Conference Paper

Introducing participatory design in museums

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Abstract

This paper describes how a set of participatory design methodologies have been introduced to and adopted for museum exhibition design. It provides a brief historical account of museums and reviews some current trends in museum exhibition design. Furthermore, the paper outlines a number of reasons why participatory methods may be appropriate for museums, and two such methods are described: one for evaluation of exhibits, and one for exhibition concept development. Evaluation of the methodologies suggests that they are efficient; both in terms of resources and in the richness of the data they produce. In addition, it appears that they are capable of both supporting and extending established museum design practices.

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... Within the frame of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), there are approaches for designing interactive exhibitions which involve visitors and other stakeholders as informants on the design to create user-centred approaches (Ferris et al., 2004;Iversen & Smith, 2012;Taxén, 2004). CHPs have seldom been involved in the design of such technologies, and since they are an integral part of the museum, integrating them in the development process of such technologies will additionally create museum activities (Maye, Bouchard, Avram, & Ciolfi, 2017). ...
... CHPs have seldom been involved in the design of such technologies, and since they are an integral part of the museum, integrating them in the development process of such technologies will additionally create museum activities (Maye, Bouchard, Avram, & Ciolfi, 2017). Co-design methods and techniques have been deployed in the design of technology for cultural heritage as a means to commence novel museum engagement exhibitions and programs (Bossen, Dindler, & Iversen, 2012;Roussou, Kavalieratou, & Doulgeridis, 2007;Taxén, 2004). We will now go on to describe some studies which involved CHPs in the design of interactive interpretative exhibitions which inspired us to engage a group of CHPs from a selected museum to co-design museum experiences targeted at teenagers. ...
... Other examples see the inclusion of visitors and CHPs within the design team, providing the curatorial goals and the educational missions of the museum, as well as providing expert advice on content (Taxén, 2004). Hornecker and colleagues (2013) examined two aspects of CHP work practices regarding interactive exhibits: their attitudes and perspectives, in particular, their values, goals and aspirations to create exhibitions; and their current resources and methods to create and implement interactive digital exhibitions. ...
... To address the challenges faced by the docent, we suggest foregrounding the role of the human operator in the design process and recognising their potential in driving experiences involving complex AR setups. This could be done by employing participatory design [53] to create the installation. Participatory design involves the co-design of technology in which the target users have a say in the technology design process. ...
... Participatory design involves the co-design of technology in which the target users have a say in the technology design process. Previous work has included visitors as design partners to create museum exhibitions [53]. Future work should seek to involve docents in the design of the installation. ...
... The vast majority of participatory and co-design initiatives for novel interactive experiences of heritage had limited duration (usually a few months). Important examples of co-design featuring novel heritage technologies development include interactive exhibition design (see Fuks et al. [2012] and Taxén [2004]) and participatory content creation (Dindler et al. 2010;Roussou, Kavalieratou, and Doulgeridis 2007). In each instance, different techniques have been used to encourage participation: from workshops to the joint development of creative ideas over time, supported by shared documentation and creativity-support tools (McDermott, Maye, and Avram 2014). ...
... While such examples in the heritage domain areas we saidfew, issues arising from long-lived co-design have been examined by several researchers. To the examples listed earlier, we must also add the investigations of how the balance of power and the mechanisms of decision making operate in codesign teams (Bratteteig and Wagner 2014); the establishment and configuration of various roles and related responsibilities (McCarthy and Wright 2015); the relationships among them (Vines et al. 2013); the role that technological prototypes play in developing design concepts (Ciolfi et al. 2016). ...
Article
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We reflect on the process, outcomes and value generated by applying co-design to a large scale, long-term (4 years) collaboration involving designers, developers and cultural heritage professionals, with the goal of creating a platform for the realisation of tangible interactive installations. The project was pioneering in establishing and sustaining co-design for the introduction of sector-changing technology into the museum domain. We gathered extensive data about the co-design process itself, including interviews investigating the participants’ experiences and the impact on their practices. The paper provides insights from such case study, particularly with respect to value co-creation.
... Within the frame of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), there are approaches for designing interactive exhibitions which involve visitors and other stakeholders as informants on the design to create user-centred approaches [8,11,21]. CHPs have seldom been involved in the design of such technologies, and since they are an integral part of the museum, integrating them in the development process of such technologies will additionally create museum activities [13]. Co-design methods and techniques have been deployed in the design of technology for cultural heritage as a means to commence novel museum engagement exhibitions and programs [2,19,21]. ...
... CHPs have seldom been involved in the design of such technologies, and since they are an integral part of the museum, integrating them in the development process of such technologies will additionally create museum activities [13]. Co-design methods and techniques have been deployed in the design of technology for cultural heritage as a means to commence novel museum engagement exhibitions and programs [2,19,21]. However, little studies are known regarding the involvement of CHPs in the design and development of interactive digital approaches targeted teenagers age 15-19 years old [4]. ...
Conference Paper
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To contribute in filling in the gap regarding experiences targeted at and evaluated by teenagers in museums, we involved 78 teenagers aged 16-19 to test three different gamified tours developed by cultural heritage professionals from the Natural History Museum of Funchal, Portugal. The digital tours can be described as follows: 1) expositive - through which teens become aware of a scientific library in the museum; 2) gastronomic - teens are exposed to curiosities and recipes regarding a selection of marine species exhibited in the museum; 3) digital manipulation - manipulated characters (image and voice) guide the visitor through videos of the marine species in their natural habitats. We report on measuring the teenagers' overall experience with each of the prototypes, particularly their engagement with the exhibition, the usefulness and usability of the prototypes, as well as their feelings and emotions at the end of each tour. We report on lessons learned from the evaluation of these prototypes as well as which approaches and mechanics engaged the teens the most.
... Secondly, the advancement of digital technologies has enhanced the opportunities of furthering the extent of community engagement in professionallyled cultural settings. Cultural institutions are losing the exclusivity of providing 'official' account of cultural heritage and [1,14] and, as a consequence, have to promptly adjust and even transform their practices, often by taking advantage of technological means for archival, interpretation, and communication [27,46,68]. ...
... In this scenario, cultural institutions have taken advantage of participatory design approaches that have been successful in other sectors [60] in order to try to increase audience engagement in their collections and encourage a dialogue with their visitors, adopting more audience-centred practices [59]. For instance, cultural institutions have adopted participatory design to build interactive experiences that enhance the exhibition space and facilitate the engagement of new audiences [27,48,62,68]. Co-design methodologies have also been refined to empower cultural heritage professionals to be more active in the design and direct management of digitally-enhanced visitor experiences [16]. ...
Conference Paper
We present and discuss the results of a qualitative study aimed at identifying what role interactive digital technologies could play in facilitating the participation of communities at risk of exclusion (particularly migrants and refugees) in cultural and heritage-related activities. Culture and heritage are known to be key factors in fostering social inclusion, and this has the potential for contributing to both the wellbeing of these communities and to cultural institutions themselves. Through surveys and interviews with two cohorts of participants (cultural heritage professionals and community facilitators), we gathered insights about their perspectives on how ICT tools could support their work with and for communities, as well as the challenges they face. This work sheds light on the opportunities and barriers surrounding the use of digital technologies for participation in the cultural heritage sector, which is timely due to the increasing focus on grassroots and community-led heritage initiatives and to the growing body of work on participatory ICT in disciplines such as human-computer interaction and community informatics.
... There is an increasing concern that the traditional exhibition and communication style of museums often fails to engage children; hence it denies the potencies of museums to be a fundamental institution in a society where cultural heritage is explored [1]. However, according to Roussou and colleagues [2], exhibits and educational initiatives for children are created without involving the children, with some notable exceptions [3,4]. A systematic path towards making systems truly meaningful and intuitive to visitors is offered by human-centered design [5], together with participatory design methods [4]. ...
... However, according to Roussou and colleagues [2], exhibits and educational initiatives for children are created without involving the children, with some notable exceptions [3,4]. A systematic path towards making systems truly meaningful and intuitive to visitors is offered by human-centered design [5], together with participatory design methods [4]. ...
Chapter
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Museums promote cultural experiences through exhibits and the stories behind them. Nevertheless, museums are not always designed to engage and interest young audiences, especially teenagers. Throughout this paper, we discuss teenagers as an important group to be considered within the Children-Computer Interaction field, and we report some techniques on designing with teens, in particular, arguing that participatory design methods can involve teenagers in the design process of technology for museums. For this purpose, we conceptualized, designed and deployed a co-design activity for teenagers (aged 15–17), where teenagers together with a researcher jointly created and designed a medium fidelity prototype. For this case study, participants were divided into groups and invited to think and create games and story plots for a selected museum. All the prototypes were made by the participants with the support and guidance of the researcher and the Aurasma software, an augmented reality tool.
... Common PD techniques such as paper prototyping and storyboarding are more suitable for GUI design rather than auditory display design. The adaptation of some of these techniques in the design of an auditory interface in the context of a multidisciplinary workshop has been previously investigated e.g. in [DrWa06], [Sva04], and [Tax04]. More specifically in the context of data sonification deCampo et al. investigated participatory workshops within the scientific context. ...
... More specifically in the context of data sonification deCampo et al. investigated participatory workshops within the scientific context. Participatory workshop settings have been useful in utilizing participants' creativity [NTTA+08] by simulating environments using role playing [DrWa06], [Sva04], or in establishing a hands on experience for the users in an iterative process [Tax04]. The last approach is the closest to our use of participatory workshop. ...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the second and third wave HCI design processes for an auditory display design and proposes a multifaceted framework. The purpose of using such a framework in a participatory context is to provide the possibility to create shared design knowledge in sonification and building new sonification designs on top of the prior work. From the early stages of the project involving the domain scientists in the process seemed to be an obvious choice. The process works in the sense that we gathered a diverse set of data analysis problems, solutions, and methods that work for data scientists within a sonification framework.
... Participatory work on the Pacific Rim (e.g., Noro & Imada, 1991) appears to have grown out of the quality movement, and focuses much more on solving problems, and much less on changing workplace power relations. On the other hand, PD has gained growing acceptance in the world of research, particularly from academic professionals in Europe and North America focused on developing new technologies for children (e.g., Druin, 1999Druin, /2002Garzotto, 2008;Hornof, 2008;Jones et al., 2003;Kam et al., 2006;Large et al., 2007;Mazzone et al., 2008;Robertson, 2002;Taxen, 2004). Adapting the notions of changing the "power structures," researchers have sought to give children a voice in the design of new technologies with the belief that more appropriate solutions can be found. ...
... The resulting posters formed narratives of the work that were demonstrated to be understandable to end-users, corporate officers, and software professionals, and which led to insights and decisions of large commercial value (see Sanders, 2000, for a differently-constructed example of storyboard posters to describe work). Druin (1999;Druin et al., 2000) pursued a third line of storytelling research and practice, with children as design partners in a team that also included computer scientists, graphic designers, and psychologists (for other participatory work with children, see e.g., Sanders, 2000;Hornof, 2008;Kam et al., 2006;Large et al., 2007;Taxen, 2004).). Their purpose was to envision new technologies and practices in children's use of computers and related devices. ...
... In the Child-Computer-Interaction community, these different notions influence the way the community designs for and with children. Thus, children have been acknowledged as valuable stakeholders to inform and participate in museum design practice for technology-oriented exhibitions (Dindler et al., 2010;Roussou and Ave, 2007;Taxén, 2004). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation focuses on better achieving co-design of Full-Body interactive learning experiences with children and experts (teachers, museum curators, pedagogues, etc.). Hence, on the one hand, it has studies how to better design Full-Body Interaction for children in public spaces and, on the other, how to achieve a better involvement of co-designers during the design process to have their voice and vision in the final experiences. The study focuses specifically on learning experiences for public space. These non-formal learning contexts (such as museums, cultural heritage sites and theatres) are characterized by the relation of people’s behaviour in shared experiences and their interactions with socio-cultural contents that are meaningful for society. Previous research has pointed towards the benefits of the specific properties of Full-Body Interaction for shared experience in public spaces. However, methods to design with and for the body in this research area are still unexplored. To address this challenge, this thesis presents the design and analysis of three Full-Body interactive experiences. The main goal is to research techniques that promote children’s embodied awareness and focus on their expertise in movement, playfulness and socialization. This thesis proposes a set of Embodied Design Thinking qualities to understand the benefits and limitations of design techniques for Full-Body Interaction with children. On the other hand, the findings of this research lead to the definition of a preliminary Full-Body Interaction co-design method (FUBImethod). This method entails a set of clearly defined steps to help interaction designers in guiding intergenerational teams with children to understand and foster the role of the body in a Full-Body Interaction experience. This method summarizes the main outcomes of this research and represents a guideline for design and evaluation strategies in this research context.
... Research in the fields of cultural heritage technologies, digital heritage, human-computer interaction (HCI), and participatory and co-design explored ways to deploy digital tools and technologies to support participatory engagement and the results of sustained efforts to generate innovation value through co-design (Avram et al. 2020). Participatory approaches have been applied to the design of cultural heritage technologies for some time, particularly to engage certain demographics of visitors in the process and refine museum interpretation strategies (Taxén 2004, Roussou et al. 2007, Smith and Iversen 2014, while more recently we are witnessing more systematic work towards the wider representation of voices and values in heritage settings (Arrigoni andGalani 2019, Claisse et al. 2020), such as through the explicit focus on the critical heritage concept of polivocality (Whitehead et al. 2021). The participatory engagement of communities at risk of exclusion, such as migrants and refugees, in relation to digitally enhanced exhibitions is even more recent (Galani et al. 2020). ...
Chapter
In recent years, we have witnessed a growing interest from cultural heritage professionals in assuming a more socially active role and in engaging with different communities, including disadvantaged and marginalised ones. However, these actors may often lack the knowledge about the most appropriate approaches, methods, tools, and collaborators for their intended participatory activities and audiences. Starting from an analysis of the needs of a variety of actors and target communities, the CultureLabs project developed an online platform that aims to streamline and facilitate the collaborative organisation of cultural heritage-oriented and social innovation-compatible participatory projects. Through the platform, users can discover helpful resources (“ingredients”) and combine them to form “recipes” for social innovation. Users are guided to document and share with others not only the successful results of a project, but also the process by which these results were achieved. This chapter discusses how the CultureLabs platform can connect institutional practices, cultural heritage, and digital technology in a way that can leave a legacy for the broader cultural sector and society at large.
... Participation has thus become a central topic for current museum research, museum management and exhibition design [8,43], including the use of corresponding interactive technologies [20,22,49]. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the results of a participatory design research project conducted together with the Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany. In this collaborative design research project, we set out to create new, location-independent ways of making museums more accessible and approachable to people who would or could not otherwise attend them, in particular those of younger age groups. We present three novel approaches that integrate diverse educational and participatory concepts into the museum visit. All are based on existing technology, allowing for easy and low-cost implementation through cultural institutions. These include a new way of discovering people with whom to attend the museum, a new way of contributing remotely to a collaborative exhibit and a new way of connecting school classes to prepare jointly for a visit to the museum, including a digital co-curation process. We explain our collaborative research and design process and present the results developed in exchange with our project partners and through input from participating users. We conclude by discussing our findings and by outlining future research opportunities.
... Concepts such as the "contact zone" and the "new museology" strive to uncover multiple perspectives and attempt to dismantle the old concept of the museum as the singular source of Western-centric knowledge (Boast, 2011). Within this framework, PD has emerged as an approach that not only improves visitors' museum experience (Taxén, 2004), but also supports community participation and empowerment in shaping the historical narratives shared. ...
... The application of digital technologies in museums to engage young audiences in particular has been considered in recent IDC literature (Cahill et al., 2011;Druin, 2001;Hall & Bannon, 2005;Horn, Solovey, & Jacob, 2008). However, according to Roussou and colleagues (Roussou, Kavalieratou, & Doulgeridis, 2007), exhibits and educational initiatives for children and teenagers are created without involving them, except for some projects (Broadbent & Marti, 1997;Culén, Bratteteig, Pandey, & Srivastava, 2013;Cullen & Metatla, 2018;Schaper, Iversen, Malinverni, & Pares, 2019;Taxén, 2004) that invite children to engage in co-design processes and benefit from their natural expertise and motivations (Schaper et al., 2019). Co-designing, or participatory design, with children is a lengthy process: Cooperation between intergenerational teams is a process that extends over time. ...
Article
Teenagers are an understudied group within the Interaction Design and Children community. Museums and cultural heritage spaces offer solutions for young children but none that are specifically targeted to teenagers. The active involvement of teenagers in the design of interactive technologies for museums is lacking further development. This paper centres on the presentation and discussion of several design sessions deployed with 155 teenage participants aged 15-19. They were asked to ideate a mobile museum experience that they would enjoy. Through qualitative analysis, the disparities in suggestions about story-based apps vs. game-based apps show that teenagers might value gamification over narratives. This work generates design recommendations for mobile museum tour guides for teenagers, to be used by both curators and museum designers in engaging teenagers in museum exhibitions. We also contrast the game and narrative mechanics produced by teenagers with what is already known. Finally, we answer the questions of how these findings align with existing museum guides for teenagers and how other designers can design with teenagers for this domain.
... The participatory turn in museums advances a critical aspect of the museum-visitor relationship: as experts of their own experiences (Sanders and Stappers 2008), visitors have a unique perspective that can inform museum experience design and deconstruct notions of museums as the sole purveyors of cultural interpretation and dissemination (Perry et al. 2017;Bertacchini and Morando 2013;Taxén 2004). This is especially relevant for digital cultural collections, which have not kept pace with new social and pedagogical developments in modern museological theory that increasingly embrace user-/visitor-centered design approaches (Perry et al. 2017). ...
... The challenges discussed above move exhibition development processes into the spotlight, given that the exhibitions make out the 'public face' of the museum (Alberch, 1994). Museum exhibition design processes typically proceed through the phases of conceptualising the subject or theme, developing the exhibition (from physical and educational design to the building and installing of exhibits), various forms and degrees of evaluation and in some cases an assessment phase (Taxén, 2004). However, these phases are not linear or uniform processes (Achiam & Marandino, 2014;Macdonald, 2002;Mortensen, 2010). ...
Chapter
Out-of-school science experiences offer a unique setting to address wicked problems in health. Health is an often overseen aspect of science education, not fitting into the STEM acronym. However, health proves an excellent issue in out-of-school science education because it is relevant and recognizable for students in their everyday lives as well as encompassing core STEM competences from especially chemistry and biology. Health issues such as sedentary behaviour and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes) are critical challenges to national health systems and citizens quality of life. In this chapter, physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle is addressed as a subject for out-of-school science education that matches the criterions of a wicked problem. The development process of a health exhibition at a Danish science centre is used to show how science centres are relevant settings for increasing children and youth’s health literacy. The exhibition development process applied participatory methods from design research. A participatory approach can address wicked problems and lead to science educational designs, which are context sensitive and focus on creating relevance with the audience. The chapter also addresses challenges such collaborative endeavours can encounter. Health can thus bridge phenomena-based science education with contextualized and societal (science) education.
... De este modo, las partes implicadas en el proceso pueden desarrollar un sentido de propiedad y responsabilidad sobre las soluciones(Druin, 2014).En educación formal, el diseño participativo y el codiseño se han utilizado para la definición de políticas educativas(Smith et al., 2020), currículum académicoYe et al., 2010), la ideación de actividades(Toikkanen et al., 2015), apoyar procesos de innovación(Roschelle et al., 2006), así como para diseñar materiales y herramientas de aprendizaje(Bonsignore et al., 2013). En contextos de educación fuera del aula, algunas de las iniciativas se han centrado en el diseño de instalaciones y programas educativos en instituciones culturales(Taxén, 2004), el diseño de juegos(Diaz et al., 2012; Garcés Dávila, en prensa) y en el aprendizaje de ciencias.Si bien el diseño colaborativo se ha utilizado en niveles y contextos educativos diversos, un área en la que ha tenido una gran influencia es el diseño de entornos de aprendizaje mediados por tecnología. En este contexto, los enfoques participativos y de codiseño se han utilizado para involucrar a docentes y a estudiantes en la tarea de diseño de la tecnología(Cober et al., 2015, ...
Article
Full-text available
El diseño participativo está teniendo una importante incidencia en el diseño de entornos de aprendizaje mediados por tecnología. Cada vez es más frecuente utilizar los enfoques participativos y de codiseño para involucrar a docentes y a estudiantes en el diseño de la tecnología para generar soluciones centradas en las necesidades de las personas que se verán afectadas al utilizarlas. El diseño participativo pretende involucrar a los grupos afectados desde el inicio del diseño, lo que implica tener en consideración la complejidad que supone dar voz a personas con conocimientos, necesidades y roles diferentes. El objetivo principal de esta contribución es analizar el papel actual del diseño participativo con relación a la investigación e innovación en tecnología educativa. Se analiza el origen de este tipo de enfoque y las aplicaciones más habituales en el ámbito educativo. Posteriormente, se describen los métodos que facilitaran la comunicación y colaboración entre las diseñadoras y participantes, se analizan los principios clave en el diseño participativo, y, finalmente, se exponen las implicaciones del diseño participativo para la investigación e innovación en tecnología educativa.
... The essence of the generative association is at the foundation of co-design. Participative models in museums have been valued for their capacity to generate novel concepts or to significantly evaluate present ones (Taxén, 2004) through the participation of intended people (Bossen, Dindler & Iversen, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things is an emerging technology that is presently revolutionizing the worldly pursuits. The evolution of mobile equipment has pioneered IoT as state-of-the-art technology in the last years giving rise to more and more wireless-based systems. IoT technology is widely being utilized by the cultural heritage sector to establish the lost sparks from their static environment for developing entertaining and interacting environment. However, current wireless systems have taken advantage of emerging sensory technologies in smartphones which led to a new way of exploration and dissemination of cultural activities and sites. This paper proposes some prototyping scenarios to develop co-design sessions. These sessions will enhance the tourist playful experience and dissemination of cultural heritage activities. Furthermore, through the proposed scenarios, this study describes the development steps and stages of an IoT application that disseminates cultural heritage. The paper also explores the hurdles and difficulties a research team faced while developing the IoT-based application for cultural heritage dissemination.The study proposed method how to develop internet of things prototyping for cultural heritage dissemination
... These processes, the transmission, and integration of visitors' contribution to the museum's offer and communication are facilitated by new technologies (Smørdal, Stuedahl, & Sem, 2014). The approaches might vary from participatory methods associated to the exhibition and program design (Binder & Brandt, 2008;Roussou, Kavalieratou, & Doulgeridis, 2007;Smith, 2013, Taxén, 2004 to experimental zones (Weibel & Latour, 2007;Smørdal, Stuedahl, & Sem, 2014). The last approaches could have also the benefit of facilitating the development of the museum's image by real-time social media exposure if visitors are stimulated to share and tag the museum. ...
Article
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The museum sector has changed in the past decades, becoming for dynamic, diverse, interactive, participative and innovative. All this shifts make museums more and more appealing and increase the level of satisfaction of museum visits. Understanding to what degree the public perceives and appreciate these trends, could give museum management hints to better fit their development strategies to the audience. Generally, perceptions are very important for appealing organizations. This is valid also for museums. Museum's image influences the audience's satisfaction. Perceptions are important for successful museum visits in many ways. Having this is mind, the present study investigates how participative and innovative are considered Romanian museums.
... As a result, co-design methods have gained acceptance in museums when developing digitally-enhanced museum experiences (Avram, Ciolfi, and Maye 2019;Mygind, Hällman, and Bentsen 2015;Stuedahl 2019). For museums embarking on co-design journeys, the focus has often been on inviting visitors to participate in new or redesigned museum exhibitions (Fuks et al. 2012;Smith and Iversen 2014;Stuedahl and Torhild 2018;Taxén 2004) or develop museum education research or outreach programmes for children or marginalised citizen groups (Ash, Rahm, Melber 2012;Tzibazi 2013). ...
Article
This article presents and discusses a paper-based co-design tool that was developed in order to strengthen ideation in digital experience design processes at museums. The tool, called the ASAP Map, was co-designed as part of an action research project with 10 museums from EU and the USA. The museum partners used the tool in their home institutions and the article focuses on their feedback and the following iterations of the tool through ongoing feedback loops. Concludingly, the usefulness and applicability of the tool is discussed, also touching on the relevance of this study for the broader co-design field.
... Ethnography is often used in conjunction with participatory design to gain a deeper understanding of users (Yamauchi, 2012). With reference to museums and visitor centers, Taxén (2004Taxén ( , 2005 states that participatory design is explicitly concerned with enabling visitors to bring their own views and interpretations in the design process to forge more enduring relationships of exchange and cooperation with visitors. Participatory design is only one of the visitor-centered design paradigms. ...
... Historically however, curators designed and executed exhibitions alone and this practice was closed to 'non--curators' (Taxén, 2004;Hooper--Greenhill, 1992). In the mid--15 th century, Italian nobles begun to arrange privately collected artworks, primarily from ancient Greece and Rome, with the specific intention of displaying them to invited guests holding valued social positions. ...
Thesis
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Over the past 40 years within the UK the concept of self-advocacy has gained momentum by enabling learning disabled people to speak out in order to affect change. In the same period, inclusive approaches have been taken up both in research and in the arts, reflecting a growing recognition of learning disabled people as researchers, artists, performers and communicators. Yet curation has rarely been used as an inclusive practice and then principally in museums dealing with history rather than in the context of art galleries. Via a practice-led research approach, Art as Advocacy addressed this gap by exploring the potential for curatorial practice by learning disabled artists to act as a site for self-advocacy. It brought together members of self-advocacy group Halton Speak Out and members of Bluecoat's inclusive arts project Blue Room, to curate a visual arts exhibition titled Auto Agents. These curators developed an exhibition theme, collaborated with artists, commissioned new artwork and designed accessible interpretation for audiences. Through curating Auto Agents, the purpose of this research has been to produce a rich account of the ways in which curatorial and self-advocacy practices intersect. This intersection, whereby tools found in self-advocacy were carried over into curatorship, provided new methodologies that enabled curating to become an inclusive practice. This attention to process results not only in curating becoming more usable by more people, but also more transparent and rigorous. By achieving this, this research delineates to understanding the processes and practices by which our cultural spaces can become democratised.
... The spirit of generative collaboration is at the core of co-design. Participative forms of design in museums have been valued for their potential to generate new exhibition concepts or to critically assess existing installations [23] via the involvement of the intended audience [e.g. 24]. ...
... When considering the forces that commissioned and made the KSCM, it is clear that this museum offers an opportunity to reflect on the political use(s) of national heritage. Sociologists, political scientists, and anthropologists have critically investigated both subjects, and outlined a series of guidelines towards a more inclusive, democratic, and less centralized museum institution (Simon 2010;Söderqvist 2010;Taxén 2004;Crooke 2016;Duncan 2012). However, the KSCM suggests that although one possesses the theoretical tools to build better museums, governments are unlikely to let go of well-established customs, like profiting from the creation of public institutions. ...
Article
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With the coming to power of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), led by its leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Turkish Muslim nationalism, a new national ideology promoted by the AKP, laid the foundations for a new Turkey and new Turks. Yeni Türkiye Yolunda (Towards a new Turkey) is the slogan used by the Erdoğan’s party to support a more nationalist Turkey intertwined with its Ottoman and Islamic heritage. In this paper, I put forward the claim that a number of State-sponsored institutions, including new national museums, play a relevant role in shaping this new Turkey. The aim is to investigate how museums operate as instruments of national identity building by exhibiting a fictitious national past. The case study of the Kabatepe Simulation Centre and Museum will serve this purpose. By interviewing politicians, bureaucrats, and historians, I have researched the links between a ruling class that supports Turkish Muslim nationalism, and new public museums, which exhibits it.
... For instance, when museums wanted to create new physical exhibits (Axelsen, Mygind & Bentsen, 2015;Dindler et al., 2010) or digital ones (Culén et al., 2013;Roussou & Ave, 2007), the research projects tended to engage typically developing children in Participatory Design (PD). These PD sessions typically consisted of an introduction to the corresponding museum field, followed by physical activities to elaborate ideas such as handicrafts (Culén et al., 2013;Taxén, 2004) or Lego plastic building blocks (Axelsen et al., 2015). On the other hand, when museums wanted to transfer knowledge (Dubois et al., 2011;Şen et al., 2012) or enrich the interaction between users and exhibits (Ciolfi et al., 2016;Coenen et al., 2013;Wishart & Triggs, 2010), the involvement of curators and ergonomists in User-Centred or Co-Design showed good results. ...
Article
Museums usually look for new educational tools to enhance their exhibition. The Oteiza's museum in Navarre (Spain) especially gives importance to the dissemination of Jorge Oteiza's work to children at schools. Consequently, a didactics section was created with the objective of developing activities and relationship with schools. Jorge Oteiza represents one of the most important artists in the Spanish modern art and his sculptures stem from his proper philosophical concepts such as negative aesthetics via addition and subtraction, or activation of space and time. Such notions make the learning process at school complex. Thus, this study proposes a framework that aims to enhance the visit to the museum through a series of mini-games that shed light on these abstract concepts. Representative sculptures were selected and the corresponding activities were designed and developed in collaboration with the didactics section of the museum following a Co-Design approach. Then, the framework was tested by pupils from primary and secondary schools and students from educational practice. Therefore this paper provides a guideline to design educational games in collaboration with a museum, shows that mini educational games help students in learning artistic concepts and that motion-based touchless interfaces are not really adapted for classroom use. © 2018 International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
... In the child-computer-interaction community, these different notions influence the way the community designs for and with children. Thus, children have been acknowledged as valuable stakeholders to inform and participate in museum design practice for technology-oriented exhibitions [4][5][6]. ...
Article
The roles that children are allowed to play in the co-design of an interactive experience are strongly influenced and determined by the views of designers and other adult stakeholders on childhood, as well as by their expectations of children’s skills and cognitive capacities. In this paper, we contrast these assumptions in the design of a Virtual Heritage experience for guided school visits at an archaeological site. The goal of our study was to analyse different viewpoints of adult stakeholders in order to find new strategies that balance power relations between adults and children. The study was carried out in the context of the preliminary design stage of an interactive learning experience for a bomb shelter dating from the Spanish Civil War, known as “Refugi 307”. Our analysis reveals some of the reasons behind the assumptions of adult stakeholders. These outcomes were our starting point for defining strategies that can establish collective values among adult stakeholders and enrich the range of roles of children in a design process.
... Therefore, research about the heritage domain has emerged from the HCI field as some of the most significant research to encourage a human-centered approach focused on enhancing the visitor experience, rather than driven by technological developments only, as indeed heritage professionals advocate (Maye, McDermott, Ciolfi, & Avram, 2014). This has also led to important HCI work adopting participatory approaches to design involving heritage staff and visitors (Iversen & Smith, 2012;Roussou et al., 2015;Taxén, 2004). Leading research on these topics has looked at how interactive technology can support sensemaking and how, through interaction with digital resources, visitors can uncover and construct meanings in what they encounter (Fosh, Benford, Reeves, Koleva, & Brundell, 2013;Fosh et al., 2016;Grinter et al., 2002). ...
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This article examines visitor interactions with and through a physical/digital installation designed for an open-air museum that displays historic buildings and ways of life from the past. The installation was designed following the “Assembly” design scheme proposed by Fraser et al. (2003 Fraser, M., Stanton, D., Hui Ng, K., Benford, S., O’Malley, C., Bowers, J., … Hindmarsh, J. (2003). Assembling history: Achieving coherent experiences with diverse technologies. Proceedings of ECSCW 2005, 179–198. Norwell, MA: Kluwer. [Google Scholar]), and centered around five principles for the design of interactive experiences. We discuss how the Assembly framework was adapted and applied to our work on the installation called Reminisce, and we then present qualitative data gathered through the shadowing and naturalistic observations of small groups of visitors using Reminisce during their exploration of the museum. Through these data excerpts, we illustrate how interaction occurred among visitors and with the assembly. We reflect on the guiding principles of the adapted Assembly framework and on their usefulness for the design of place-specific interactional opportunities in heritage settings. Results from the empirical study show that the adapted Assembly principles provide HCI (human–computer interaction) researchers and designers with ways in which to flexibly support collocated interactions at heritage sites across artifacts and locations in ways that both complement and enrich the physical setting of the visit and its character.
... [2,22]), and discuss how specific contexts of use may call for particular evaluative approaches (e.g. [41]). ...
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This paper focuses on evaluation in Participatory Design (PD), and especially upon how the central aims of mutual learning, empowerment, democracy and workplace quality have been assessed. We surveyed all Participatory Design Conference papers (1990-2014) and papers from special journal issues on PD, focusing on systematic, explicit evaluations. The survey resulted in 143 papers of which 66 were deemed relevant. Of these, 17 papers deal with evaluation of the above mentioned aims. Based on evaluation theory, we propose seven key questions through which to characterize evaluations in PD and analyze the 17 papers. Our analysis reveals that formal evaluations of PD's aims are rare; generally lack details on methods; are researcher- and not participant-led, and that a corpus of work around evaluations needs to be developed. We suggest more explicit, systematic evaluations of PD's central aims to enhance accountability, learning and knowledge building, and to strengthen PD internally and externally.
... themselves through "criteria": "reasons, arguments, or opinions which evaluate an alternative solution or proposal" (Olson et al., 1996, p. 222). 29 Amongst other things, the size of the field is widening if we consider the use of participatory design also in the classroom, for example for the generation of ideas (Moraveji et al. 2007), as well as outside of school (e.g., Read, Horton & Mazzone, 2005), as, for example, the museum (Taxén, 2004), with implications which now cover the pedagogical theorisation (Resnick, 2007). See also the projects of Lifelong Kindergarten (URL: http://llk.media.mit.edu/projects.php). ...
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The primary aim of this article is to contribute to the delineation of a field of empirical research, not yet fully developed in Italy, that focuses on the evaluation of media programmes and products. Particularly the article touches three fundamental aspects: the cultural meaning of evaluation, which aspects to study, and the opportunity to promote, together with the evaluative research on programmes and products that has already been realized, formative and participatory research aimed at evaluation of future programmes and products through collaborative processes between producers and users.
Chapter
While the previous chapter on the perspective and conceptual framework of USE was theoretical in nature, this chapter has a more methodological orientation. It contains step-by-step instructions for conducting user needs analyses, preparing programs of demands and performing post occupancy evaluations , with the underlying reasoning and a number of examples and suggestions to make the procedures more accessible.KeywordsUser needs analysisProgram of demandsFormal evaluationFunctional evaluationFunctional valueProblems and measures
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We present a case study to understand how migrant communities embrace and connect with their host city’s cultural heritage. To achieve this, we deployed a study with ten adult migrants (first- and second-generation Lisbon dwellers) articulated into two stages: (i) a five-day photo-challenge involving storytelling elucidated by pictures and short textual descriptions, followed by (ii) a four-hour audio recorded co-creation workshop, in which participants explored the material they had captured and co-created stories around specific sites, linking them to their memories. This method enabled the participants to express their opinions and experiences on social, cultural, and historical matters. By exploring their connections with the places they inhabit through their own, personal narratives and sharing these with their peers, the participants activated a discussion process exploring the role of storytellers. This case study focuses on the lessons learned and the limitations of the practical work carried out.
Chapter
Interactive architecture bridges in itself two design traditions, i.e. design of interactive systems on the one hand, and architecture as the tradition of designing our built environment on the other hand. This article reports from our ongoing project focused on the design and implementation of an interactive environment for public use. The article describes the project, reviews and outlines the main design challenges as pinpointed in the literature on interactive architecture, and describes the practical challenges identified in this particular project. This article then presents the participatory design approach adopted in this project to overcome these challenges, and describes and analysis the methodological implications from this project. These implications include the lessons learned from the coordination of a geographically distributed design team, “role gliding” as the reinterpretation of the designers as users in the participatory design process, and a shift from communities of practices to mixtures of professions.
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This study investigates the evolution of performance measures in Italian state museums, alongside the evolution of their role from preservation institutes to entertainment sites, remodelling themselves as participatory museums of the digital era. Italian autonomous state museums, and in particular four of these museums, were chosen as the main field of analysis because this category of state museums was affected the most by the move from the participatory to the entertainment model through successive reforms. Results underlined a renewed role for entertainment, which acted as a mediator between the notion of enjoyment and that of knowledge; the primary importance of the measure about the number of visitors, which assumed different nuances along the years; and the double function of digital technologies in entertaining visitors and providing new sources of measurement.
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The present thesis has the main aim to explore new paradigms for Serious Games in tangible interfaces, in order to promote non-formal scientific learning among children from ages 5 to 12 years old. It is composed of both a theoretical and also practical model, where a game is developed through a participatory design methodology, then evaluated with the use of an observational method. It is also suggested an intervention in renovating the design of the interactive multimedia installation IMP.cubed, a project of the University of Aveiro in partnership with Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. In this context, this work covers a wide range of knowledge areas, that includes: a) learning theories that help to portray the target audience, b) game and Serious Games theories, which support the development of the game; c ) the design of game and multimedia installations which allows its execution. A preliminary assessment of participatory design sessions revealed that children feel pretty much involved in a project of this kind. Moreover, it is easier to meet their expectations knowing them in advance. The final evaluation of the prototype has highlighted weaknesses in the technology used, but high potential for motivation in non-formal scientific learning and other areas that might be supplementary in these types of installations.
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Participatory design as one of the current approaches in the design research emerged with the demand for democracy at the intersection of the political agenda of the period and the dissemination of the technological infrastructure at workplaces. The participatory approach, first included in the design processes of the information systems, continued its existence as different practices focused on distinctive concerns due to its multidimensional structure that covers issues in political, economic and theoretical perspectives. The variety due to naming deficits of different practices and additional naming for the same practices have caused confusion in participatory design practice and terminology. The study aims to clarify this complexity by classifying the diversity which is the underlying causes of confusion. In this sense, the context of participation and the application areas of design were examined and the conditions that constitute the basis for different practices were investigated by literature review. According to their contextual differences, these different practices, grouped under collaborative design, open design and agonistic approach, were subjected to document analysis as projects. Content analysis categories are the variables taken from the evaluation framework set out in the previous section. As a result of this evaluation indicating the differences in the practices of the three approaches, both the classification was clarified and the effects of the contextual changes on the practices were put forward. Thus, while the results of the evaluation clarify terminology and practice, the evaluation framework guides the designer by emphasizing the points to be considered in practice.
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At a time when it is particularly urgent to identify models of intersection across the digital and cultural sector to respond to an emergent funding and policy environment, this article contributes to a body of scholarly work around designing digital interventions for museums by identifying the role of cultural content in shaping design spaces for collaboration. The context of the article is a research project that brought together magical realist literature and the development of an Augmented Reality smartphone application realised through a public programme held at a museum of children’s literature. This process created an open-ended design space within the organisation embedded into the development of public engagement workshops around magical realism and place making. It investigates how the cultural content (from archival material) occupied a key role in shaping technological development and suggests strategies that could grant autonomy and sustainability to cultural organisations in engaging in digital transformation.
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The main objective of this article is to reflect upon the integration of digital media in museums by analysing how the digital is imagined and practised in co-design processes at three Danish art museums. With conceptual reference to Flichy’s ‘imaginaire’, we analyse project descriptions written by project participants to obtain funding. The project descriptions represent initial collective visions and reveal imaginations about the capabilities of digital technology. We find that two categories of imaginaires are similar across the cases and we analyse ethnographic data to identify challenges of practicing these. Our findings suggest that challenges mostly emerge in co-design activities or when such activities are not prioritised. The article concludes with reflections on the integration of digital media in museums and the paradoxical nature of the collective project vision as both a necessary driver and constrainer of collaborative museum design.
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This research project investigates how to inclusively design and curate a non-permanent design exhibition in a large regional gallery (the National Centre for Craft and Design, UK), focusing on intellectual access for blind and partially sighted visitors. There are approximately two million people in the UK who are registered with sight loss. Older people are increasingly likely to experience sight loss and they are the fastest growing visitor group (65–74 years) to UK museums and galleries. The context and rationale for the research, and how the author has collaborated with various stakeholders, including blind and partially sighted participants, through co-creation and co-assessment, is imparted. The resulting multi-sensory exhibition (28 January–23 April 2017), how it was tested and visitors’ reactions is also described.
Chapter
This chapter identifies and describes three technological paradigms in museum experience design, all positioned within an overarching visitor-centredness frame: (1) User-centred experience design, which emphasises modelling experience design in response to visitor views and interests, through methods adapted from or inspired by user-centred approaches in Human–Computer Interaction; (2) Participatory experience design, which shifts the emphasis from the product to the process of design and invites the visitor to become partner in the design of experiences; and (3) Agile experience design, in which the main preoccupation is with being constantly responsive to evolving visitor aims and needs, and innovating the experiential offer on an ongoing basis. In the context of museum experience design, each of these paradigms represents a systematic way of delivering value to the public through meaningfully designed experiences. The chapter contributes a critical reflection on the importance of acknowledging the existence and endorsement of these paradigms, which can impact museum practice beyond single design projects. In particular, I will discuss to what extent working within a certain paradigm can be transformative for the way museums function, how they are organised and how they engage with their public.
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Increasingly, cultural heritage professionals (CHPs) (including curators, museum directors, and education officers) are becoming more involved in designing interactive technologies. Specifically, growing access to and availability of digital technology enables CHPs, who may have limited experience with interactive technologies, to create content for and integrate these technologies into their museums. With these developments, there is a growing importance in investigating how CHPs build understandings of these tools in context; this is particularly since curators aim to learn how those tools can support their audiences. In this paper, we highlight how CHPs formed understandings for integrating an interactive tool to support an intended visitor experience into the museum environment through experimentation. Inspired by lessons learned, we propose design recommendations for interaction designers and HCI experts in designing tools and resources that support CHPs to experiment with various ways these technologies could service their interpretation goals.
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Zoos and museums often rely on interpretive staff, called explainers, to facilitate visitors' learning through conversations and demonstrations. Many explainers begin their careers as teens, and would benefit from ongoing Professional Development (PD). As institutions begin to use mobile devices to enhance explainers' interpretation, new opportunities arise to support explainers' individual and collaborative professional development. This paper presents the results of structured participatory design sessions to engage explainers in examining and proposing features for a Facilitation, Reflection, and Augmented Interpretation Mobile System (FRAIMS). The goal for FRAIMS is to support everyday interpretive tasks while also gathering information on how explainers perform that interpretation (both passively, via logging and recording, and actively, via self-reports and ratings) to support them in their PD. Reflecting on one's own performance and the performance of others is a powerful PD strategy, but can be emotionally fraught. Via participatory design sessions with expert, in-development, and novice explainers at different informal learning institutions, we found that explainers' preferences for socially sharing performance information gathered via mobile devices varied with their experience. We detail emerging themes captured from the sessions and make suggestions for how these findings might apply more broadly to computer-supported professional development systems.
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Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people’s learning with portable tablets matches the intentions of the museums. By applying media and information literacy (MIL) components as analytical dimensions, a pattern of discrepancies between young people’s expectations, their actual learning and the museums’ approaches to framing such learning is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced by their leisure use.
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In this paper we reflect on the process of co-design by detailing and comparing two strategies for the participatory development of interaction concepts and prototypes in the context of technologically-enhanced museum visiting experiences. While much work in CSCW, HCI and related disciplines has examined different role configurations in co-design, more research is needed on examining how collaborative design processes can unfold in different ways. Here we present two instances of co-design of museum visiting aids, one stemming from an open brief, another from an initial working prototype; we discuss the process in each case and discuss how these alternative strategies presented the team with different possibilities as well as constraints, and led to different patterns of collaboration within the design team. Finally, we draw a set of themes for discussion and reflection to inform and aid researchers and practitioners participating in similar co-design processes, particularly in the domain of cultural heritage.
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In sonification of scientific data, designers know very little about the domain science and domain scientists are not familiar with the sonification methodology. The knowledge about the domain science is not given, but evolved during the problem-solving process. We discuss design challenges in auditory display design regarding user-centered approaches and suggest a method to involve domain scientists throughout sonification designs. We explore this within a workshop in which sonification experts, domain experts, and programmers worked together to better understand and solve problems collaboratively. The sonification framework that is used during the workshops is briefly described and the workshop process and how each group worked together during the workshop sessions are examined. Participants worked on pre-defined and exploratory tasks to sonify climate data. Furthermore, they grasped each other's domains; climate scientists especially became more open to use auditory display and sonification as a tool in their data mining tasks. Resulting sonification prototypes and workshop sessions are documented on a wiki to be used by the sonification community. To get started, we used some of the sonification designs created during the workshop for an online study where participants from science, engineering, and humanities were asked questions about the data behavior by listening to sonifcations of bivariate time series. Results indicate that sonic representation of data from resulting sonification allows most users (even with little or no knowledge of sound and music) to successfully complete some common data exploration tasks.
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This workshop wants to investigate the role of Participatory Design principles and practices in the conceptualization of spaces, technologies and services that GLAM organizations (Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums), in particular public ones, offer to their communities. In recent years the public sector in general and GLAMs in particular have started to be interested in human centered design. We believe the time is ripe to think beyond user involvement and also reflect on the opportunities and challenges of citizens and civic engagement at deeper levels of co-creation. For this task Participatory Design (PD) might bring interesting reflections and approaches to consider. We are therefore seeking to engage with participants that have experience or interest on how citizens' involvement and PD process should and could take place to shape the future of GLAM institutions and services, especially public ones.
Conference Paper
Informal Science Institutions (ISIs) like museums and zoos are increasingly employing mobile technology to support their interpretive staff (explainers). One approach to designing technology to support existing tasks is participatory design (PD), where end-users are involved as experts in the task domain who can help envision the application of technology. Our participatory design sessions engaged explainers from two different ISIs, with different levels of expertise and age (youth and adults). We implemented a socio-technical PD approach in engaging participants in examining and proposing features for a Facilitation, Reflection, and Augmented Interpretation Mobile System (FRAIMS). Involving novices and emerging professionals in participatory design is as important as involving experienced and expert participants, especially when designing in supports for professional development. Our analysis highlights the benefit of considering the level of expertise of participants as a key factor that shapes a design, having as a result, different supports for the design of the mobile interpretation application.
Conference Paper
There is growing attention within HCI with regards the involvement of cultural heritage professionals in the ideation of interactives [2] [7]. This paper describes a resource consisting of a collection of co-design case studies and methods framed for cultural heritage professionals interested to design tangible interactive exhibitions. Whilst co-design and associated methods are well known in HCI, this resource aims to make them attractive to cultural heritage professionals and help them get started in designing interactives. The co-design resource complements an authoring tool and a plug-and-play hardware and software platform (the meSch Up kit [6]) designed to support museum professionals to create their own interactive installations.
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This paper discusses the use of a shared mixed reality system that supports co-visiting of museum exhibitions for both on-site and on-line visitors. We briefly present the prototype system that uses wireless communication technologies to combine handheld devices, virtual environments and hypermedia to support a museum visit. We then discuss its use, focusing on the ways that the system shaped the visiting experience with regard to collaboration in the exploration of artefacts, mutual exchange of suggestions and creative conversations among the visitors. We conclude with implications for both the design of mixed reality experiences for museums and the character of the museum.
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There is a growing interest amongst both artists and curators in designing artworks which create new forms of visual communication and enhance interaction in museums and galleries. Despite extraordinary advances in the analysis of talk and discourse, there is relatively little research concerned with conduct and collaboration with and around aesthetic objects and artefacts, and to some extent the social and cognitive sciences have paid less attention to the ways in which conduct both visual and vocal is inextricably embedded within the immediate ecology, the material realities at hand. In this paper, we examine how people in and through interaction with others, explore, examine and experience a mixed-media installation. Whilst primarily concerned with interaction with and around an art work, the paper is concerned with the ways in which people, in interaction with each other (both those they are with and others who happen to be in the same space), reflexively constitute the sense and significance of objects and artefacts, and the ways in which those material features reflexively inform the production and intelligibility of conduct and interaction.
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While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of what is achievable. In this paper, we report on our various experiences of 'boundary crossing' in four very different participatory design contexts. We argue that in each setting a key task consists of enlisting the effort, imagination, trust and commitment of users, and the sharing of risks and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting.
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The paper explores the nature of docents'work in museums. From this is derived the concept ofthe docent function to describe different aspects ofthat work, some of which may be performed by otherpeople and also by objects such as maps andguidebooks. This analysis leads to the idea of theCyberdocent – an extension of the docent function totake advantage of new possibilities afforded byadvanced technologies. The potential of theCyberdocent in both virtual and real museums isinvestigated. The authors claim that it is theprovision of docent functions that make a physicalmuseum more than merely a collection, and equally, itis by the provision of Cyberdocent functionality thata virtual collection becomes a virtual museum.
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In todays homes and schools, children are emerging as frequentand experienced users of technology [3, 14]. As this trendcontinues, it becomes increasingly important to ask if we arefulfilling the technology needs of our children. To answer thisquestion, I have developed a research approach that enables youngchildren to have a voice throughout the technology developmentprocess. In this paper, the techniques of cooperativeinquiry will be described along with a theoretical frameworkthat situates this work in the HCI literature. Two examples oftechnology resulting from this approach will be presented, alongwith a brief discussion on the design-centered learning ofteam researchers using cooperative inquiry.
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This paper examines the use of an interactive artwork that was designed by members of the research team and exhibited at the Sculpture, Objects and Functional Art (SOFA) Exposition in Chicago, USA. The paper uses audio-visual recordings of interaction with and around the work to consider how people encounter and make sense of an assembly of traditional objects and video technologies. The analysis of action and interaction is used to develop a series of 'design sensitivities' to inform the development of technological assemblies to engender informal interaction and sociability in museums and galleries.
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For this work-in-progress presentation, we report on our experiences working with young children as technology design partners. Our team from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab has extensive participatory design experience in working with 7-11 year old children. Here we describe our first year working with 4-6 year old children and the ways that we altered our methodologies to meet the unique needs of our younger design partners.
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The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics. Tony Bennett. London and New York: Routledge, 1995. x + 278 pp.; 26 illustrations, notes, bibliography, index. $19.95 (paper).
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From Autumn 1998 to Spring 2001, 27 Swedish children (14, at age 5 and 13, at age 7) partnered with an interdisciplinary and international group of researchers supported by a grant from the European Union to create new storytelling technologies for children. After each of the many design activities, children were asked to reflect with drawings and/or writing in a bound paper journal. As the project concluded in the third year, the children's journals were analyzed and four constructs emerged from the data: learner, critic, inventor, and technology design partner. This study examines the motivation for such a research and learning experience, describes the changes in roles we saw represented in our child partners' journals, and suggests possible future directions for educators and technology developers.
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This chapter examines the role of psychology and human–computer interaction (HIC) studies in system design. Human factors (HF), or ergonomics considerations, are often incorporated into the design process simply as a set of specifications to which the delivered system must adhere. The actual work of the human factors personnel is seen as operator task analyses to be fed into these specifications, and perhaps some interface retouching near the end of the development cycle, when the system design has already been fixed. In general, the role of these people has been seen as ancillary to the main task of building the system. The role of HF or HCI in system design today should be more fluid and pragmatic. Input is vital in discussing the initial capabilities of the system and its required functionality, persisting in the development and evaluation of prototypes, and in final screen layout considerations. This chapter presents an approach which, although acknowledging the contribution that different disciplines can make to the design process, ultimately depends upon the users themselves to articulate their requirements, along with the system design team composed of a variety of specialists acting in the capacity of consultants to the project.
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The United States has led the way in defining and refining the body of knowledge that has come to be known as ‘visitor studies’. Based on the postulate that museums have a dynamic social role and responsibilities to the general, non-specialist public, research methods and procedures have been devised to produce practical results which can be integrated into everyday museum operations. These are described in this article.
On Participation and Skill Participatory Design. Principles and Practices Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum The Manual of Museum Exhibitions Walnut Creek From Docent to Cyberdocent: Education and Guidance in the Virtual Museum Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future
  • P Ehn
  • Scandinavian
  • Design
  • B Lord
  • G D Lord
  • W B Rayward
  • M B Twidale
Ehn, P. Scandinavian Design: On Participation and Skill. In Schuler, D. and Namioka, A. (Eds.) Participatory Design. Principles and Practices. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993, 41-77. [29] Lord, B. and Lord, G. D. The Manual of Museum Exhibitions. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2002. [30] Rayward, W. B. and Twidale, M. B. From Docent to Cyberdocent: Education and Guidance in the Virtual Museum. Archives and Museum Informatics, 13(1), 1999, 23-53. [16] Ehn, P. and Kyng, M. Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future. In Greenbaum, J. and Kyng, M. (Eds.) Design At Work. Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991,169-195.
Curators and educators collaborate to prototype aMuseum of the Future How Young Can Our Design Partners Be? DinoHunter -Game Based Learn Experience in Museums Far away is close at hand: shared mixed reality museum experiences for local and remote museum companions
  • P S Samis
  • Points
  • Departure
  • Italy Milan
  • A Farber
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  • G Chipman
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  • S Sauer
  • S Göbel
Samis, P. S. Points of Departure: Curators and educators collaborate to prototype a "Museum of the Future". In Proceedings of the Sixth International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM 2001), September 3-7, 2001, Milan, Italy. [18] Farber, A., Druin, A., Chipman, G., Julian, D., and Somashekhar, S. How Young Can Our Design Partners Be? In Proceedings of the 2002 Participatory Design Conference. Malmö, Sweden, June 23-25, 2002, 272-277. [33] Sauer, S., and Göbel, S. DinoHunter -Game Based Learn Experience in Museums. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM 2003), September 8-12 2003, Paris, France. [19] Galani, A., and Chalmers, M. Far away is close at hand: shared mixed reality museum experiences for local and remote museum companions. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM 2003), September 8-12 2003, Paris.
Understanding practice: video as a medium for reflection and design Design At Work Crafting participation: designing ecologies, configuring experience
  • L A Suchman
  • R H Trigg
Suchman, L. A., and Trigg, R. H. Understanding practice: video as a medium for reflection and design. In Greenbaum J. and Kyng, M. (Eds.) Design At Work. Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991, 65-90. [21] Heath, C., Luff, P., vom Lehn, D., Hindmarsh, J., and Cleverly, J. Crafting participation: designing ecologies, configuring experience. Visual Communication, 1(1), 2002, 9-34.
KidStory: A design partnership with children Learning in the Museum London: Routledge The Well of Inventions -Learning, Interaction and Participatory Design in Museum Installations Creating assemblies: aboard the Ghost Ship
  • G Taxén
  • A Druin
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  • M Bowers
Taxén, G., Druin, A., Fast, C., and Kjellin, M. KidStory: A design partnership with children. Behaviour and Information Technology, 20(2), April-March 2001, 119-125. [22] Hein, G. E. Learning in the Museum. London: Routledge, 1998. [37] Taxén, G., Hellström, S.-O., Tobiasson, H., Back, M., and Bowers, J. The Well of Inventions -Learning, Interaction and Participatory Design in Museum Installations. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM 2003), September 8-12 2003, Paris, France. [23] Hindmarsh, J., Heath, C., vom Lehn, D., and Cleverly J. Creating assemblies: aboard the Ghost Ship. In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW '02), 156-165. [24] Hooper-Greenhill, E. Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge. London: Routledge, 1992.
Envisioning HIPS with the users
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Broadbent, J. and Marti, P. Envisioning HIPS with the users. I3 Magazine, November 1997.
Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future Design At Work Learning Together. Children and Adults in a School Community
  • P Ehn
  • M Kyng
Ehn, P. and Kyng, M. Cardboard Computers: Mocking-it-up or Hands-on the Future. In Greenbaum, J. and Kyng, M. (Eds.) Design At Work. Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991,169-195. [31] Rogoff, B., Goodman Turkanis, C., and Bartlett, L. (Eds.). Learning Together. Children and Adults in a School Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Designing Mixed Media Artefacts for Public Settings Cooperative Systems Design. Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems
  • E Hooper-Greenhill
  • Museums
  • Shaping Of Knowledge
  • G London Taxén
  • J Bowers
  • S.-O Hellström
  • H Tobiasson
Hooper-Greenhill, E. Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge. London: Routledge, 1992. [38] Taxén, G., Bowers, J., Hellström, S.-O., and Tobiasson, H. Designing Mixed Media Artefacts for Public Settings. In Darses, F., Dieng, R., Simone, C., and Zacklad, M. (Eds.) Cooperative Systems Design. Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2004, 195- 210.
DinoHunter -Game Based Learn Experience in Museums
  • S Sauer
  • S Göbel
Sauer, S., and Göbel, S. DinoHunter -Game Based Learn Experience in Museums. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (ICHIM 2003), September 8-12 2003, Paris, France.
The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research Aldine de Gruyter Understanding practice: video as a medium for reflection and design
  • B G Glaser
  • A L Strauss
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