [16–28] of which 2 were not randomized [17, 27]. "
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    • "Seven such studies (six RCTs and one controlled clinical trial (CCT), total N = 386) using self-report outcomes were analyzed in the 2011 Cochrane Review [13]. Music was provided perioperatively for 15 out of 30 breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy [14], during invasive procedures for 20 out of 39 pediatric cancer patients [34], directly prior to the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy for 30 out of 60 breast cancer patients [35], during bone marrow biopsy for 29 out of 59 adults with hematologic malignancy [15], during chemotherapy for 10 out of 20 adult cancer patients [36], during radiation therapy for 19 out of 42 adult cancer patients [37], and as a single 30-min session for 65 out of 136 adult cancer patients with pain [18]. Based on the combined results of these seven studies, the SMD on the 80-point State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale (STAI-S) was −11.20 units (95 % CI −19.59 to −2.82, P = 0.0088). "
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