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Getting to green: Understanding resource consumption in the home

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Abstract

Rising global energy demands, increasing costs and limited natural resources mean that householders are more conscious about managing their domestic resource consumption. Yet, the question of what tools Ubicomp researchers can create for residential resource management remains open. To begin to address this omission, we present a qualitative study of 15 households and their current management practices around the water, electricity and natural gas systems in the home. We find that in-the- moment resource consumption is mostly invisible to householders and that they desire more real-time information to help them save money, keep their homes comfortable and be environmentally friendly. Designing for domestic sustainability therefore turns on improving the visibility of resource production and consumption costs as well as supporting both individuals and collectives in behavior change. Domestic sustainability also highlights the caveat of potentially creating a green divide by making resource management available only to those who can afford the technologies to support being green. Finally, we suggest that the Ubicomp community can contribute to the domestic and broader sustainability agenda by incorporating green values in designs and highlight the challenge of collecting data on being green. Author Keywords Sustainability, residential resource consumption, domestic conservation
Getting to Green: Understanding Resource Consumption
in the Home
Marshini Chetty, David Tran and Rebecca E. Grinter*
GVU Center and School of Interactive Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA, USA
{marshini, beki*}@cc.gatech.edu, David.Tran@gtri.gatech.edu
ABSTRACT
Rising global energy demands, increasing costs and limited
natural resources mean that householders are more
conscious about managing their domestic resource
consumption. Yet, the question of what tools Ubicomp
researchers can create for residential resource management
remains open. To begin to address this omission, we present
a qualitative study of 15 households and their current
management practices around the water, electricity and
natural gas systems in the home. We find that in-the-
moment resource consumption is mostly invisible to
householders and that they desire more real-time
information to help them save money, keep their homes
comfortable and be environmentally friendly. Designing for
domestic sustainability therefore turns on improving the
visibility of resource production and consumption costs as
well as supporting both individuals and collectives in
behavior change. Domestic sustainability also highlights the
caveat of potentially creating a green divide by making
resource management available only to those who can
afford the technologies to support being green. Finally, we
suggest that the Ubicomp community can contribute to the
domestic and broader sustainability agenda by
incorporating green values in designs and highlight the
challenge of collecting data on being green.
Author Keywords
Sustainability, residential resource consumption, domestic
conservation
ACM Classification Keywords
H5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI):
Miscellaneous.
INTRODUCTION
Rising global energy demands, increasing costs and
limitations on natural resources have elevated concerns
about resource conservation [13]. Ubicomp researchers
have sought to address this issue through investigations of
context aware power management techniques to help
buildings conserve energy [19], increasing awareness of
resource consumption in the workplace [20] and building
homes that adaptively control a home’s energy systems for
householders [27]. Still, it is not well understood how
householders currently manage their consumption of natural
gas, electricity and water, what their frustrations or desires
are, or how they currently conceive of resource usage. More
importantly, the question of what tools Ubicomp
researchers can create to aid domestic resource
consumption management remains open.
To begin to address this omission, we sought to understand
householders’ current practices around resource
consumption and management, their use of technology aids
in this process and their interactions with outside
stakeholders for information on resource usage. In
particular, we examine systems which are tightly integrated
into the home’s infrastructure including the water,
electricity and natural gas systems. We were interested in
these systems because they depend on scarce natural
resources and consume the most energy in the home—for
instance, appliances consume the most electricity (33%)
followed by air conditioning, heating and ventilation
systems (31%) and water heating (9%) [14].
The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. First,
we discuss related research on environmental issues,
residential resource consumption management and
designing systems for the home more generally, as well as
prior work on understanding how householders manage
their energy consumption. Next, we outline our methods
and findings from a qualitative study of 15 households’
current practices around resource consumption and
management in a US metropolitan area. We find that
mostly, householders are unaware of in-the-moment
resource consumption, i.e., real-time resource usage for
different appliances as well as the total household resource
usage, because it is so invisible to them. Because these
utility systems have faded into the background of
householders’ lives, we suggest that developing systems
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242
that encourage householders to reflect on and re-engage
with these aspects of the home’s infrastructure is a research
agenda that Ubicomp is well poised to fulfill.
RELATED WORK
We provide an overview of environmentally focused
research first. Next, we outline research on resource
management in the home and relevant domestic Ubicomp
research. Finally, we show how our work builds on prior
research on resource efficiency.
Environmentally Focused Research
Increasing concerns about global warming, limited natural
resources and rising energy costs [13] have spurred
exploratory research on helping people engage in more
environmentally friendly behaviors. Yet, many of these
efforts are not focused on the residential sector or on
domestic resource consumption in particular.
One focus area in the Ubicomp community has been to
investigate ways to decrease electronic waste from
technology products, a growing problem with used and
obsolete devices [37]. Huang and Troung have investigated
how users are disposing of old mobile phones [21] and
suggest ways to break the view of these technologies as
disposable—for instance by decreasing the gap between the
perceived and functional lifetime of a phone. Others have
focused on profiling young technology users (18-21 year
olds) and their attitudes towards technology reuse,
reinvention and disposal [17]. These authors categorized
their target population into 4 subsets and suggest design
strategies for sustainable design based on these subsets. For
example, those primarily concerned about the global
collective fate of the planet are most likely to want to
prolong the life of technology products. One suggested
design strategy for this group is to give them tools to make
informed decisions about “green” behaviors.
At a meta-level, Blevis [4] focused on rethinking the entire
technology design process to incorporate sustainability as a
core value. He describes a sustainable interaction design
framework outlining the implications of a technology
design from its creation to its eventual disposal,
highlighting the ways we can better design products for
reuse, repurposing and to use as inputs to the creation of
new products or a “cradle-to-cradle” mentality [26].
Another research focus is to increase awareness of climate
change by showing people how their behaviors affect the
environment for better or worse. For instance, Mankoff et
al. have experimented with increasing awareness on climate
change using social networking sites [24].
Residential Resource Consumption Management
Less research has focused explicitly on helping
householders manage resource consumption in the domestic
space using technology. Psychologists have already shown
that with proper feedback, real time-information at salient
times, and goal setting abilities [25,33,39], households can
have up to 10% energy savings with small changes in
behavior. Yet most current methods of tracking resource
consumption, such as via utility bills, remain inadequate
[10]. For instance, these bills often only arrive at the end of
the month whereas householders need real-time feedback to
alter their consumption. Even when online histories of
resource usage are provided, they only allow householders
to determine if they are above or below their average but
not to experiment with their consumption. Commercially,
consumer devices that determine the electrical consumption
of appliances—such as the Kill-A-Watt or Watts Up—are
available today but these devices only track individual
appliances , not total household energy use [29,38].
As some researchers have suggested, taking into account
the external stakeholders for the infrastructure in the home
can affect Ubicomp technology design [32]. Residential
resource consumption management also depends on
stakeholders outside the home, such as utility companies
who may directly control what resource information can be
tracked. For instance, in the USA, Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory is experimenting with smart monitors
in people’s homes that allow them to adjust their appliances
to respond to real-time electricity pricing information [30].
Similar smart energy monitor systems are being trialed in
the UK and Canada to provide people with more
information on energy consumption [2,6]. These systems
were developed from the perspective of utility companies
that want to provide a better service and do not necessarily
take into account what householders as consumers desire.
Legislation and public policy proposals set forth by
governments can also affect resource consumption
management in the home. Recently in the US, Californian
legislators faced protests against a law that would allow
utility companies to override and control household
thermostats so as to distribute loads adequately at peak
times, a move that could be viewed as technology
paternalism [34]. To summarize, domestic resource
management systems depend on inputs from multiple
stakeholders: utility companies, the government and
householders themselves.
The Infrastructure in the Home and Ubicomp
Ubicomp research has long focused on creating smart
homes [18] with the recognition that many older homes will
become smarter as technologies enter them in a piecemeal
fashion [12]. Given recent advances in sensor and inference
technologies [15,31], Ubicomp researchers are at a point
where creating a home resource consumption management
system (for a newly built smart home or an older house) is
well within the realm of possibility. But the question of
what to include for a resource consumption management
display and control system remains open.
A body of research on designing domestic information
displays for the home already exists. Previous domestic
research has shown that information is routinely and
sometimes collaboratively displayed in ways that use
existing artifacts in various common areas in the home e.g.,
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using post-its, display boards, or by moving letters from
one place in the home to another [9,36]. For example,
ordinary household surfaces such as the refrigerator door
have been proposed as one of the ideal places to present
householders with information and create homes that make
us smarter [35]. Many Ubicomp researchers have
experimented with displays for household routines in
calendaring applications [28], communication systems such
as HomeNote [35] and for health related information [8].
Yet, in a study designed to elicit information on what
people value in their homes, energy saving was found to be
the value least related to technology [16]—perhaps because
there are no widespread existing resource management
tools that home occupants associate with energy savings.
Understanding how householders engage in resource
consumption will help inform the design of systems to aid
them with this process.
Towards “Green” Homes
Research on resource consumption management has
focused on making power management more efficient in the
workplace [19], to increase workers awareness of energy
consumption at work [20] and to help people monitor water
consumption and conserve water at the sink [5]. Some
researchers have also created homes that adaptively control
energy systems for householders [27] and investigated how
householders might install and use sensors for a home
energy tutor system [3]. Others have experimented with
persuasive technology gaming interfaces and automation to
convince people to conserve energy [1]. However, none of
these studies attempted to form a picture of how
householders currently manage their resource consumption
in the home. Woodruff et al. do [40] shed light on how
motivated “green” individuals, an extreme population, who
have taken explicit measures in their homes to be resource
conservative, manage their energy consumption. They
found that in depth learning exercises, pairing householders
with “green” mentors, creating mental challenges for
householders related to energy consumption are key for
promoting “green” behavior.
Our work extends Woodruff et al.’s work by examining
households that have not necessarily made a commitment to
be “green” to determine their current practices with
resource consumption. Additionally to understanding
householders’ current resource management practices, we
sought to understand their use of technologies that aid them
in this process and their interactions with outside
stakeholders for information on resources. Our work will
help Ubicomp researchers create residential resource
consumption management systems.
METHOD AND PARTICIPANTS
We conducted a qualitative study of 15 households with 33
participants (of a total of 40 householders) between October
2007 and December 2007. Our aim was to determine
individual household practices with respect to monitoring
and managing resource consumption. Specifically, we
examined practices around natural gas (for
heating/cooling), electricity, and to a lesser extent, water.
Households were recruited through word of mouth, email
lists and online postings and were compensated with a
household $20 gift card at a general purpose retail store or
$5 Starbucks gift card for each household member. We
conducted home visits with each household, during which
we used a home tour and semi-structured interviews for
data elicitation, a method successfully used in previous
work [7]. The visits were audio-taped and we took photos
of interesting related phenomena during the home tours.
Our interview questions focused on how householders
currently manage and monitor resource consumption for
efficiency.
All of the interviews were transcribed and coded. Codes
were subsequently categorized and related for overarching
themes. We interviewed families with children (3), couples
(6) and households with roommates (6). Occupations varied
from engineers, lawyers, consultants, a full time mother to
graduate students. The age range of participants interviewed
was 13-49, with most falling within the 20-30 years old age
bracket. The 15 households were split into 4 apartments, 3
shared sub-divided houses and 10 single-family houses. The
housing units varied in age—6 homes had been built before
1930, and only 4 homes had been built in the last 4 years.
In 8 households, the occupants owned the homes. In the
remaining homes, 2 were occupied by their owners and
renters and 5 were occupied by renters only.
FINDINGS
Householders’ resource consumption turns on their
understanding of the utility systems that provide them with
resources. However, the resource systems have faded so
much into the background and become part of the everyday
infrastructure in householder’s lives that tracking,
monitoring and understanding in-the-moment resource
consumption is not easy because it is mostly invisible. First,
we discuss how householders currently modify their
behaviors and homes, or are affected by home infrastructure
for resource conservation. Next, we discuss why
householders want to manage their resources more actively.
Finally, we discuss preliminary ideas on what householders
would like to make visible about their resource usage.
Modifications for Resource Management
Householders modified their homes and behaviors for better
managing resources. The type of housing unit a household
lived in also affected resource consumption. We discuss
each of these points in turn.
Minor Modifications for Resource Management
Participants made modifications to their homes and altered
their behaviors for resource efficiency, suggesting a
willingness to change the infrastructure and their practices
for resource management purposes. The most common
modifications were using energy efficient light bulbs (7)
and installing a programmable thermostat (6). The most
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common behaviors were turning lights off when not in use
(7), unplugging devices when not in use (5) or placing them
on standby (3). Less common modifications were replacing
windows (2), putting in insulation (2), sealing up
windows/putting plastic on them (2) and installing tankless
water heaters (1). 3 of all households kept their thermostat
at a steady temperature and only half (3) of those with a
programmable thermostat had programmed a schedule.
Some householders told us they considered getting an
energy audit from the utility companies—this “audit”
entails a team of technicians visiting a home to determine
energy inefficiencies and suggest improvements. Because
of the perceived price and time involved in conducting
these audits, no householders interviewed had actually
conducted an official energy audit.
Other participants had specifically installed programmable
thermostats to manage natural gas/electricity consumption
for heating/cooling but had problems with these devices.
Multiple preferences for temperature settings, for instance,
often led to contention in the home. One participant
mentioned how he and his girlfriend often argued about
different temperature settings. In many cases, this meant
that a thermostat schedule was programmed by one member
of the house and overridden by another member with a
different preference setting. Intille [22] and others [11] have
similarly raised awareness of designing a single control for
home temperature and dealing with preference plurality.
Several participants also had interface issues with their
thermostats and did not use them because they did not want
to spend time learning how to program the device.
However, these thermostats were one of the most
commonly installed devices to help with resource
management because they offered a finer level of control of
the temperature. Designing similar installable systems for
other resource controls such as electricity may be desirable
as long as these devices are simple to use and install.
Another common modification was installing energy
efficient light bulbs to save money and be more
environmentally friendly. However, participants that had
installed these bulbs complained that they did not like the
quality of light given off by these fluorescents:
“A: That’s an energy efficient light. They give off a
different quality light, and so we have some in the house in
some places, but in other places it tends to actually bother
us.” –H13
Older adults with poor eye sight also complained that they
needed more light than provided by these energy efficient
bulbs. Thus, resource efficient solutions that do not match
the quality of the artifact they are replacing may affect
adoption if they provide an inferior service.
In summary, participants were willing to make a number of
modifications to their behaviors and homes for resource
efficiency. Because the most common modifications—
programmable thermostats and energy efficient bulbs—
were easily installed and perceived to provide a relatively
minimal investment for a large payoff in energy savings,
households were willing to make these minor alterations.
Effects of the Infrastructure on Resource Management
The location, size and sharing of domestic infrastructure
affected how householders engaged in resource
management. For instance, householders spoke of how a
move to a different housing unit meant having to learn the
average consumption usage of the new home. Participants
who had moved from vastly different climates also had to
learn how to deal with the intricacies of resource efficiency
for their new location. For instance, one family (H13) had
moved from the Northern US, where they were used to
dealing with harsh winters to the Southern US. In the
“South”, they were not prepared or knowledgeable on how
to deal with energy efficiency where the climate is much
hotter and more humid.
The size of the home also affected householder’s resource
management practices. In two cases (H9 and H14), there
were two thermostats for different parts of the house where
the house was large. Thus, in locations where houses are
larger, providing an overview of multiple resource control
systems may be necessary.
Sharing the resource infrastructure with others also affected
consumption management. Some participants that lived a
sub-divided house with shared utility infrastructure had
more constrained choices for buying “green” energy
(energy produced using environmentally friendly methods
such as solar, wind or water power) because of having to
negotiate this with their neighbors:
“B: Other places - we had the option of green energies, so
we did green energy but here, we can't because we split it
with our upstairs neighbor. Just straight down the middle.
So we have to like get him to agree, and everyone to agree,
and we haven’t gotten that far yet.” – H9
To sum up, providing a history or projected resource
consumption for a housing unit would help householders’
better set expectations of resource usage in a new setting.
Also, providing contextual information on the types of
modifications necessary for a particular location would help
householders decide which modifications are best for their
location. In the case of large houses with multiple resource
control systems, providing an overview of resource
consumption or single point of control may help occupants
better manage these systems. Finally, shared resource
infrastructure can make it difficult for householders to
purchase “green” energy options unless they seek
agreement from those they share the infrastructure with.
Motivations for Resource Consumption Management
Householders who modified their homes or behaviors for
resource efficiency were most commonly motivated by the
desire for comfort, monetary reasons and to a much lesser
extent, to be environmentally friendly. Comfort refers to the
245
desire to have thermostats set to most preferred temperature
settings and having devices and lights on to maintain a
comfortable, convenient setting over being energy efficient.
Despite financial motivations, the division of labor
associated with bill paying means that those not dealing
with these payments were not equally motivated to
conserve. These householders may never see the bill or
actively track the household’s general resource
consumption. For instance, one householder said:
“A: For me it would be a motivator. And it may be more
effective for me, but then if he [refers to partner] didn’t
have that feedback and have some sort of reward coming
from that feedback then it would be divisive. Because I
would be nagging…I would have the feedback because I see
the bills.” – H11
Other participants supported this view, when asked if they
were aware of how much energy they use from their bills:
B: I think there’s very little awareness.
A: I don’t even look at the bills.” – H13
Responsibility for bill payments thus affected householder
motivations to conserve resources since only the
householder seeing the utility bills actively tracked the
home’s resource usage and associated costs. Paying a flat
rate for utilities also affected householder motivations to
conserve resources as illustrated below:
“B: I would want to be [someone] that conserves
regardless but I really haven’t felt the same motivation
when it’s not directly reflected in the power bill. Like
sometimes I’ll go to bed knowing that there’s a light on out
here. And just that’s not enough to make me go turn it off
which is kind of sad in a way I think. And I think that if we
were paying a monthly electricity bill I would definitely do
that.” – H7
Apart from financial motivations, the invisibility of
information on real-time resource consumption meant that
some participants felt as though they were conserving
resources sufficiently. These participants had no way to
determine or see their in-the-moment resource usage or
other’s resource usage or the impact of their actions on their
bills or the environment. Consequently, they often self-
assessed themselves as “I’m doing enough”. For instance,
participants that had taken extreme measures to be
environmentally conscious—such as only having one
vehicle for their family or moving to live near public
transportation—feel as though there is nothing more they
can do to be more resource conservative as illustrated here:
“A: I think we’re doing as much as we can right now. We
all commute. There’s 4 of us in the car in the morning and
then we all come home together. Or generally lately I’ve
been staying later at school and then I take [the train]
home…I mean there’s just not much more you can do
besides take 4 people in a car.” – H13
Others who had taken smaller measures to conserve energy
or water through turning off lights when not in use or taking
shorter showers also had a sense of they were contributing
enough to the cause of being “green”.
To summarize, participants wanted to actively manage their
resources to save money or for their comfort. In some cases,
participants were not motivated to decrease their
consumption if they felt as though they were being
environmentally friendly enough because of adjustments
they made to their lifestyles or behaviors that they deemed
as “green”. Due to the division of labor around bill paying,
financial incentives alone may not be sufficient to motivate
an entire household to actively manage resources. Further,
business models where people are not directly paying a per
usage rate for resources may also complicate financial
motivations to conserve resources. Also, for those
individuals who feel like they are doing enough, there may
be a lack of incentive to actively manage resources, unless
more information on resources is available for real-time
assessment as well as comparison with others or averages.
Visualizing Resource Consumption
Participants wanted more visibility and insight into their
resource consumption. They told us of their problems with
current resource tracking methods, what they would like to
see displayed within the home and what they would like to
see about other homes.
Within Home: Inadequacies of Current Tracking Methods
Generally, participants spoke of the difficulties of tracking
their resource usage with current methods. Householders
told us that the utility companies usually provided monthly
bills with resource usage and in some cases, where the
participants had lived in a place for long time, historical
graphs of resource consumption. However, this information
remained problematic because often the units of
measurement were not easily correlated with consumption
habits or were not easily quantifiable. For instance, one
participant said:
“B: I mean if you look overall about water or kilowatts, like
I couldn’t tell you we used x amount of kilowatts” – H13
Another complained that the units of usage, such as
kilowatts, were often meaningless as illustrated here:
“B: Last month, the electricity bill dropped like in half,
that's what we pay attention to is the dollar. Right? That's
what really matters. So, as far as how many kilowatts you
using – I don't have any clue.” – H9
Some participants made estimates of resource usage based
on information available to them.
“B: I would leave my computer on all the time but I don’t
really know how much power it draws. And when I was in
undergrad I tried to estimate this based on using…like the
ups [uninterrupted power supply] will tell you how many
watts its drawing if it has like a smart interface or
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whatever. And then I tried multiplying that by our power
rates in [the city]. And I think it came out to like $40 a
month which was higher than I would have expected.” – H7
Others talked about creating folk theories about how much
energy they think devices consume, a practice also found
with thermostats [23]:
“A: I like to know as much as possible. My interest goes
beyond saving money. I am just really interested to know
how much energy things really take up. I have no concept of
how much energy one appliance uses and another. I kinda
[sic] wish I did. I think have various folk theories of how
much consumption one device uses over another. I was like
oh gosh it's really big deal to turn this thing off but if I
leave this one on it's not a deal. But in reality it's probably
the reverse of that and if I only knew I could manage it a lot
better.” – H2
One participant talked about the general lack of real-time
tracking information for resources and how that made it
difficult to comply with government suggestions for
managing water:
“B: They’ve asked people to use like 10 percent less water.
Well how do we know if we’re using 10 percent less water?
I mean if they really want people to reduce I don’t know. I
mean I think we conserve pretty well but we don’t have a
way to really quantify what we’re doing.” – H8
Participants also spoke of their desire for more real time
information on resource pricing so that they could alter
their electricity usage for home devices and systems based
on prices for peak load—for example, by turning these
systems on and off at appropriate times such as when the
home’s occupants were at work. Additionally, participants
wanted to know in real-time which devices and systems
were consuming the most energy to help them alter their
behaviors appropriately. Real time information was also
desired to alert homes if something was abnormal or
unusual before the end of the month. One participant in H1
described how her roommate’s toilet had broken but that
the abnormality was not noticeable until an unusually large
water bill arrived at the end of the month.
Despite gripes with current resource tracking methods, most
of our participants were not aware of any devices to help
them measure energy consumption in real-time for all their
appliances. At least two participants in H9 and H3
mentioned Kill-a-Watt type devices for tracking the power
consumption of an individual appliance. However, none of
our participants had actually had bought one of these
devices because they were perceived as overly expensive or
as requiring extensive rewiring to work.
Within Home: Linking Resource Usage to Impacts
Aside from problems with current tracking methods,
participants also wanted more information on the impacts of
their resource usage on saving energy, reducing costs or
helping the environment. In H1, a participant mentioned
how knowing whether she was above or below her own
average would promote more reflection on resource
consumption and on what behaviors are causing the change.
Another participant spoke of how they had discovered that
turning lights off saves energy:
“B: Myth busters [a television show] did a special...Does it
actually save money to turn the light off or does the energy
required to boot it back up offset that? And they did
determine that it saved minuscule amounts over a long
period of time to turn lights off as you leave the room.” –
H11
Others wanted to know the impact of their actions on the
environment, suggesting a need for increased education and
awareness of resource usage in different conditions and
settings:
“A: Everyone assumes you know you use more power, ,it’s
negative. You use water and it’s negative. like it would be
cool to know like if you use less, how is that helping
something in the greater [area] or power in [the city] or
water or something? Especially right now. Especially if I
think that if I take a shower half as long that will help lake
[a local lake] like have less.” – H1
Within Home: Engaging Creatively With Resource Usage
Aside from seeing the impacts of their actions on resource
consumption, the bills or the environment more clearly and
in a timely fashion, participants spoke of engaging with
resource consumption information in a playful manner.
Some wanted to optimize their own resource use, getting
information at decision points on how to do a particular
activity in a more efficient manner. Others wanted to play
games against others in the house or in the neighborhood or
to see if they can create energy to power devices in the
home. For example, one participant (in H3) talked about
wanting to optimize resource consumption, by knowing
how long devices have been on for and how much energy
they might be wasting. Other householders mentioned
wanting a game that could track individual householder’s
resource usage and create competition within the household
to see how they could improve their own consumption:
“A: I think it would be neat like how much [change would
it make] if we didn’t watch TV for, you know. If we cut it
down by an hour every week or something how much [of a
difference] would it…would that make [a difference]...that
would be cool”H14
Several participants expressed an interest in getting more
information about when they were doing something
positive and not just about their levels of resource usage.
For instance, one participant talked about how she would
like to create energy if possible or at least know when her
actions are having a positive effect. She talked about the
Toyota Prius’s display where one can see when energy is
being consumed or created by various actions:
247
“A: So I love the Prius in that you can see when you’re
making energy and when you’re not. So if I could see
something like this is how it’s being done. Like if you ran
the washer at this time you’d save this. And like make more
of like a game, like how much could you save” – H8
Within Home: Context Sensitive Information
Some householders also wanted information to be provided
at key decision points in activities to help them to determine
the most resource efficient course of action. One participant
(in H1) talked about having information when she is at the
sink and about to do the dishes. She said that if she knew
the energy and water required to do the dishes by hand or
using the dishwasher based on the amount of dishes to do,
this context sensitive information may motivate her to
choose the more efficient course of action. Participants also
desired finer control over resources than is available at
present. For instance, several householders mentioned that
having a simple device that could to turn off all the lights in
the house at once or to track what state all devices and
appliances were in (on/off /standby) would help them with
being more electricity efficient.
Within Home: Summary
To sum up, participants complained that current resource
tracking methods are inadequate because the units of
measurement, such as kilowatt/hours, are meaningless, the
information is not real-time and thus the impact of actions
cannot be determined in a timely fashion. Further
participants wanted to engage with resource consumption in
a playful manner to optimize their usage and see positive
aspects of resource usage.
Betweeen Homes: Benchmarking Information
Participants not only desired more visible and real-time
information on their own resource consumption habits but
also wanted ways to benchmark their consumption against
others. The granularity of information desired about others
varied. Some wanted information on the county, regional or
neighborhood level for comparative purposes. Others
mentioned wanting to benchmark their resource
consumption based on similar demographics and household
type. For example, participants who lived in apartment
complexes desired benchmarking information on how much
energy they are consuming based on the layout and floor
plan of their apartment unit. One participant mentioned
getting averages based on the county or region to determine
if more politically liberal areas conserve more.
Most people did not want to necessarily know about the
conservation habits of their direct neighbors, respecting
their privacy and also because they would not take any
action as a result of such information, despite being curious
about neighbors habits. For example, one person was
dismayed that a neighbor on their street had a pristine lawn
during a drought and was curious to know more about that
neighbor’s water consumption. However, beyond curiosity,
none of our participants felt like they would act on the
information to tell their neighbors to conserve more. Some
actually felt they would be upset if they knew their
neighbors were being wasteful. Yet, neighbors and their
resource usage were still intriguing:
“A: Our neighbors next door own a hummer and an SUV.
I’d be curious to see how much energy they’re producing in
comparison to us or just our neighborhood.” – H4
Between Homes: Privacy and Identity Management Issues
Like many other Ubicomp technologies for the home,
participants were also mindful of the privacy implications
of sharing information on their resource consumption with
others beyond their household. For example, some were
concerned about what could be inferred about one’s
lifestyle. One roommate in H1 expressed dismay at other
people in the house or elsewhere learning about her
eccentric habits because of increased monitoring of an
individual’s use of resources such as when and how much
they are consuming:
“B: I guess I wouldn’t necessarily want all people to know
all these odd habits that I have” – H1
A participant in P2 joked about gauging water consumption
by the number of toilet flushes made by each person in the
household but then felt this would be invasive since a
person’s hygiene, eating habits and behaviors could be
inferred from this information. Participants also did not
want to be viewed as a wasteful:
“A: The natural reaction is for protecting privacy. I am
trying to think if I would actually care. But the natural
reaction would be sure I want everyone else to see [my
consumption habits] but...If I consider myself as a more
wasteful power user, I might not want people to see.” – H2
Betweeen Homes: Summary
In summary, participants desired information on other
household’s resource consumption for comparative
purposes but were also mindful about what could be
inferred from sharing this information with others.
DISCUSSION: UBICOMP AND SUSTAINABILITY
We presented three classes of findings around behaviors,
infrastructure and management, householder motivations to
manage resource usage and how resource consumption is
currently understood. First, we showed that people
currently make minor modifications to their behaviors and
homes to be more resource efficient and that conversely, the
types of homes they live in affect their resource
management. Second, we described common motivations
for making these modifications that varied from saving
money, desiring a comfortable home environment and to a
lesser extent to be environmentally friendly. Third, we
discussed how current resource tracking methods are
inadequate because they do not allow householders to see
resource consumption usage in real time or in meaningful
terms. Householders desire more real-time information
about their own and others’ resource usage. Based on these
248
findings, we discuss five themes around how designing for
home resource conservation affects a design and research
agenda for Ubicomp and sustainability.
Designing for Resource Consumption Visibility
For householders to truly appreciate the magnitude of their
resource usage on the bills and the environment, they need
to understand the production and labor costs associated with
the energy they use. Arguably, since resource infrastructure
has been adopted into standard homes, householders are no
longer able to equate their consumption habits with labor
costs. For example, no longer does one have to equate how
many buckets of water are needed to clean a load full of
laundry or how much coal should be burned to power a
laptop. Instead, in contemporary times, consuming a
resource may be as simple as plugging in a laptop without
knowing how much energy it uses, how the energy was
produced or the impact of that device’s use on our energy
footprint. Where once it might have been the case that
people did not care to know, we suggest that public
attitudes towards conservation are changing and many now
desire the ability to inspect and learn how much work it
takes to produce energy.
One design agenda for Ubicomp, therefore, is to consider
how to make in-the-moment resource consumption visible
in terms that make the costs of production and the units of
consumption more clear. Literally taken, this may mean
visual systems that equate our resource usage with units of
production, for example, buckets of water, bags of coal,
stacks of wood, as well as a monetary amount. A visual
correlation may help householders can build a better mental
model of how they are using energy throughout a month.
More complex solutions would incorporate more
information, which would necessarily require the inspection
of the infrastructures that produce many of the resources
that we consume. Again, as initiatives like carbon
footprinting take off—measuring not just the cost of
production, but also transportation—so we see a nascent
demand for individuals to see into bigger infrastructures, a
point we return to in the next section.
Designing for Individual and Collective Agency
Along with making the units of production and
consumption more visible, designing for sustainability in
the home may require supporting both individual and
collective agency in “green” behavior change. By this we
mean that households are made up of individuals with
varied interests in being “green”, different bill paying
responsibilities and preferences. Systems that automate
energy systems do not always support multiple preferences
or allow individuals in a household to see how they are
contributing to the overall household consumption.
Designing resource consumption information systems that
give individuals in a household a sense of agency in
controlling a home’s energy footprint is therefore desirable
to motivate all household occupants.
Further, not only do individuals in a household need to feel
like they have agency to change consumption habits, there
needs to be some representation of an entire household’s
energy footprint and how it compares to others in a
neighborhood, county or city. By benchmarking themselves
against others and seeing more of how the aggregate and
projected long term energy savings for a community
depends on individual households, householders may be
further motivated to take collective action for sustainability.
This collective suggests a re-examination of what we define
as domestic infrastructure. Traditionally, we have taken a
within household approach to infrastructure, emphasizing
systems that will make our homes smart. But households
are connected to a variety of infrastructures beyond the
home. Much research on such infrastructure has focused on
the Internet, but sustainability makes other socio-technical
infrastructures visible.
In actuality, houses are connected via infrastructures to
commercial corporations and governmental agencies that
not only produce, but also sell, regulate, and move
resources around that determine the exact costs of
consumption. For example, electricity can be generated
using coal, water or wind (each with different costs for the
environment), but the type of electricity a household
consumes is determined by governmental authorities that
control the flow of electricity on the grids they manage.
Without knowing how producers generate their resources,
households cannot fully understand the costs of
consumption.
More generally, the contributions households that make to
general levels of sustainability can only be fully measured
by knowing the commitments that commercial and
governmental institutions have also taken. Our participants
wanted to know whether the county in which they resided
had met its goal of reducing water use by 10%. Yet, without
knowing their own, their neighbor’s, or that of the
commercial and governmental agencies in the county, it
was impossible for them to answer that question, or know
their contribution with respect to that of others. In
summary, sustainability opens up the question of
infrastructure not just as a set of technical arrangements that
provision the smart “green” home, but also as a set of
commercial, legal, and governmental arrangements in
which resource consumption is framed.
Avoiding a Green Divide
In creating systems to help households conserve resources,
we as designers also have to be wary not to create a
sustainability divide between those who have the means to
pay to be “green” and those that do not. If the very systems
we design to help households monitor their resource
consumption and that of others more closely, are expensive,
they will only be available to some. Rather than create a
divide between those who can afford to conserve and those
who cannot, we should ensure that the technologies we
design for resource consumption management are
249
economically viable for the majority of households (or that
other pricing arrangements could be put in place to increase
the accessibility of our solutions to all). Only if most
households can conserve will the collective energy savings
in any domestic sector be realized. Systems that reuse
existing infrastructures (for example see [15, 31]) may help
monitor resources in affordable ways. Again, sustainability,
and its need for broad participation, highlights the need for
accessibility to technologies, which makes it a particularly
interesting intellectual agenda for this community.
Incorporating Sustainability As A Core Value in Design
We also wish to note a particular irony in creating
technology to aid sustainability. Specifically, proposing
technology to support increased domestic sustainability and
energy conservation is open to the criticism that the
solution consumes the same resources being managed. For
example, a solution requiring a visual energy feedback
display to be plugged in all day seems to detract from the
ultimate goal of reducing a home’s energy footprint.
Similarly, even if there are solutions that reuse existing
infrastructure such as a power line, they may require at least
one or two sensors which also require power. We as a
community need to rethink energy sources for our domestic
solutions perhaps substituting solutions that use alternative
energies such as solar power, or that power themselves
through mechanical energy. We say this because the
sustainability design movement can potentially gain from
the Ubicomp community in this regard. One concern that
has permeated a variety of applications is battery life and
understanding energy consumption needs of devices (to
ensure that they will be “alive” for long enough). The
knowledge acquired in those efforts could potentially have
much to offer the construction of low- or no-impact
technologies for sustainability.
Sustainability and Methodological Challenges
Finally, we highlight one methodological challenge
associated with domestic sustainability research which may
apply more broadly. Throughout our study, we encountered
difficulties with making our participants feel comfortable
discussing issues around being “green” because they
associated their answers with indications of their
fundamental morals. Those with a more liberal bent
towards conservation were more than happy to discuss their
habits with us. However, for the majority, people expressed
guilt and shame at admitting they did not take great pains to
conserve resources. In some, the thought of being “green”
incensed a strong reaction against conservation, because of
negative associations of conserving with “hippies” and
“tree-huggers”. Our last suggestion for the Ubicomp
community is thus to investigate new and improved
methods for stimulating discussion and collecting data on
“green” issues—methods that do not alienate those
providing us with information so that we can get closer to
the ground truth.
CONCLUSION
We presented the results of a qualitative study to
understand how householders currently manage resource
consumption in their homes. We find householders modify
their homes for resource efficiency for saving money,
maintaining a comfortable setting and to a lesser extent, to
be environmentally friendly. Specifically, householders
desire insight into the impact of their changes to their
homes and behaviors on resource usage and more visible
real-time information on within the home resource
consumption. They also desire more information on
between homes consumption and the collective impact of
their actions on wider causes like the environment.
Our findings suggest that sustainability is related to
improving the visibility of real-time resource consumption
and its production costs. Further, home sustainability may
turn on resource management solutions that support both
individual and collective agency in behavior change. In all,
we need to wary of creating a “green” divide between those
who can afford to conserve resources and those who cannot
through our system designs. We can also incorporate
sustainable values in our designs, for example, by not
relying on traditional sources of fuel. Finally, we highlight
an inherent methodological challenge in sustainability
research, that of collecting data on an issue closely
associated and easily conflated with people’s morals.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank our participants as well as our colleagues at
Georgia Tech, our shepherd and reviewers for their insights.
This work was supported by NSF CNS #0626281.
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Conceptions of the Home.- Inside the Smart Home: Ideas, Possibilities and Methods.- Conceptions of the Home.- Smart Homes: Past, Present and Future.- Households as Morally Ordered Communities: Explorations in the Dynamics of Domestic Life.- Time as a Rare Commodity in Home Life.- Emotional Context and "Significancies" of Media.- Designing for the Home.- Paper-mail in the Home of the 21st Century.- Switching On to Switch Off.- The Social Context of Home Computing.- Design with Care: Technology, Disability and the Home.- The Home of the Future.- Towards the Unremarkable Computer: Making Technology at Home in Domestic Routine.- Daily Routines and Means of Communication in a Smart Home.- Living Inside a Smart Home: A Case Study.- Smart Home, Dumb Suppliers? The Future of Smart Homes Markets.
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