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Mobile learning (M-learning) is receiving more attention as a method of delivering to learners study materials anytime and anywhere. It is a necessity for educators to come up with a layout for learning that can be accessed through mobile devices. These learning materials should consist of good quality learning theories and accurate instructional layout in order to maintain the learning as effective as possible. It is important to follow certain strategies that can help the developers for M-learning applications. In this paper we proposed a set of strategies that are useful for creating mobile prototype for Computer Science and Engineering courses or M-learning application for course content.
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EFFECTIVE M-LEARNING DESIGN STRATEGIES
FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
COURSES
Ibrahim Alkore Alshalabi
1
and Khaled Elleithy
2
1
Department of Computer Science Engineering, University of Bridgeport,
Bridgeport- CT, USA
ialkorea@bridgeport.edu, Ibrkh75@yahoo.com
2
Department of Computer Science Engineering, University of Bridgeport,
Bridgeport- CT, USA
elleithy@bridgeport.edu
ABSTRACT
Mobile learning (M-learning) is receiving more attention as a method of delivering to learners study
materials anytime and anywhere. It is a necessity for educators to come up with a layout for learning that
can be accessed through mobile devices. These learning materials should consist of good quality learning
theories and accurate instructional layout in order to maintain the learning as effective as possible. It is
important to follow certain strategies that can help the developers for M-learning applications. In this
paper we proposed a set of strategies that are useful for creating mobile prototype for Computer Science
and Engineering courses or M-learning application for course content.
KEYWORDS
M-learning, mobile devices Strategies, system environment, course content, Interaction.
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the key criteria for any new technology to be successful is that it needs to be easy to
learn and use. The new technology nowadays is mobile devices while the traditional medium for
delivering E-learning is PC. To move from E-learning to M-learning may require dealing with
some issues that will need to be taken into consideration during the construction of the content.
Mobile learning is defined as the provision of education and training on mobile devices [1].
Mobile devices are likely to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of
mobile devices will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, mobile devices will become a
critical component in developing learning strategies. When developing learning strategies for
the future, by applying one or more of the learning theories which can be used or implemented
in our strategies, we will obtain better outcomes from our courses.
2. RELATED WORKS
Several studies have been done to strategies for M-learning and E-learning systems. Chang,
Chen and Hsu [2], did a research that focuses on learners and resource recycle where possible
and distinction through an educational website based on WebQuest. They illustrate the effect of
different teaching strategies on the discovering efficiency of environment education and
learning through quantitative methods. The individuals in this research were divided into three
groups: conventional instruction, conventional WebQuest instruction, and WebQuest in distance
education [2]. By using ANCOVA analysis, the outcomes show significant variations between
the three categories in the post-examination. The research found two interesting outcomes. First,
the process of using WebQuest in addition to real situations assisted students to acquire more
experience and knowledge. Second, student knowledge immediately affected task efficiency and
in a roundabout way made an effect on learning performance [2].
Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) features the characteristics of Blending Learning
incorporated with the advantages of traditional Learning and E-Learning, applying a
heart in teaching , creativity and tracking, embodying the effort, passion and entertainment in
the success of learning as a student. More precisely, it is a teaching and learning strategy
centered on the relationship between web-based study projects and an active student
classroom [3]. Lei and Caixing have developed a new Instructional Design combined with M-
learning and blending learning according to the instructional method of JiTT. The authors
did the analysis on a software SuperMemo. New program can be used in system teaching
which has been found, it is not only a program used to consider terms, but also discovering
other understanding by segments of a topic by means of question-answer [3].
The reason of studying Mobile Learning & Commuting is to go more greatly into the regards
between M-learning and commuting for a student account/profile that uses trips to execute
university-learning activities. The research is to understand the needs and demands of students
who study and/or do studies-related actions while commuting. This purpose includes disclosing
the present behavioural styles of learners in mobile situations and knowing how the new gadgets
and components that they could use, such as the e-book, sound content and mobile Internet, can
assist in their study performance. An interview was done with learners from the Universitat
Oberta de Catalunya (Open School of Catalonia, UOC)a completely on-line college
institutionin their travelling perspective on the train or bus. Next to that the observations on
the attributes of the context were mentioned in [4].
3. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  -learning environment. The components
M-learning systems are shown in Figure-1.
Figure-1: M-Learning environment component
WWW
COURSE
CONTENT
MOBILE
SERVICES
EDUCATOR
STUDENTS
EVALUATION
FEEDBACK
3.1 Course content
To design or create course content, we need to analyze the course structure factors in terms of
the main content, implementation and the goal of the course so that it can fit for use small
devices with limited resources.
3.2 Students
Students are the main body of any teaching system. The purpose of our M-learning system is to
teach the content using M--learning,
knowledge and innovation capabilities.
3.3 Educator
Educators play a new role in M-learning system. The educators play the role of inspiring the
innovative spirit of students and letting them embark initiatives. This approach gives students a
chance to act according to their own information so they can achieve the self-feedback
regarding to what they have learned. This is a new role added with the old role of the educators
by controlling the course content, giving the order flow of the course content during the classes
and organizing of the whole process [5].
3.4 Evaluation
For E-learning and M-learning environment we need an appropriate st 
assessment. We need to use and apply observation on performance such as assessments, and
offer information that is well equipped to help educators, students, and administrators.
3.5 Feedback
The feedback is the process of collecting information from all parts who are involved in the
teaching process. This includes students, teachers, course developer, and evaluation and so on.
The need of feedback is to find and fix drawbacks and the demerits to fix them and the benefits
to emphasized and further improved. By using the feedback we can reach high level of quality
education.
4. WHY IS M-LEARNING STYLE?
Different students have different modes of learning especially if attractive technology is
onal abilities, the teaching approach is matched
with the chosen learning style. Students believe that new technology mobile devices used for
mobile learning can enhance the current learning practices in many aspects. This includes:
When and where, better effective method of learning, reduce time to access learning materials,
receive feedback, and act on time and so on.
5. COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING COURSES VS. LEARNERS
Computer engineering and science classes involve around practical courses and need extreme
training, especially the programming course. [6]. Courses of science and engineering include
theory and computer programming. These courses are important professional basic courses of
computer science and electrical engineering students. For students to learn and master computer
technology courses, content preparation is important to develop an application that covers the
course contents. Students may find great difficulty in the M-learning application if they lack
knowledge on the technology used. [7] [8]. Thus, content preparation is important in order to
develop an application that covers the course content. The developer needs to know the features
and interests of the learners by communicating with them, introducing to them the characteristic
of the curriculum, and helping them with the course selection, the study plan, the time
arrangement and progress control.
6. MODEL FOR DESIGN STRATEGIES COMPUTER SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING COURSES
The purpose of this paper is to develop strategies that can be followed during the creating of
computer science or engineering course for M-learning environment.
6.1 Strategy 1
Computer science and engineering courses are different from other courses. In first strategy,
these differences have to be considered during construction of the content. The many learning
theories suggested need to be considered before construction of the content is readily adapted to
teaching. During the creating of computer science or engineering course we need to use one or
more of learning theories to work as a group does deliver high quality of knowledge to the
learners.
The main theoretical bases for M-learning and E-learning are Behaviorism, Cognitivism,
Constructivism, Humanism, Cooperative learning. By using these learning theories, depending
on our course needs, we can get the following from each learning theory: Behaviorism regards
that the individual's learning behavior is attributed to the individual's adaptation to the external
environment. The cause of learning is considered the response to external stimuli; therefore,
controlling stimuli can control the behavior and predict behavior, and thus can control and
predict learning. Behaviorism does not care about the internal psychological process arising
from external stimuli, regards that learning has nothing to do with internal psychological
processes. Cognitivism learning theory is the reorganization of knowledge structures; learning is
a relatively lasting change of ability or inclination, caused by the experience; learning process is
the process of information processing. Constructivism considers that learning process is active
construction of people's conceptual work, is a process which is based on inherent mental
representation, is a process to obtain and construct new knowledge by interaction of old
knowledge or experience with external environment. Humanism regards that learning can only
rely on internal fact, not rely on teacher's external force. Learning activities should be selected
and decided by students themselves; and in a good learning environment, students will learn
everything. Cooperative learning theory is a teaching theory and strategy with creative thinking
            
group cooperation and mutual assistance of the learners who participate teams to achieve
common learning goals with certain incentives mechanism, for obtaining maximum results and
acquisition of individual and group objectives [9].The concept of learning theories can be
formed in the way that can be introduced and help in creating of computer science and
engineering course.
6.2 Strategy 2
For the approach to transform the education content in M-learning, there are many kind of
methods. Educational content is delivered via many electronic media. For the learning style, E-
learning can be divided into synchronous learning mode and asynchronous learning mode. A
benefit of the synchronous (real time) M-learning is that a small bandwidth in which the
materials of this mode are archived and stored so that they can be controlled at any time. In
contrast, the synchronous M-learning mode has the benefit of communicating information
without delay. To accomplish synchronous interaction interfacing with simple text, audio hide
resources, whiteboard media and application sharing is needed. This mode also permits
attendance checking by educators, allows floor control for question/answer and nonetheless it
supports toolbox to achieve suitable learning interaction.
M-Learning is a new style of learning that comes from E-learning with the development of
mobile communication technology and the popularity of the teams. M-Learning is suitable for
the realization of E-learning easy to use mobile devices and wireless Internet. Therefore, it is
more appropriate for the education of college students, and complements the E-Learning, which
improves the flexibility, convenience, interactivity of E-Learning. The goal of M-learning is to
achieve the 5 W (ie, any person, when, where, whoever, whatever) of learning, and M-learning
is to create a learning community news, to promote the achievement of learning permanent. As
in the eye of researchers in distance education, M-learning is considered the last step of distance
education as follows: D-learning (distance learning), E-learning and M-learning [9] [10].
6.3 Strategy 3
We should notice when we design the educational information: on one hand, the information
must be organized in sentences so that we can post it with cellular phones. On the other hand,
learning contents design should interest students in discussing topics, so the topics should not be

level. The educators define the information and contents of the M-learning module. It comprises
of a sequence of components that fabricate the complete effect of the module. However, they
can also be evaluated individually. The series of elements define the course layout, the way it is
communicated, the language used to communicate it and the information expressed. The course
has to possess the following factors: content, elements, treatment, structure, and code.
6.4 Strategy 4
An interactive representation of M-learning is required in order to fabricate and maintain the
learning resources. This interaction can occur among variety of groups such as student and
student, student and educator, student and content, educator and content, content and content,
and lastly educator and educator. This interaction is divided into two groups; one where the
instructor assists in developing the design of the contents and activities of the M-learning model
and second is where the instructor constantly organizes these contents and activities that have
been constructed. The instructor may also update the contents if needed. Interactive model for
M-learning systems are shown in Figure-2.
Figure 2: An interactive model of M-learning
6.4.1 Interaction Student-Student
The student-student interaction represents the interaction of peer-to-peer mobiles on M-learning.
This environment offers the advantages of cognitive learning skills, allows one to gain social
skills in education as well as improving personal bonds between participants and communities.
Interaction
Student
Educator Content
important to allow students to communicate between
each other, this is needed in case of laboratory ,team project.
6.4.2 Interaction StudentEducator
With this interaction, a student is able to select their M-learning with instructor assistance,
whereby a community of inquiry is created. This interaction module allows communication
between students and their instructors to be netbased (synchronous or asynchronous) and could
be carried out using different available formats including text, audio, video and so forth. These

have to be accounted for by the instructor or instantly responded to [11].
6.4.3 Interaction studentContent
The interaction between student and content is available in numerous formats, using mobile
devices to access wireless websites, which offers learning contents. This module is known as
independent study [11].
6.4.4 Interaction ContentContent
This module offers programs which automatically update the M-learning contents interacting

6.4.5 Interaction EducatorContent
This module is beneficial in that it fabricates and maintains the learning resources. This
interaction is divided into two groups; one whereby the instructors make the M-learning
contents and activities and the other where the contents and activities that have been created are
constantly refreshed and controlled [11].
6.4.6 Interaction EducatorEducator
This interaction module enhances the progress and support from an instructor through other
instructors in the group. With the knowledge augmentation of the instructors in the community,
the information swap among instructions can be increased [11].
6.5 Strategy 5:
Communication is the heart of the M-learning system for computer science and engineering
core. When the sender transmits a message, it is a great necessity that the receiver recognizes
this message. As a result, there has to be an agreement between the sender and receiver that the
receiver is aware of the message sent, and fully understands it, in order to achieve a successful
communication. Communication is accomplished through the use of a source (sender), a
destination (receiver), a transmitter channel (medium) through which communication occurs. It
is has been argued that communication can be affected by the following five attributes [12].
6.5.1 Immediacy of feedback
The significance of this characteristic is that it specifies the degree to which the medium allows
the users to provide quick feedback regarding the information they receive. The function of the
medium is to assist rapid bidirectional communication.
6.5.2 Parallelism
This feature corresponds to the number of participants. If the number of participants is small
then parallelism is of unimportance. On the other hand, if the group of members participating is
large, parallelism becomes a great convenience. Typically, convergence gains an advantage
from low parallelism, because of the need to understand the viewpoints of each member. With
the advantages that parallelism offers, it also consists of some drawbacks. One of these
drawbacks is that noise is introduced due to the complexity of monitoring and coordinating the
high number of separate conversations as well as developing the common understanding from
them.
In case of a framework for integrating, individuals understanding voting structure are used to
determine this. This is an exception and likely occurs in the production function than in the
group well being or membership support function.
6.5.3 Feedback
Having the availability of feedback betters the system performance in such a way that it allows
understanding between the communicating parties. This is achieved through mid-course
corrections in the transmission of messages which further results in the correction of any false
elements that may have been sent with a message. Thus, it can be concluded, having immediacy
of feedback more or less composes of two major advantages; communication speed and
accuracy. Having said that, with the advantages there are also some drawbacks which need to be
address. The first problem faced is the cost. The sender and receiver must engage in a
synchronous interaction. To do this, scheduling is required so that both agree on a time to
interact; therefore significant efforts are needed in some circumstances. The second problem
associated with feedback is that some media enable quick feedback, and in turn create high
hopes for rapid feedback which can get in the way of communication. For instance, face to face
communication needs fast feedback, which can interfere with deliberation, encouraging
premature action. Thus, it can be concluded that for information which requires deliberation
(e.g., large amount of information or complex information), rapid feedback may not be as
beneficial and therefore can degrade the system performance. On the contrary, convergence
needs less information and cognitive efforts than the deliberation, hence rapid feedback may not
have as much of an affect as it does on the deliberation. Due to the idea that the aim is to
understand interpretations of information as opposed to the information itself, feedback
becomes compulsory.
6.5.4 Rehearsability
This feature allows one to fabricate a message consisting of the exact meaning that they intend.
Rehearsability becomes extremely vital as the message approaches high complexity or
equivocality as it helps better the understanding. On the other hand, the problem faced with high
rehearsability media is the lower feedback that is typically come across.
6.5.5 Reprocessability
The Reprocessability aspect allows the receiver to continuously process the message to gain full
understanding of the message received. Also, it has the advantage of allowing deliberation. As
the volume, complexity and equivocality enhances in a message, this feature becomes for vital.
Despite the information or communication procedure (whether conveyance or convergence)
reprocessability results in improved understanding. Having said that, it plays a more important
role to the conveyance communication process, as conveyance generally fabricates information
that needs deliberation, and of course reprocessability is a necessity for deliberation.
Typically, where convergence is the main objective in group communication processes, media
that provides high feedback and low parallelism is needed to achieve good performance.
However, when conveyance is the main objective, media that provides low feedback and high
parallelism is needed to achieve good performance. Communication model for M-learning
systems are shown in Figure-3.
Communication processes:
Figure 3: Group communication processes.
6.6 Strategy 6
There are probably several factors that influence the situation in which a given communication
environment will be effective for different groups. One factor is the degree to which the groups
worked together in the past. Established groups are more likely to have established standards for
support group members and well-being (eg, roles within the group), and well-established rules
for the processing of content. When the task is demand, it is likely that rules will only apply to
the task. During the online class, members are able to work independently on assigned tasks.
Online course requires more than just the convergence of transport, although some convergence
is clearly needed. The need for media synchronicity is lower for the online class in creation.
However, when faced with a non-routine task that has little resemblance to the earlier work
established groups may need more time creating and solving problems in the course material,
and therefore require more convergence . As a group matures, they "may be able to perform all
their needs, at least for projects, exchange of information with much less rich. This means that
the communication needs of the groups may differ over time, the basis of shared experiences.
'perceptions about the usefulness of a means for a task and the group's ability to perform a task
in an environment of change over time. The interaction of the greater experience of a group and
the development of standards and standards, may interact and result in relatively improved
performance of tasks in time. It is likely that group members get to know better over time, share
common experiences that can be evoked by simple messages that relate to these experiences
Shared.
6.7 Strategy 7
The integrated platform computing and engineering courses. Computer training and engineering
(as currently organized) has the following components: [13]
- Lectures (in class).
- Homework assignments.
- Laboratory exercises.
- Midterm and final exams.
Communication
Processes
Media with high
synchronicity
Convergence
Media with low
synchronicity
Conveyance
We have to create the structure of the courses that give us the prototype M-learning course
content (of the class to convert a line).The course M-learning systems creator is shown in
Figure-4.
Figure 4: Course Creator
Students use smart phones with Wi-Fi functions could benefit from the ease of available hot
water stain in the center of academic learning and many other hot spots in major cities. If
students are invited to access the site and download the materials using a computer before
transferring it to your mobile phone. Content developers should develop each M-learning
material based on single mobile learning objectives using effective learning strategies and style,
and formats. The use of text, graphics, audio, video and animation to support the desired
learning outcomes. The content developer should strive to be innovative, while keeping
everything short and simple.
7. CONCLUSION
M-learning can help provide a rich environment for teaching and learning tools for learning and
developing high, and at the same time, improve the teaching skills of teachers, and promote the
implementation of lifelong learning, lifelong learning and achieve the ultimate goal of training
creative talents. Then M-learning strategies and guidelines are very important to be
implemented in the development and the creation of M-learning application of course content.
By implementing a user interface very good, it can help students gain more understanding of the
topics covered in the application and a simple user interface will also reduce the time needed to
consider the request. These strategies serve as a platform for the construction and connection to
other services. This gave us the opportunity to begin to create new tools and services to enable
students to achieve better learning outcomes.
As a result, teachers and trainers must design learning materials for delivery on a variety of
mobile devices. Design of learning materials for mobile devices in accordance with good
theories of learning and teaching of proper design and effective learning
Mobile System ( Course Creator )
Course
Structure
Lectures-
course
contents
Homework
assignments
Laboratory
exercises.
Midterm and
final exams
Feedback
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Authors
Ibrahim M Alkore Alshalabi
Ibrahim M Alkore Alshalabi received the B.Sc. in Computer Science from Al-
Isra Private University, Amman, Jordan in 1997, and the MCA( Master of
Computer Applications ) from Bangalore University - India in 2007. In 2009
he joined University of Bridgeport as Ph.D. student in computer science and
engineering at the University of Bridgeport, Connecticut-USA. From 1997 to
2004, he was Assistant Lecturer in Ma'an Community College - Al-Balqa
Applied University-Jordan. From 2007 to 2009 he joined Al-Hussein Bin Talal
University-Jordan as assistant lecturer. Ibrahim M Alkore Alshalabi has
research interest is in the general area of E-Learning, M-Learning, wireless
communications and networks.He actively participated as a committee
member of International Conference on Engineering Education, instructional
technology, Assessment, and E-Learning (EIAE 10, EIAE 11).
Khaled Elleithy
Dr. Elleithy is the Associate Dean for Graduate Studies in the School of
Engineering at the University of Bridgeport. He has research interests are in the
areas of network security, mobile communications, and formal approaches for
design and verification. He has published more than one hundred fifty research
papers in international journals and conferences in his areas of expertise. Dr.
Elleithy is the co-chair of the International Joint Conferences on Computer,
Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE). CISSE is the
first Engineering/Computing and Systems Research E-Conference in the world
to be completely conducted online in real-time via the internet and was
successfully running for four years.Dr. Elleithy is the editor or co-editor of 10
books published by Springer for advances on Innovations and Advanced
Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software. Dr. Elleithy
received the B.Sc. degree in computer science and automatic control from Alexandria University in 1983,
the MS Degree in computer networks from the same university in 1986, and the MS and Ph.D. degrees in
computer science from The Center for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Louisiana at
Lafayette in 1988 and 1990.
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... It also plays a vital role in changing humancomputer interaction and learning activities. Interaction in mlearning can take place between groups such as student and student, student and educator, student and content [35,71]. Interaction between groups allows learners to exchange information, knowledge, thoughts or ideas regarding course content, and received feedback or comments [72] . ...
... Respecto a la forma de evaluación, los trabajos relacionados proporcionan una evidencia del efecto en el aprendizaje limitada, lo que también difiere en el caso de Alphalingo, que ha sido probado formalmente por medio de un experimento y una réplica. De este modo, Alphalingo se diseñó a partir del análisis de los trabajos relacionados, considerando además los fundamentos pedagógicos y didácticos propuestos por Alshalabi y Elleithy para la enseñanza de IS [17], quienes sostienen que los estudiantes de IS tienen nuevos modos de aprendizaje y se sienten atraídos por la tecnología, por lo que los esfuerzos de la enseñanza de la IS deben considerarla para mejorar las habilidades educativas de los aprendices. Específicamente, encontraron que los estudiantes de IS consideran que los dispositivos móviles pueden mejorar las prácticas de aprendizaje actuales, lo que es factible dados los resultados positivos reportados en diversos estudios, que indican que el uso del aprendizaje móvil en diferentes áreas ha permitido mejorar varios procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, dadas sus características de ubicuidad [18], accesibilidad, [19] y portabilidad [20]. ...
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... SMS, WhatsApp, and Viber are some of the communication platforms that allows for interaction. Three possible interaction forms of m-learning include, interaction among the students themselves, between students and educators, or between students and content (Alshalabi & Elleithy, 2012;Dyson, Litchfield, Raban, & Tyler, 2009). With the help of this interaction, it is possible for the students to exchange and share information, knowledge, and ideas (Kuo, Walker, Schroder, & Belland, 2014) and this allows the learning process to become a lot more attractive. ...
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M-learning strategy at Ericsson
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