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E-Learning 2.0 = e-Learning 1.0 + Web 2.0?


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You" has been elected as person of the year by the Time Magazine, Web 2.0 is the most quoted article of Wikipedia in 2006 and e-Learning 2.0 is the buzzword of today. This article likes to point out what are the advantages and disadvantages of this hype. Is e-Learning 1.0 a thing of the past or still necessary for the learning future. The question whether Web 2.0 will change the education of tomorrow or not will be answered in a very critical way. The summary of this article pointed out that there is considerably more than using new applications and bring them together with the experiences of e-Learning 1.0. Due to the fact that the importance of e-Learning 2.0 is growing very fast it can be summarized that a lot of more research work must be done in future
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Abstract— “You” has been elected as person of the year by the
Time Magazine, Web 2.0 is the most quoted article of Wikipedia
in 2006 and e-Learning 2.0 is the buzzword of today.
This article likes to point out what are the advantages and
disadvantages of this hype. Is e-Learning 1.0 a thing of the past
or still necessary for the learning future. The question whether
Web 2.0 will change the education of tomorrow or not will be
answered in a very critical way.
The summary of this article pointed out that there is
considerably more than using new applications and bring them
together with the experiences of e-Learning 1.0. Due to the fact
that the importance of e-Learning 2.0 is growing very fast it can
be summarized that a lot of more research work must be done in
Index Terms—e-Learning, Web2.0, Higher Education,
During the last decade, the World Wide Web has evolved
into a large worldwide network as announced by many
computer experts in the early 1990´s. But the first concept of
Tim Berners-Lee that everyone can contribute was not
fulfilled. Although millions of individuals were able to use the
Internet, only a small percentage was capable to generate
content. The main part of the online users was reading and
consuming static pages. With other words primarily
technological aspects dominated the kind of internet access.
From this point of view a World Wide Web network is only
a connection from static internet pages prepared by some few
web developers. The interaction or communication between
the typical users was limited by the use of email, discussion
forums and also chats. The situation concerning the topic e-
Learning was similar. Of course, why should it be better or
But currently something happens. The kind of web use
dramatically changed. Web 2.0, first coined by Tim O´Reilly
in 2004 [11], helps the typical user to contribute. “The user is
the content” is the slogan of the so called Read/Write Web.
The New York Times elected “You” as Person of the Year
2006 [1]. The popularity of Web 2.0 grows and within all its
applications. The use of Weblogs, Wikis, Podcasts, Social
Bookmarking are summarized as Social Network. But what
means the term social? What is really new?
In this paper I like to discuss why we are nowadays talking
about e-Learning 2.0. After a description of the term e-
Learning 1.0 and an overview about the new Web 2.0
applications, i like to answer the question, if a simple
combination will lead to e-Learning 2.0 or not.
Only few years ago e-Learning or Blended Learning was
one of the buzzwords of the New Economy. The possibilities
to support teaching and learning with the aid of computers
seem to be endless. Not few people promised a great future if
we use e-Learning components in our educational educations.
The expression A³ (anytime, anywhere and anybody) has been
the synonym for the beginning, the first steps of e-Learning .
Nowadays the use of computers in education is established.
A number of schools or universities support their students
with online access to so called learning management systems.
e-Learning 1.0 can be characterized following:
In the beginning of e-Learning one of the first theories was
to create perfect content. With the help of “new media”
interactions, animations, simulations and similar were
added to the traditional learning material. With other
words the traditional book is replaced by a multimedia
accumulation. Fig. 1 shows an example of a flash
animation which helps to explain the water flow.
More interaction between the learner and the computer
helped to engage the learners. Of course this leads to a
positive effect on learning, because motivation of students
was influenced positively [7], [15].
Due to the fact that e-Learning is not only limited to
interaction between learner and computer, interaction can
also happen between learner and instructor (computer
mediated communication) and learner and learner
E-Learning 2.0 = e-Learning 1.0 + Web 2.0?
Martin Ebner, Submission to ARES 2007, IEEE
Fig. 1. Flash Animation
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(computer collaborative learning). On the one side a lot of
didactical scenarios and technical tools have been
developed [1], [8]. A high number of different learning
management systems (LMS) offered by variable
institutions and companies show the growing market.
With the help of the LMS computer-supported
communication (CMC) was possible in two ways:
asynchronous communication: Email or
Discussion forum
synchronous communication: Chat
Due to this fact, the term e-Learning 1.0 can be summarized
very clearly:
Comparable to the typical classroom there are a teacher and
there are students (learners). The teaching person provides the
content in high quality. The learning material is accessible via
a learning management system. The “new” (in relation to the
traditional face-face teaching) components are further tools,
like communication tools or interactive exercises. With other
words in many cases the old traditional education form was
accomplished with new media. The role of the learning
management system seems to be on the one side an
administrative one and on the other side a simple lecture add
From the pedagogical view the postulation for a more
constructivism setting has been not fulfilled since now. But
maybe the new technologies can help here.
Before discussion e-Learning 2.0 it must be pointed out which
applications of Web 2.0 are important for learning or can play
an important role. The often called Social network consists of:
A. Weblogs
Initiated by Jorn Barger in 1997, a log of the web (=
Weblog, short blog) is in its simpliest form a website with
data entries, presented in reverse chronological order [12].
The word blog is both a noun and a verb. The owner of a blog
is called blogger and writing a contribution is called blogging.
Each Weblog is part of the Blog-o-sphere. The number of
existing blogs are rapidly growing and there seems to be no
end in the near future. Fig. 2 shows the E-Learning Blog
) of the University of
Technology of Graz.
From a technological view Blogs seem to be not very new
or interesting. But what is the reason for such a boom?
1. Personality: My Blog belongs to me. It is my
personal site and I can write my thoughts or
meanings there. People can read and comment it.
With other words a new kind of homepage.
2. Usability: The crucial factor of all Web 2.0
Applications is usability. Since now everyone is
able to contribute to the World Wide Web by
clicking on his/her weblog, register and writing
with the help of a WYSISWYG-Editor.
The high number of Weblogs leads to enormous increasing
information. To avoid a personal overflow RSS (Really
Simple Sindication) technology is used. With the help of
XML structure, so called RSS-Reader can provide feeds of
subscribed Blogs or other applications. The big advantage is
that new information can be read without opening a site.
Further the possibility of using Aggregators and Search
functions help to make the information consumption more
B. Wiki
The concept of Wikis was introduced by Bo Leuf and Ward
Cunningham in 1995 [10]. The name Wiki was derived from
the term wikiwiki, which means quick expressed by the
Hawaiian language.
A wiki system is an online platform which allows each and
Fig. 2 E-Learning Blog
Fig. 3 Bauwiki
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every user to create, edit, revise or link articles. All work can
be done online. The aim of Curringham was to develop an
easy-to-use knowledge management system enabling effective
and efficient online collaboration [5].
Wikipedia is the famous and most known Wiki system of
the world. More than 4 million articles in 100 languages,
outnumbering all other encyclopedias is the incredible success
story [14].
Fig. 3 shows the Bauwiki (
) which is
used in Higher Education for students of structural
engineering at University of Technology of Graz.
The main difference between a Weblog and Wiki is that
Weblogs are personal. Wikis mainly used for collaborative
work. For example if people work on the same
documentation, a wiki system should preferred.
C. Podcast
The next part of the social network applications is Podcast.
In Wikipedia this definition can be found: “A podcast is a
multimedia file that is distributed by subscription (paid or
unpaid) over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback
on mobile devices and personal computers”.
In the beginning
the multimedia files were equal to audio files (.mp3).
Nowadays also Video Files are distributed via Podcasts.
Similar to Weblogs the technology behind is rather simple.
With the help of RSS, the easy production of my own podcast
and the widespread bandwidth of the internet connection
(which make bigger downloads possible) together with the
availability of mobile devices podcasts get their popularity.
Fig. 4 shows an example of a podcast. It is a videopodcast
of the lecture mechanic of the University of Technology of
Graz. Additionally to the speech recording also the screen is
captured by the software. The endproduct is running for
example on a usual iPodVideo device.
There are some further examples who describe the use of
podcast in Education [1], [13]. It seems that this technology is
nowadays widely used.
D. Web Sharing Applications
The last group described in this paper are the so called
sharing Web Sites. With the aid of this applications user can
upload, view and share
pictures (for example Flickr
videos (for example YouTube
bookmarks (for example
There are of course further applications like sharing audio
files or other data, but the concept of all applications are
A high number of users can share their clips, make
comments or rate them. The basis of web sharing tools is the
community itself. Without the people behind which are
delivering the content for free, no tool would have any
Stephen Downes, who used the perception e-Learning 2.0
for the first time, mentioned in his article “For all this
technology, what is important to recognize is that the
emergence of the Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it
is a social revolution”.
This statement means that nowadays the usability of the
technology gets simpler and simpler so that we are not forced
to learn to use them in a technological way, but in a social
The next generation of e-Learning extended the existing e-
Learning 1.0 by using smart systems [9] and micro content
from the learner. Like the MashUp technology we have to
rethink how we can combine a high number of different
applications so that the environment fits best from the learners
Dave Pollar wrote in his Weblog
“Let other people edit
MY document? Why would I ever do that? See other people’s
bookmarks? Who cares? It takes time to realize their power.
There’s a learning curve not just for the software, but for the
idea itself”. This statement pointed out that a simple
summation of e-Learning 1.0 and Web 2.0 will us not lead to
e-Learning 2.0. There is still a third component which we
have to consider. I like to call it the human factor.
There are two points we have to take into account:
Learning curve for the idea itself: As Dave Pollar
mentioned, there is a necessity for explanation.
The idea of Web 2.0 must be brought to the
teacher as well as to the learners. Blogs, Wikis and
other social bookmarking tools are very, very new
and only a small percentage really knows about it.
A poll of “Agentur ZPR”
in Germany of October
2006 pointed out that only 6% of all people
2 (last visited in January 2007)
Fig. 4 Video Podcast
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between 16-65 years old, already know what Web
2.0 connoted.
Time to realize: Dave Pollar mentioned that we
will need to time to realize the power of the new
tools. From my point of view there is a further
bigger problem. Typical students and of course
teachers learn and teach in their typical way for
years, no for decades. Traditional teaching is
mostly influenced by behaviorism. This means
lecturers deliver the content, students learn it. Even
though e-Learning 1.0 is established there was no
memorable change. Less collaboration, less learner
participation and grading because of one
examination at the end of a lecture are typically for
the academic situation nowadays. If we will bring
Web 2.0 applications to our traditional education,
it must be considered that even the users
themselves are not familiar with the concepts till
now, independently whether we explain the ideas
or not. Changing the teaching and learning
behavior, which has been used for years or
decades, will be a much more problem as
developing new applications.
I like to summarize that we have to change my formula
e-Learning 2.0 = e-Learning 1.0 + Web 2.0 to e-
Learning 2.0 = f (e-Learning 1.0, Web 2.0, human
The trend in future education towards open-ness and social-
ness supplemented with traditional teach-ness will shift us to
e-Learning 2.0. It is not surprisingly, if we consider all
available Web 2.0 applications, because their growth is
rapidly, nearly potentially. The problem is that there is no
comparable mutation about how we think about teaching and
learning. Maybe the change is long overdue, but the
appropriate time for a revolution in pedagogy is as good as
never before.
From this point of view I recommended two major changes:
Didactical design: We have to change our concepts
in general. New applications force new didactical
concepts. The biggest fault would be to use Web
2.0 applications for traditional lectures.
Design of the educational system: We have also to
change our educational system. Only if learners
and teachers are familiar with these new concepts
in general new scenarios are possible.
Following some examples for new didactical scenarios are
described. It will be shown how the University of Technology
of Graz use this new application to ensure modern teaching
and learning.
A. Blogs in Education
Weblogs, as mentioned before, are simply expressed online
diaries. Each blogger has the possibility to contribute to the
World Wide Web in a subjective manner by writing and
sharing his/her meanings and works. All other internet users
are able to read and comment the statements. In detail there
are mainly three big advantages:
1. Subjectivity: Each contribution represents a
personal entry of a learner.
2. Networking: By sharing links, files or simple
contributions not only the learner but also the
whole community benefits.
3. Discussion: Each online user can comment each
article and discuss them.
Considering this points, blogs are able to help monitoring
the “own learn-way” by the blogger and the whole
community. On the one side are the learning person, the
blogger and on the other side he/she is embedded in a whole
blogging community. This kind of e-Portfolio can also used
during lectures and curricula. In summer semester 2007 blogs
will help to support in this kind of way one of the biggest
lectures in informatics for the first time.
B. Wikis in Higher Education
For online collaboration between a numbers of different
users Wikis seem to be more appropriate than Weblogs. The
main difference is that primarily everyone can edit everything.
With other words the typical subjective meaning of a Weblog
contribution is replaced by the work of a group.
Considering the success of Wikipedia we used a Wiki to
develop an online encyclopedia for students of civil
engineering. With the help of three research studies [4] it
could be carried out that Wikis have a great potential. Within
a very short time frame a high number of contributions helped
to support the handout lecture in a various ways.
The main problem during the use of the Wiki system was
that there was no real collaboration. With other words the
learners write their contributions, but nearly never edited
another one. Team working or getting benefits by
collaborative work did not take place in the intended way.
Rethinking the process we suggest to assess also the editing
C. Podcasting in Higher Education
An ordinary recording of the lecture seems to be not very
interesting for learners participating the lecture in the lecture
room. Further it will also be very hard to learn with the help of
audio files lasting at least two hours. From this point of view
what are the benefits for the learners?
University of Technology of Graz started in March 2006 to
make video podcasts from the lecture mechanic. By recording
the speech and the currently screen of the laptop, whole
lecture activities can be provided to the students. Especially
for math-oriented lectures this kind of podcasts is a promise
for future education. I like to remember how often we asked
ourselves during our learning activities: How did the teacher
explained that? Now it will be possible to watch it for hundred
of times, as often as necessary for each individual and to
watch it step by step.
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E-Learning 2.0, the buzz word of the next generation of
internet users and maybe a further step to a modern education
forced us to do research in three directions:
e-Learning 1.0: Whole research already has been
done should be the precondition for all further
Web 2.0: Developing new applications,
considering a good usability and simplicity will be
the second precondition for future education
Didactical concepts: Using these tools should help
us to rethink the daily education.
Of course the main problem will be, that technical issues
will be solved very quickly, but to change the thinking about
learning and teaching will be a hard and long way.
Martin Ebner is currently Head of the Working Group
Social Learning at the Computing Department of the
University of Technology of Graz. He holds a MEng in Civil
Engineering and a PhD in technical sciences. He works,
teaches and researches in the field of e-Learning. His main
interest is about Web 2.0 and mobile Learning. He is national
expert and participant in a number of e-Learning initiatives.
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Education. Educause review, November/Dezember 2005, 33-46
[2] Collis, B. (1998) New Didactics for university instruction: why and
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[3] Downes, S. (2006) e-Learning 2.0, eLearn Magazine,
(last visited January 2007)
[4] Ebner, M., Zechner, J., Holzinger, A. (2006): Why is Wikipedia so
Successful? Experiences in Esatblishing the Principles in Higher
Education, Proceedings of I-KNOW 06, 6th International Conference on
Knowlegde Management, Graz, Austria, S. 527-535, ISSN 0948-695x
[5] Ebner, M., Kickmeier-Rust, M.D., Holzinger, A. (2006) Utilizing Wiki-
Systems in Higher Education Classes: Success or Failure? A Case Study.
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[8] Holzinger, A, (2002) Multimedia Basis Volume 2: Learning, Cognitive
Fundamentals of multimedial Information Systems, New Delhi, Laxmi,
(last visited January 2007)
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Learnng, Educause review, July/August 2004, 50-70
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[12] Paquet, S. (2003) Personal Knowledge publishing and its uses in
research, Knowledge Board
[13] Towned, N. (2005) Podcasting in Education, Viewfinder, Nr. 61, i-ii
[14] Voss, J. (2005) Measuring Wikipedia, In Proceedings of the 10th ISSI
Conference, Stockholm, Schweden
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using animation in computer-based instruction: theoretical heuristics for
effective design, Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 4, 465-477
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Rapidly developing technology has brought a new dimension to education. Web 2.0 tools make education and training more colorful, fun and engaging with the opportunities it provides to teachers and learners in this dimension. Web 2.0 tools for teaching Turkish as a foreign language are social, collaborative, shared, interactive virtual environments; video plays an important role and plays an important role in preparing programs for cartoons. In this study, Web 2.0 tools, especially those used in education and training, “Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Delicious, Pinterest)”, “Interactive Presentation Tools (Prezi, SlideShare, PowToon)”, “Animation and Video Tools (Vyond, Moovly, GoAnimate, Creaza, Animoto, Kerpoof) ”, Online Storage and File Sharing Tools (Dropbox, Google Drive, Yandex Disk)”, “Web Updates and Cooperative Authoring Tools (Blog, Wikipedia, Wikispaces)”, “Online Survey and Exam Tools (Google Doc, Survey Monkey, Poll Everywhere) ”,” Concept Map and Drawing Tools (, Cacoo, Scribblar) are presented under seven headings in general terms. Teaching Turkish as a foreign language to lecturers working in different universities, Turkish teaching In addition, a questionnaire was applied about their use of technology, their awareness about Web 2.0 tools and their thoughts and wishes to update and improve themselves about technology. According to the results of the questionnaire, it was determined that the instructors were willing to use Web 2.0 tools in language teaching but they did not have enough information about this subject and therefore they needed in-service training about using web 2.0 tools. Keywords: Web 2.0 (social media) tools, teaching Turkish as a foreign language, Facebook, Moovly, Blog.
... Bloglar(Weblog), bilgisayar kullanıcıları tarafından, kişisel girdilerini diğer Internet kullanıcılarına sunmak amacıyla kullanılan bir tür web siteleridir. Bloglarda yer alan girdiler kronolojik bir sırada görüntülenmektedir (Ebner, 2007, akt. Deperlioğlu ve Köse, 2010. ...
Using open software in e-learning application is one of the most popular ways of improving effectiveness of e-learning-based processes without thinking about additional costs and even focusing on modifying the software according to needs. Because of that, it is important to have an idea about what is needed while using an e-learning-oriented open software system and how to deal with its source codes. At this point, it is a good option to add some additional features and functions to make the open source software more intelligent and practical to make both teaching-learning experiences during e-learning processes. In this context, the objective of this chapter is to discuss some possible applications of artificial intelligence to include optimization processes within open source software systems used in e-learning activities. In detail, the chapter focuses more on using swarm intelligence and machine learning techniques for this aim and expresses some theoretical views for improving the effectiveness of such software for a better e-learning experience.
Referring to teaching Italian language online, the general tendency has been to use the same patterns for both face-to-face and e-learning courses. Moreover, teaching Italian online has been considered mainly as scaffolding for teaching Italian in classroom (e.g. in several blended courses). Although many e-learning activities can also be successfully exploited in face-to-face lessons, currently a process of ‘separation’ between the two different teaching/learning contexts is ongoing: these two educational channels have today different status and are bounded by a ‘non-competitive’ correlation. In this framework the need arises to elaborate new operational models suitable for e-learning. This article will present the main characteristics of a model, specifically elaborated to be used in technological learning environment, that we called Digital Didactic Unit .
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Seit rund 30 Jahren spielen digitale Technologien eine wichtig werdende und wandelnde Rolle bei ihrer Nutzung und Auswirkung auf die österreichische Erwachsenenbildung. Nach einem kurzen Überblick über die Entwicklungen und Auswirkungen beschreibt der Beitrag zunächst Innovationen der Erwachsenenbildung durch Digitalisierung. Hier wird unter anderem auf MOOCs (kurz für Englisch: „massive open online course“) eingegangen und das Konzept des Inverse Blended Learnings sowie die erfolgreiche Umsetzung für die EBmooc-Umsetzungen präsentiert. Im Anschluss werden wichtige Herausforderungen der Erwachsenenbildung benannt, insbesondere die Herausforderung von Ungleichheiten und herausfordernde Unterschiede beim digitalen Basiswissen zwischen den Geschlechtern in Österreich. Der Beitrag schließt mit einem Appell zur aktiven Mitgestaltung zukünftiger Entwicklungen der traditionellen Erwachsenenbildungseinrichtungen auf dem Bildungsmarkt der (zukünftigen) Weiterbildungsmöglichkeiten.
Throughout history, the ongoing technological progress has caused the economy to change in many aspects; furthermore, at times it triggered the dawn of a new era. In the 1980s, this happened for the last time and the digital economy has emerged over the last decades. Since then, the significance of approaches to technology enhanced learning (TEL) has increased rapidly. However, the relations between the digital economy and technology enhanced learning are hardly investigated. Therefore this study points out the known relations between technology enhanced learning and the digital economy by reviewing 1089 publications. Thereby one could recognize that the relations between the regularities of the digital economy and the field of technology enhanced learning have not been thoroughly researched yet.
The unprecedented growth of Web 2.0 has affected learning and has made the growth of learning networks possible. Learning networks are shaped by communities to help their members acquire knowledge in specific areas and are the most notable feature of Learning 2.0, the new learning era that focuses on individual learning needs. The evolution of learning forces traditional Learning Management Systems (LMS) to incorporate more Web 2.0 features and slowly transform to Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). A Personal Learning Environment is a loosely structured collection of tools with strong social networking characteristics, which gives users the ability to create, maintain, and redistribute their own learning content. This paper is a field study of the most well-known and established LMSs and their support for specific features within several categories of tools of Web 2.0. The incorporation of Web 2.0 features within those LMSs differentiates them regarding their ability and potential to be used as PLEs.
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Wikipedia [Wikipedia06] is a well known and very successful online-encyclopaedia. It is free, available in different languages and everybody is permitted to contribute. This result in a worldwide collaboration aiming at one target: Anybody can provide information for everybody. However, one interesting question would be whether this successful principle can be transferred to learning communities in higher education and how it could be achieved. This paper presents some experiences gained during the use of a Wiki-System during lectures on structural concrete at both the University of Applied Sciences FH Joanneum and Graz University of Technology. Our approach included a technical and didactical concept as well as accepted investigation methods. Presenting a full analysis of the implementation, this paper shows its general potential, the weakness of the principle and further future approaches.
This article consists of three units. The first is a short overview of new technologies being used for mathematical instruction. The second is a presentation of a study in which the motivation of Austrian mathematics students using computer-based teaching was analyzed. Within the third, a unique school experiment conducted in Graz, Austria is introduced: mathematics instruction conducted using Mathematica 3.0 and Maths & Fun notebooks.
Why should instructors in traditional higher education institutions consider the re-design of their courses? The paper begins with a defense of four compelling reasons for changes in didactics: a review of some key principles of good teaching and learning, the increasing diversity of student characteristics and associated needs, the strategic and educational rationales for five types of flexibility increase in our current courses, and the particular need for instructors in faculties of education to provide leadership and models. Given the why, the next question is how? The remainder of the paper discusses the how in terms of a conceptually grounded approach to the pedagogical re-engineering of existing courses so that they become more flexible, with more student engagement, more-targetted communication, and more-attuned instructor scaffolding of increased student responsibility for his or her own learning. These concepts are made concrete through the extension of six standard sets of course-related tasks into redesigned sets involving the new didactics and WWW-based course-support functionalities. Examples from current practice at the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology at the University of Twente are used to illustrate the new didactical categories and their use of WWW-based course environments. The paper concludes with a consideration of key challenges that will confront the implementation of such new didactics in practice.
As tools for multimedia and computer-based instruction (CBI) increase in sophistication, it becomes easier for instructional designers to incorporate a range of animations in instructional software. Designers, however, should ask whether animation has the potential to contribute to student learning before investing the resources in development. This paper addresses the viability of using animations in multimedia and CBI. The functions of animations are explored as well as issues related to surface structure and fidelity. The relationship between content structures and the use of animation in CBI is also discussed. Based on these characteristics and purposes, heuristics are provided to guide the use of animation in CBI. Implications of these heuristics are explored and suggestions are provided for future research.
Contenido: 1. De los conceptos al uso de los wiki: Introducción a los servidores de discusión y colaboración; ¿Qué es un wiki?; Instalación del wiki; Uso de los wikis; Estructuración del contenido de los wikis; 2. Comprensión de los cortes: Personalización de los wikis; Examen de los componentes del wiki; Alternativas y extensiones; Administración y herramientas de los wikis; 3. Imagínese las posibilidades: Penetración y otras voces; Wiki en la educación; Wiki en el trabajo; Apéndices: Comparaciones sintácticas; Recursos para wiki; Lista de recomendaciones.
This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.
Learning, Cognitive Fundamentals of multimedial Information Systems
  • A Holzinger
Holzinger, A, (2002) Multimedia Basis Volume 2: Learning, Cognitive Fundamentals of multimedial Information Systems, New Delhi, Laxmi, (last visited January 2007)
Personal Knowledge publishing and its uses in research
  • S Paquet
Paquet, S. (2003) Personal Knowledge publishing and its uses in research, Knowledge Board