Prenylation of Rho G-Proteins: a Novel Mechanism Regulating Gene Expression and Protein Stability in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells
Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 60141, USA, .Molecular Neurobiology (Impact Factor: 5.14). 03/2012; 46(1):28-40. DOI: 10.1007/s12035-012-8249-x
Endogenous prenylation with sesquiterpene or diterpene isoprenoids facilitates membrane localization and functional activation of small monomeric GTP-binding proteins. A direct effect of isoprenoids on regulation of gene expression and protein stability has also been proposed. In this study, we determined the role of sesquiterpene or diterpene isoprenoids on the regulation of Rho G-protein expression, activation, and stability in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. In both primary and transformed human TM cells, limiting endogenous isoprenoid synthesis with lovastatin, a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, elicited marked increases in RhoA and RhoB mRNA and protein content. The effect of lovastatin was dose-dependent with newly synthesized inactive protein accumulating in the cytosol. Supplementation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) prevented, while inhibition of geranylgeranyl transferase-I mimicked, the effects of lovastatin on RhoA and RhoB protein content. Similarly, lovastatin-dependent increases in RhoA and RhoB mRNA expression were mimicked by geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibition. Interestingly, GGPP supplementation selectively promoted the degradation of newly synthesized Rho proteins which was mediated, in part, through the 20S proteasome. Functionally, GGPP supplementation prevented lovastatin-dependent decreases in actin stress fiber organization while selectively facilitating the subcellular redistribution of accumulated Rho proteins from the cytosol to the membrane and increasing RhoA activation. Post-translational prenylation with geranylgeranyl diterpenes selectively facilitates the expression, membrane translocation, functional activation, and turnover of newly synthesized Rho proteins. Geranylgeranyl prenylation represents a novel mechanism by which active Rho proteins are targeted to the 20S proteasome for degradation in human TM cells.
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ABSTRACT: Analysis of aqueous humor from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) revealed marked increases in the content of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We determined the consequences of TGF-β signaling on ET-1 expression and secretion by human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Primary or transformed (NTM5 and GTM3) human TM cells conditioned in serum-free media were incubated in the absence or presence of TGF-β1 or -β2. Relative changes in preproendothelin (ppET)-1 mRNA content and secreted ET-1 peptide were quantified by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. In some experiments, TGF-β or ET-1 receptor antagonists, or Rho G-protein inhibitors, were evaluated for effects on TGF-β signaling. Filamentous actin organization was visualized by phalloidin. Primary or transformed human TM cells cultured in the presence of TGF-β1 or -β2 exhibit a marked (>8-fold) increase in ppET-1 mRNA content compared to vehicle controls. Coincubation with SB-505124, an inhibitor of TGFβRI/ALK-5 signaling, prevented TGF-β-mediated ppET-1 mRNA expression. In contrast, coincubation with ET(A) (BQ-123) or ET(B) (BQ-788) receptor antagonists had no effect on TGF-β-mediated ppET-1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 and -β2 each elicited a robust (>7-fold) secretion of ET-1 while enhancing stress fiber organization. Inhibition of Rho signaling attenuated TGF-β-mediated increases in ppET-1 mRNA content, ET-1 secretion, and stress fiber organization. TGF-β, signaling through the TGFβRI/ALK-5 receptor, elicits marked increases in ET-1 mRNA content and ET-1 secretion from cultured primary or transformed human TM cells. Elevated levels of TGF-β2 present in AH of POAG patients may elevate intraocular pressure, in part, by eliciting aberrant Rho G-protein dependent cell contraction, and increasing ET-1 synthesis and secretion, in human TM cells.
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ABSTRACT: Geranylgeranyltransferase and farnesyltransferase I, are noted to mediate a number of signal transduction cascades which are known to be involved in the causation of opioid withdrawal syndrome. GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 are selective modulators of geranylgeranyltransferase and farnesyltransferase subtype 1 respectively. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 on propagation of morphine dependence and resultant withdrawal signs in vivo, in sub-chronic morphine mouse model, and in vitro, in isolated rat ileum. Morphine was administered twice daily for 5 days following which a single day 6 injection of naloxone (8 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice. Withdrawal syndrome was quantitatively assessed in terms of withdrawal severity score and the frequency of jumping, rearing, fore paw licking & circling. Naloxone induced contraction in morphine withdrawn isolated rat ileum was employed as an in vitro model of opioid withdrawal syndrome. An isobolographic study design was employed to assess a potential synergistic activity between GGTI-2133 and FTI-276. GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 dose dependently attenuated naloxone induced morphine withdrawal syndrome both in vivo and in vitro. GGTI-2133 was also observed to exert a synergistic interaction with FTI-276. It is concluded that GGTI-2133 and FTI-276 attenuate the propagation of morphine dependence and reduce withdrawal signs possibly by a geranylgeranyl transferase; farnesyltransferase activation pathway linked mechanisms potentially in an interdependent manner.
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ABSTRACT: Trafficking of autoreactive leukocytes across the blood-nerve barrier and into peripheral nerves is an early pathological hallmark of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, promotes transendothelial migration by upregulating endothelial expression of inflammatory mediators, including CCL2, a chemokine implicated in GBS. We sought to determine the mechanism by which TNF-α induces expression and secretion of CCL2 from peripheral nerve microvascular endoneurial endothelial cells (PNMECs). Expression of CCL2 mRNA and protein in quiescent PNMEC cultures was minimal. In contrast, cultures treated with TNF-α exhibited increased CCL2 mRNA and protein content, as well as protein secretion. Simvastatin significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced CCL2 secretion without affecting CCL2 mRNA or protein expression. Co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not farnesyl pyrophosphate, prevented the effect of simvastatin. By comparison, inhibiting protein isoprenylation with GGTI-298, but not FTI-277, mimicked the effect of simvastatin and significantly attenuated transendothelial migration in vitro. Inhibition of the monomeric GTPase Cdc42, but not Rac1 or RhoA-C, attenuated TNF-α-mediated CCL2 secretion. TNF-α-mediated trafficking of autoreactive leukocytes into peripheral nerves during GBS may proceed by a mechanism that involves Cdc42-facilitated secretion of CCL2.
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