Effect of must characteristics on the diversity of Saccharomyces strains and their prevalence in spontaneous fermentations. J Appl Microbiol
Estación de Viticultura e Enoloxía de Galicia, Ponte San Clodio s/n, Ourense, Spain. Journal of Applied Microbiology
(Impact Factor: 2.48).
03/2012; 112(5):936-44. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05278.x
The aim of this study was to investigate whether grapevine variety and must characteristics influence the diversity of Saccharomyces strains and their prevalence during spontaneous fermentations.
Musts from different grapevine varieties, all of them autochthonous from Galicia, were used to perform spontaneous fermentations. Yeasts were isolated from the must and at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of fermentations. Those yeasts identified as Saccharomyces were characterized at the strain level by analysis of mtDNA-RFLP. The results showed a low diversity of Saccharomyces strains, which was related to must sugar content and total acidity. Moreover, from a total of 44 different Saccharomyces strains, only eleven of them appeared at frequencies higher than 20% and were able to lead fermentations. A significant correlation between yeast strains and must acidity was observed, with the predominance of certain strains at high acidity values.
Must characteristics, such as sugar content and acidity, influence the Saccharomyces strains diversity and the leader strains during fermentation.
These results showed the adaptation of certain Saccharomyces strains to must with specific characteristics; this may be considered by winemakers for yeast inocula selection. Our findings have special relevance because this is the first study carried out in Galicia dealing with the influence of must properties on yeast strains that control fermentations.
Available from: Yue Sun
- "Genotype IX is similar to the genotype IV in Wang and Liu's study (2013), while genotype VII is similar to the genotype VII in Pei et al.'s study (2009). The degree of variability (7.8 %), measured as the percentage of different strains found among the colonies analyzed (Torija et al. 2001), was intermediately compared to those of previous studies: 1.5 % (Blanco et al. 2012), 2.8 % (Wang and Liu 2013), 11.1 % (Pei et al. 2009), and 22 % (Torija et al. 2001). Beltran et al. (2002) reported that the use of ADY reduced the diversity and importance of the indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. "
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ABSTRACT: Inoculated fermentation by selected indigenous yeast strains from a specific location could provide the wine with unique regional sensory characteristics. The identification and differentiation of local yeasts are the first step to understand the function of yeasts and develop a better strain-selection program for winemaking. The indigenous yeasts in five grape varieties, Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Marselan, and Merlot cultivated in Xiangning, Shanxi, China were investigated. Eight species of seven genera including Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora occidentalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified using Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient medium with sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae were the predominant species, while most non-Saccharomyces species were present in the whole fermentation process at different levels among the grape varieties. The genotypes of S. cerevisiae from each microvinification were determined by using interdelta sequence analysis. The 102 isolates showed eight different genotypes, and genotype III was the predominant genotype found. The distribution of S. cerevisiae strains during the fermentation of Marselan was also studied. Six genotypes were observed among the 92 strains with different genotypes of competitiveness at different sampling stages. Genotype V demonstrated the potential for organizing starter strains and avoiding inefficient fermentation. In general, this study explored the yeast species in the grapes grown in Xiangning County and provided important information of relationship of local yeast diversity and its regional wine sensory characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: Fermented foods and beverages have been an important part of our lives in all over the world. Their production is one of the oldest manufacturing and preservation methods, dating back to ancient times. Yeasts, mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and lactic acid bacteria have long been used for the production of many fermented products. In food industry, yeasts have an important role in the production of alcoholic beverages, bioethanol, baker’s yeast and yeast-derived products. Lactic acid bacteria also have a fundamental effect on the production of some food products such as yoghurt, fermented vegetables, sour-dough bread and others. This chapter gives some information on the beneficial aspects of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in foods and beverages.
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ABSTRACT: The impact of the distillation system and yeast strain on the chemical and aromatic profile of kiwi spirits was investigated. Three fermentations of kiwi fruits were carried out, two with selected yeasts (KL1 and KL2) and one spontaneous (KL3). The obtained kiwi wines were distilled using two distillation systems (Charentais alembic and packed column), and the resulting spirits were analysed by direct injection gas chromatography. Kiwi spirits obtained with the packed column had the highest concentrations of esters C6–C10 and monoterpenols, while the alembic spirits had the highest concentrations of ethyl acetate, methyl acetate and higher alcohols. Three principal components derived from the chemical composition data explained 96.6% of the variance. Principal component 1 differentiated alembic from packed column distillates, principal component 2 distinguished KL3 spirits and principal component 3 distinguished KL1 spirits. Kiwi spirits distilled with the packed column were preferred by consumers. The predominant sensory descriptors in the packed column kiwi spirits were floral, fruity and spicy, while burnt/smoky and pungent were the principal aroma descriptors in alembic spirits. Moreover, significantly higher ethanol yields and ethanol strengths were obtained with the packed column distillation system. The observed influence of the yeast strains on preference and ethanol yields was minor. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
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