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Governance, Sociotechnical Systems and Knowledge Society: Challenges and Reflections

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This paper objective presenting some challenges and reflections about Governance, Knowledge Society and Sociotechnical Systems. Based on the Action Network Theory, Theory of Constraints and others techniques, questions are pointed and discussed in a systematic and innovative way. Points like the synergism and collaborative ecosystem research efforts, organizations knowledgeable and organization as a living being, the involvement of people and others IT resources on the questions, and others are discussed considering actua questions, challenges and future perspectives. Concluding, governance is pointed to offer normative goals of sustainability upon existing socio-technical systems and, to imply connecting and synchronizing changes among the knowledge society actors. ————————-/—-————— —————————-——————. Sponsored by FAPESP
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Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
Governance, Sociotechnical Systems and Knowledge
Society: Challenges and Reflections
Antonio José Balloni1 and Paulo Henrique de Souza Bermejo2
1 Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI), Rodovia D. Pedro I km 143,6,
Campinas, S.P. Brazil.
{antonio.balloni@cti.gov.br}
2 Federal University of Lavras, Computer Department Science, Universitary Campus, Lavras,
MG Brazil.
{bermejo@dcc.ufla.br}
Abstract: This paper objective presenting some challenges and reflections
about Governance, Knowledge Society and Sociotechnical Systems. Based on
the Action Network Theory, Theory of Constraints and others techniques,
questions are pointed and discussed in a systematic and innovative way. Points
like the synergism and collaborative ecosystem research efforts, organizations
knowledgeable and organization as a living being, the involvement of people
and others IT resources on the questions, and others are discussed considering
actual questions, challenges and future perspectives. Concluding, governance is
pointed to offer normative goals of sustainability upon existing socio-technical
systems and, to imply connecting and synchronising changes among the
knowledge society actors.
Keywords: Governance, Knowledge society, sociotechnical systems.
1 Panorama on knowledge society and sociotechnical systems
Information Technology (IT) is redefining the businesses basis. Customer attendance,
operations, products strategies, marketing and distribution and even the society of
knowledge depend very, or sometimes even totally on Information System (IS). The
IT and its costs are starting to make integral part of enterprise day-by-day. However,
many enterprises still believe that the simple act of computerizing them, spreading
computers and printers throughout departmental units, connecting them in a network
and installing applications systems, can organize the same. Technology by
technology, without planning, management and effective action from knowledge
workers and above all, without considering the sociotechnical systems, does not bring
any contribution to the enterprise [01].
1.1 The Knowledge Society
Knowledge societies is one in which knowledge becomes a major creative force, a
major component of any human activity. Economic, social, cultural, and all other
human activities become dependent on a huge volume of knowledge and information.
Knowledge societies are not a new occurrence: the fishermen have long shared the
knowledge of predicting the weather to their community and this knowledge gets
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
added to the social capital of the community. What is new in a knowledge society
[02]?
A) With current technologies, knowledge societies need not be constrained by
geographic proximity. One example is the Internet cost per kilobit, that has
been increased in the last years [03,04];
B) Current technology offers much more possibilities for sharing, archiving and
retrieving knowledge. Nowadays, everything about ourselves coud stored in
any personal computer [05, 06];
C) Knowledge has become the most important capital in the present age, and
hence the success of any society consists in controlling and making use of it.
1.2 Sociotechnical Systems
As we know, the implementation of a new technology has been associated with
problems often linked to resistance by the work force and failure to achieve the
expected benefits [07].
Researchers, notably at the Tavistock Institute in London, suggested that it would be
needed a fit between the technical system and the social system which together made
up an organization [07, 08, 09]. As detailed below [03, 10]:
The social system - Organization, comprises the employees (at all levels) and
the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment
as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization.
The technical system - Information System, comprises the devices, tools and
techniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the
economic performance of the organization.
The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process
aiming mutual optimization of all systems. Any organizational systems will maximize
performance only if the interdependency of these systems is explicitly recognized [11].
1.3 Governance
The word governance is originated from the Greek verb kubernân and was used for
the first time in a metaphorical sense by Plato to describe the act of governing men
[12]. Governance involves monitoring and overseeing strategic direction, socio-
economic and cultural context, externalities, and constituencies of the institution. [13].
The essential meaning of governance could be defined as the “the process of keeping
under control”. In the information technology / information systems area, the
governance has been practiced an important role. IT/IS governance refers to a system
of responsibilities that aims to coordinate all organizational activities aimed at IT/IS,
referring to all involved [14].
2 Challenges and reflections
If we go back a little in history we shall remember that competitive advantage was
marked by the ownership of capital and assets such as natural resources, estates, etc.,
but today we are experiencing a fourth great revolution, that of knowledge. The first
revolution, the industrial age (initiated in 1750 until the mid 1960s) was marked by
the evolution of the processes. A second moment took place in the 70s, marked by the
expansion of the Japanese industry. The world was overtaken by a revolution in
processes. Concepts such as Just in time, Lean, Kam-bam, Six Sigma arouse, defining
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
quality as being "the differential". Today quality is just a basic requirement! In the 80s
and 90s the third moment, marked by a technological revolution in the West, lead by
the Americans, commenced: the digital revolution via machines, software and
methodologies capable of controlling in detail the management of an organization,
increasing their gains in productivity [15].
Then from the mid 90s on, the investment for access to new technologies evolved into
a non impeditive factor in face of the vertiginous decrease on their prices, enabling
organizations to compete in same levels [03, 16].
In the present age, a great movement towards appreciation of the intellectual asset can
be observed inside the organizations, focusing "people" as a great competitive
differential. Here is the "Age of Knowledge" [15].
At the present process of acceleration at the transition of Ages, we rapidly moved
from the Age of Information to the Age of Knowledge and observed the emergence of
an increasingly globalized and virtual culture, urged on by the development of
computers and of communication in a very particular manner, which, consequently, is
devastating for the social web and nature.
One asks How about the social-technical question involving IT and people?
A possible answer to such question could be provided by what is known as Action
Network Theory: the emerging issue is linked to the complexity of the real which shall
not be able to be reduced since the great relations network (peer to peer) became
evident through the technological development of ICT(s) [17]. There is also the vision
where the world is seem as an intricate fabric made up of connections, of several
types, alternate, combined and juxtaposed, determinant of the structure of the whole
[18]. Other possible answer to the questioning could be provided by “knowing the
organizations”. The organizations are composed of complex organisms (people) who
need to be understood through the knowledge of nature of their relations and within a
determined context. It is the treatment of the organization as a living being, through a
systemic view (think globally but acting locally), that will enable the emergence of
phenomena which shall enable the whole to be more than the sum of the parts of such
being or organism.
Treatment of the organization as a living being → synergism!
On the other hand, the organizations known as relation networks, not everything can
be reduced and “systematized”. Thus, the focus on people is not enough, it is
necessary to connect and contextualize them in the organization‟s cause. So,
connecting and contextualizing the people in the organization‟s cause we hope to get
the differential, that is, the full knowledge of the dynamics of the system as whole!
How to theorize such context?
An answer, perhaps, is in the Theory of Constraints (TOC), which possesses as one of
its pillars the concept of Inherent Simplicity: “a deep understanding that there is
always a simple explanation to any seemingly intractable problem. This leads one to
use the intuition to find the core of the problem and develop a solution which both
solves the immediate problem and doesn't create additional problems along the way”.
[19]
The utilization of the Theory of Constraints (TOC), which considers the application of
the exact science principles to human organizations, possesses as one of its pillars the
concept of Inherent Simplicity and, the difficulty, initially, is to believe in such
statement. Therefore it is necessary to study the cause-and-effect relations from the
system in question in order to discover such Inherent Simplicity. On the present
causality map the technological, psychological, environmental and political elements
must be present, demonstrating all inevitable logical links between causes and effects
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
(visible or not). Such logical maps, called “trees” in the TOC (from present reality,
from future reality, etc.), aid us in obtaining an essential systemic view. The creator of
the TOC, physicist Eliyahu Goldratt, applied the exact science principles to human
organizations and demonstrated, amongst other things, that technology is necessary,
but not sufficient. The personal factors, especially those linked to individual
performance mensuration, generally exert a very strong influence in any context,
which frequently frustrate any initiative for change. [20].
But in the end, a simple answer to the previous question (How about the social-
technical question involving IT and people?) could the following: The social-technical
question involves the people (obvious) and everything surrounding them, including
the IT. It is a question of utility, of functionability, of usability for the consumer (if we
are to discuss market), for the user (if we are to discuss society).
How to demonstrate this?
One of the aspects which are becoming important at everyone‟s everyday life has to
do with the values changes in our society. As well as manual labor was the basis for
the Agricultural Age, and capital and energy were basic at the Industrial Age, the
computer networks and human beings are essential in the Age of Knowledge.
Therefore, how to deal with the social-technical questions in such Age? A possible
answer relates to the Orkut phenomenon, with its 60 million profiles and the Twitter
with its achieve of over 75 million active users account in the end of year 2009; id est.
a good illustration for the social-technical questions from the new age. Its growth
'provoked' other social networks with specific purposes, but every network‟s dream is
to become either Orkut or Twitter. Today, organizations participate in such network,
not only using 'fakes', but showing their face, in order to get closer to their consumers,
to provide service, offer products, and receive suggestions. Sales teams are being
managed with the aid of Moodle, keeping the team informed of processes and
procedures uniformity, distance training, study groups and collaborative works in real
time. Chiefs of major organizations communicate with their personnel via blog
(Wordpress, Blogger, and alike) or micro-blog like Twitter. A small detail to be
observed, not of little importance, is that teens of up to 18 years of age deal with e-
mail the same way the rest of the post-teen humanity faces ID and Individual
Taxpayers Registry ID: as ills necessary so as to take the compulsory bureaucratic
measures.
Are such statements facts, how can we prove this? Can we?
One possible answer is Yes: by 2008, blogging, photo- and video-sharing, social
networking and on-line gaming had been embraced by half the Internet users
worldwide. Some regional patterns seem to emerge: Asian countries are leading the
adoption of these, followed by the US and Europe [21].
We are living a unique moment in History, discovering that, despite our way of
thinking and living not being based on the holistic paradigms and us being in the
middle of a dehumanized digital economy but, at the same time we are moving
towards the development of a sense of unity and perception of the whole and,
hopefully, towards a sustainable and solidary economy.
Is the present economic crisis the “last straw” in order for us to, finally, develops
such sense of unity and perception of the whole?
In order for such to take place it is indispensable to learn new means of fomenting
trust and the social and environmental responsibility, which means we need to
organize our individual, social and political efforts in this new knowledge information
society so as to develop a new conscience and a new ethics. The figure 1 shows a
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
representative model for such concern, identifying the 5 moral dimensions of a society
across individual, social, and political levels of action. [22].
Fig. 1. The Relationship between Ethical, Social, and Political issues in an Information Society.
[22].
Does the solution for this knowledge information society go, necessarily, through
the social-technical IT questions?
One possible answer is: Yes! Again, according to what previously showed about the
concept of Inherent Simplicity (TOC), an answer could be: a deep understanding that
there is always a simple explanation to any seemingly intractable problem, id est. this
leads one to use the intuition to find the core of the problem and develop a solution
which both solves the immediate problem and doesn't create additional problems
along the way. Following it is necessary to study the cause-and-effect relations from
the system in question in order to discover such Inherent Simplicity...”
The access to the Internet and television by all citizens is becoming essential for the
participation in a real time democratic life [21].
Is it the onset of a negative impact from the ITs social-technical questions?
Maybe not! It could be the opposite: deals with the positive impact from the social-
technical questions, now defined by the Ultimate Consumer. Not withdrawing the
importance of TV and other means of mass communication, the consumer market on
the Internet estimates the 'value' of products through clicks and, nowadays (and in the
future), this is what matters. The supplier who relates with such public square is able
to estimate the impact of its product analyzing the number of clicks. Real
mensuration, see Figure 2
This is possible through the advance of Internet technologies. In the beginning of
popularization of Internet, with Web 1.0, we usual accessed statics sites, we mean
without an Internet graphic interface. Web 1.0 was the not-for-profit information age. After
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
this, Web 2.0 can be seen as a result of technological refinements, such as broadband, improved
browsers, and the rise of Flash application platforms. Has generally been regarded as the social
Web. Web 3.0 refers to a supposed third generation of Internet-based services. [21,23]. AND IN
THE FUTURE?
Fig. 2. As mentioned before, Web 3.0 refers to a supposed third generation of Internet-based
services. Web 4.0 must predict the management and the intelligent use of all available
knowledge in the net with media convergence and a more intuitive search mechanisms. Based
on previous demands from the Internet users as well in about the study of their behavior in the
web, the sites would start to deduce their next intentions... [21,23]. AND IN THE FUTURE?
3 The future
Therefore, for countries in development, such as Brazil, to transform their condition, it
is necessary, NOW, to advance their R&D and local Collaborative Ecosystem research
efforts.
This R&D and local collaborative ecosystem (ecosystem refers to a combined
components of an environment) research efforts must consider the principle of the
Systemic View (thinking globally but acting locally), and it may be accomplished by
the integration among one of these interdependent subjects: ecology, biology,
communication, organizations, economy, education, communities, technology, culture
and the human being (human, social, psychological, intellectual and mental ecology:
social-technical systems).
How to elaborate/build a new way of development, which comprises the social,
economical, cultural and environmental spheres, and that leads us to a new model
of perception and knowledge of the world a perfect social-technical system?
Maybe an answer to such questioning “perfect social-technical system” is the
following: many ways are elaborated each moment. Maybe there is no definitive way,
as definitive only the Eternal. Here we are able to return to the TOC, from physicist
Eliyahu Goldratt, who applied the exact sciences principles to human organizations
and demonstrated, amongst other things, that technology is necessary, but not
sufficient. The personal factors, especially those linked to individual performance
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
mensuration, generally exert a very strong influence in any context, which frequently
frustrate any initiative for change.
BUT, stressing: IF such new system had already been developed, AND
ACCEPTED, would the present financial crisis have occurred? This demonstrates
that the run for money cannot be sustained for a long period and this was already
common knowledge, as shown by the famous "chain schemes", where with the simple
„investment‟ of US$ 1,0 a citizen would receive several times more what had been
invested without having to do anything. Note that although the basis of the capitalist
principle (if I invest US$ 1,0 million, be it in stocks, be it in a new enterprise, I expect,
without having in fact to actively work, have the higher compensation of such
amount), this is a crime.
The present crisis, which has been announcing itself for a few years, is a symptom of a
new Social-technical System (or symptom of a gigantic Information System?), which
is not, yet, well defined for a great parcel of the population, connected to the
paradigms of the 19th century economy.
Today‟s crisis is the result of a catastrophic failure, primarily in the financial system
but also of our economic and political systems; is the result of the reductionist,
atomistic thinking that had long dominated humanity‟s approach to problem-solving
[24]. The Sarbanes-Oxley (Sarbox or SOX) Act of 2002, supported by corporate
governance practices, was an important initiative of U.S. Government to regulator
companies after the drop of financial institutions [27], but it has been appeared that it
wasn‟t the effective enough to avoid a financial crash in the world economy in 2008.
The challenge now is the systemic thinking - to design a society (regulator) - that goes
beyond companies‟ compliances - and actually measures and focuses on systemic
risks, rather than on the individual parts of the system id est., systems thinking focuses
on the performance of a system as a whole [25]. And at this point that governance
could exercise its essential mean and to extend its role to the hole society.
Contributing to define a new systematic way of manage business, society and why not
the individuals?
Finally, it is important to draw the attention to new ways of organizations arising in
the past few years and which provoked a reorganization of the social sectors. An
important class of such new organizations is the so called Learning Community,
promoting Education and the Social Asset with the development of individual
qualities at people networks dynamized by the electronic networks, leading possibly to
new ways of acquaintance and relationship, aiming essentially at the transformation of
knowledge, of circumstances, of institutions, of concepts, of the Arts, of the Sciences
and values from the human being. However, the great challenge of the 21st century
shall be to change the system of values behind the global economy, so as to make it
compatible to the demands of human dignity and to the ecological sustainability in a
system where the IT of information changes parameters every 24 months and lowering
the income inequality.
Therefore, we must consider all technological possibilities available, not inventing the
wheel, but, yes, improving bearing.
4 Perspectives
Our world is fundamentally a sociotechnical world, id est. a world deeply
characterized by human and technological interactions: human organizations are
living systems and should be analyzed accordingly. Their interactions drastically
affect people relationships in space and time [25].
Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
Therefore, if we consider that the core knowledge is embodied in people‟s heads (tacit
knowledge [26]), and their abilities to utilize them generating new knowledge, we
cannot speak about knowledge society without taking into account these interactions.
Since the Internet brings together the computer, media, and the distributed intelligence
of the family and the community, constituting a new basis for the effectiveness of
socio-technical organizations then, in this way, beyond the economic, organizational,
cultural, and technological dimensions, the specific sociotechnical context
characterizes every knowledge society initiatives: synergism and ubiquitously driven
by the Internet!
However, management opposition persists because sociotechnical system by nature
enables collaborative decision-making and shared leadership. Management has been
reluctant to give up the power and authority they have worked so hard to establish.
Indeed, sociotechnical system challenges the traditional management taboos that of
sharing information and knowledge with subordinates on a need to know basis only
[26]. The central corner stone of a technocratic bureaucracy is that decision-making is
top-down and implementation is bottom up. The governance imposing normative
goals of sustainability upon existing socio-technical systems, implies connecting and
synchronizing changes among these actors, institutions and artifacts at many different
points in the system. Hereby, governance must consequently fulfill diagnostic,
prognostic, prescriptive and coordination functions. The challenge is to bring
appropriately resourced actors into the governance arrangements needed to steer
socio- technical change [28].
This this new scope is changing all our mentality about and, this letter, in its section II
Challenges and Reflections, tried to awake such feelings towards this new era of
knowledge but, news questions remain to be answered: who or what will be driving
innovations in this new era? Which is the impact of the sociotechnical system in such
innovations process? About SOX, it seems that it has not been to avoid a financial
crash in the world economy in 2008- Why?.
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Proceedings CENTERIS’2010 SPRINGER Communications in Computer and Information
Science, Edts. Quintela Varajão et al (2010)
Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
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Presented at the Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems aligning technology, organizations and people
Published by
Springer, Part I, pag. 42 (2010)
Sponsored by FAPESP and CTI.
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... een a social system (organization) and a technical system (IS). There is interdependence between organizations and IS. [03, 04]. @BULLET The social system. Organization, figure 1 the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. @BULLET The technical system. Information System, figure 1 techniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. @BULLET Interdependency. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization Any organizati ...
... wledge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. @BULLET The technical system. Information System, figure 1 techniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. @BULLET Interdependency. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization Any organizational systems will maximize performance only if the interdependency of these systems is explicitly recognized. This approach prevents a purely technological IS. This interdependency is th ...
... cial system (organization) and a technical system (IS). There is interdependence between organizations and IS. [03, 04]. Organization, figure 1 -comprises the employees (at all levels) and dge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. Information System,figure 1-comprises the devices, tools and echniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization of all systems (socio + technical), fi ...
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This is an opinion paper regarding a proposal of a model for a Ecosystemm Governance. In the globalized world the importance of Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) become increasingly relevant regarding the requirements imposed by competition. Both the knowledge of the business as the rapid flow of information are fundamental for a enterprise decision making. Whereas the basic definition of IT = hardware + software, i.e. , tools that has been used to create, store and disseminate data and information in the creation of knowledge, and IS = IT + People + procedures that collect, process and disseminate the information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis and visualization in the organization [01], it makes implicit the understanding of IS is essential to create competitive companies, to manage global corporations and provide customers with products and services of value. In this work we are correlating IS with the governance of management of an ecosystem. Yet, as IT is redefining the foundations of business, then the customer service, operations, strategies of product marketing and its distribution and even the knowledge management (KM) depends very much, or sometimes even completely, on the IS. The IT and its costs have become a part of day-to-day business [02]. In order to meet this complexity of business needs, today is not possible to disregard the IT and its available resources, which makes very dificult to draw up IS. Therefore, the perspective view of the Sociotehcnical Aspects of an IS are directly concerned with governance and the model proposed regarding an ecosystem. Finally, whereas the summary above, the main objective of this opinion paper is to propose the guidelines for a Sociotechnical Management Model of Governance for an Ecosystem. Keywords: Governance, Ecosystem Management, Sociotechnical System, Information Systems, Information Technology
... een a social system (organization) and a technical system (IS). There is interdependence between organizations and IS. [03, 04]. @BULLET The social system. Organization, figure 1 the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. @BULLET The technical system. Information System, figure 1 techniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. @BULLET Interdependency. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization Any organizati ...
... wledge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. @BULLET The technical system. Information System, figure 1 techniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. @BULLET Interdependency. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization Any organizational systems will maximize performance only if the interdependency of these systems is explicitly recognized. This approach prevents a purely technological IS. This interdependency is th ...
... cial system (organization) and a technical system (IS). There is interdependence between organizations and IS. [03, 04]. Organization, figure 1 -comprises the employees (at all levels) and dge, skills, attitudes, values and needs they bring to the work environment as well as the reward system and authority structures that exist in the organization. [05]. Information System,figure 1-comprises the devices, tools and echniques needed to transform inputs into outputs in a way which enhances the economic performance of the organization. [05]. The basis of the sociotechnical approach is: the fit is achieved by a design process aiming mutual optimization of all systems (socio + technical), fi ...
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Full-text available
This is an opinion paper regarding a proposal of a model for a Ecosystemm Governance. In the globalized world the importance of Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) become increasingly relevant regarding the requirements imposed by competition. Both the knowledge of the business as the rapid flow of information are fundamental for a enterprise decision making. Whereas the basic definition of IT = hardware + software, i.e. , tools that has been used to create, store and disseminate data and information in the creation of knowledge, and IS = IT + People + procedures that collect, process and disseminate the information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis and visualization in the organization [01], it makes implicit the understanding of IS is essential to create competitive companies, to manage global corporations and provide customers with products and services of value. In this work we are correlating IS with the governance of management of an ecosystem. Yet, as IT is redefining the foundations of business, then the customer service, operations, strategies of product marketing and its distribution and even the knowledge management (KM) depends very much, or sometimes even completely, on the IS. The IT and its costs have become a part of day-to-day business [02]. In order to meet this complexity of business needs, today is not possible to disregard the IT and its available resources, which makes very dificult to draw up IS. Therefore, the perspective view of the Sociotehcnical Aspects of an IS are directly concerned with governance and the model proposed regarding an ecosystem. Finally, whereas the summary above, the main objective of this opinion paper is to propose the guidelines for a Sociotechnical Management Model of Governance for an Ecosystem.
... b) The technical system: an information system is composed of mechanisms, tools, and techniques necessary to transform inputs into products to improve the organization's economic performance. (Balloni and Bermejo 2010) A sociotechnical approach assures the compatibility of the social and technical systems. Any organization can maximize its performance only when the interdependencies between these two systems are explicitly recognized and conceived: the social environment must fit the technical component and, vice versa, aiming for the sustainability of both systems. ...
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Translated to Portuguese -traduzido para o Português-, see -confira-: < https://bit.ly/3e0YwTd > ======================================================================ATINER’s Conference Paper Proceedings Series COM2021-0209 Athens, 14 June 2021 ISSN: 2529-167X ====================================================================== This paper is an improved version from the previous publication Balloni (Balloni, Resende, and Targoswski, 2012). Reconsiderations and contextualization aiming at the 21st Century are presented and, this new paper proposes HOW to Project Brazil as a relevant player in the complex interplay of world powers. The references from the previous 2012 paper were kept but updated and, the 18 news references utilized to construct this new paper are cited in the footnote of this paper. With an integrated territory and the world’s largest economies, Brazil aims to be projected as a relevant player in the complex interplay of world powers; however, the thinking from public/private Brazilian managers is, presently, consolidated in visions of short & medium-term decisions makings. based on the "participatory model of sociotechnical management," we present a proposal on how the manager’s political thinking may be unconstrained and able to formulate a long-term view for the future of the nation -i.e., by promoting innovation in the thinking from this public/private manager- and, reestablishing longer horizons of time, which are adequate for the future of Brazil. The "Participatory Model of Sociotechnical Management," works as the tool of change, the sharing of information, and the implementation of a shared vision of the future. These sharing’s -information & vision- must be incorporated by all Brazilian Educational System levels and its Societal Decision-Making -Brazilians Citizens & Brazilians Business Partner-, as the fundamental strategic principles for a sustainable Brazil to the Brazilian citizens. The consolidation of the sociotechnical perspective can assist in the tremendous national challenges that may occur throughout the 21st Century. ====================================================================== Keywords: sociotechnical management model, long-term planning, political thinking, information sharing, the future, and solidarity economy. ====================================================================== VIDEO RECORDING: < https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351736327_VIDEO_RECORDING_PRESENTATION_BRAZIL_OF_THE_21st_CENTURY_STRATEGIZING_WITH_THE_SOCIOTECHNICAL_MANAGEMENT_APPROACH > ====================================================================== PPT PRESENTATION: < https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344849053_PPT_PRESENTATION_BRAZIL_OF_THE_21TH_CENTURY_STRATEGIZING_WITH_THE_SOCIOTECHNICAL_MANAGEMENT_APPROACH > ====================================================================== >>> Read the full paper translated to Portuguese: Perspectiva de Futuro é o que o Brasil mais precisa, AGORA! https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352780928_BRASIL_DO_SECULO_21_ESTRATEGIA_COM_A_ABORDAGEM_DA_GESTAO_SOCIOTECNICA
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* - This paper is a draft version from the original published at: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-17587-4_14?wt_mc=alerts.TOCseries ___ --- ___ or, here: http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-17587-4_14.pdf ___ --- ___ © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 D. Sedera et al. (Eds.): Pre-ICIS 2010-2012, LNBIP 198, pp. 216–237, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-17587-4_14 It has been invited to be published by the Springer LNBIP series/2014 and so, it is an improved version from that version accepted for presentation at the Fifth Pre-ICIS workshop on ES Research, St Louis/USA 2010 [1]. ====================================================================== (*) - The paper considers some challenges and reflections concerned with Information and Knowledge/Wise Societies and Sociotechnical Systems. After a brief and innovative panorama on the information and knowledge/wise societies and sociotechnical system, we present the core of this work: challenges and reflections related to our society and systems. For some of these challenges and reflections has been proposed answers such as treatment of the organization as a living being → synergism & collaborative ecosystem research efforts; unfairly shared leadership, information partnership and a collaborative relationship in the age of knowledge and, a new way of development, which comprises the social, economical, cultural and environmental spheres leading us to a new model of perception and knowledge of the world & present financial crisis; the future… Those questioning are still open to create new insights and interests. ====================================================================== * Work partially supported by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) ====================================================================== [1]: Find here the paper published at the Fifth Pre-ICIS 2010 Proceedings < https://bit.ly/3dw9BIQ >
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This paper objective presenting some challenges and reflections about governance, knowledge society and sociotechnical systems. Based on the Action Network Theory, Theory of Constraints and others techniques, questions are pointed and discussed in a systematic and innovative way. Points like the synergism and collaborative ecosystem research efforts, organizations knowledgeable and organization as a living being, the involvement of people and others IT resources on the questions, and others are discussed considering questions, challenges and future perspectives. Concluding, governance is pointed to offer normative goals of sustainability of existing socio-technical systems and, to imply connecting and synchronizing changes among the knowledge society actors.
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Information systems (IS) as a combined social and t echnical area (Lee, 2004) and there are numerous variations within socio-technical theory o f how to understand the general relationship between the two sides. The aim of the paper is to discuss of a number of socio- technical theories and how they can provide perspec tives on information systems planning. The outcome of the paper is a discussion of the imp lication for information systems planning using models and concepts for the socio technical f ield, with a special focus on the social shaping of technology area (Mackenzie and Wajcman, 1999).
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In its brief 20-year history, Goldratt's Theory of Constraints (TOC) methodology has evolved into a systems methodology that links elements of both soft and hard systems methods. The major component of TOC that underpins all the other parts of the methodology is the TOC Thinking Processes, a suite of logic trees that provide a roadmap for change. They guide the user through the decision making process of problem structuring, problem identification, solution building, identification of barriers to be overcome, and implementation of the solution. Tree-builders make recourse to a set of logic rules, which provide the analytical rigour usually associated with hard scientific approaches. This is combined with the ability to capture softer information and complexity provided by soft OR approaches. This paper briefly outlines the TOC methodology, and discusses the similarities and differences between TOC and other systems methods, particularly the Rational Model of decision-making.
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