Can an immune-regulatory vaccine prevent HIV infection?

Division of Developmental Immunology at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.46). 03/2012; 10(3):299-305. DOI: 10.1586/eri.11.178
Source: PubMed


Developing vaccines to prevent the establishment of HIV infection has been fraught with difficulties. It might therefore be important to consider other new strategies. Since several studies suggest that anti-inflammatory stimuli can protect from HIV infection and because HIV replicates preferably in activated T cells, we suggest here that the reduction of immune activation through a HIV-specific regulatory T-cell vaccine might thwart early viral replication. Thus, because immune activation is a good predictor of disease progression and the immune activation set point has been shown to be an early event during HIV infection, vaccinating to achieve control of early virus-specific immune activation might be advantageous.

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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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