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Gamification: Using game design elements in non-gaming contexts



"Gamification" is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement. The recent introduction of 'gamified' applications to large audiences promises new additions to the existing rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step forward is the integration of this precise diversity of research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings together practitioners and researchers to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches and findings around the gamification of information systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and questions for future research.
Gamification: Using Game Design
Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts
Gamification is an informal umbrella term for the use
of video game elements in non-gaming systems to
improve user experience (UX) and user engagement.
The recent introduction of gamified applications to
large audiences promises new additions to the existing
rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design
patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX
they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step
forward is the integration of this precise diversity of
research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings
together practitioners and researchers to develop a
shared understanding of existing approaches and
findings around the gamification of information
systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and
questions for future research.
Gamification, game design, design patterns,
motivational affordances, funology, persuasive
technology, games with a purpose
ACM Classification Keywords
H.5.m [Information Interfaces and Presentation (e.g.,
HCI)]: Miscellaneous; K.8.0 [Personal Computing]:
Games; J.4 [Social and Behavioral Sciences]:
Psychology, Sociology
Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).
CHI 2011, May 712, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
ACM 978-1-4503-0268-5/11/05.
Sebastian Deterding
Hans-Bredow Institute at the
University of Hamburg,
20354 Hamburg, Germany
Miguel Sicart
Center for Computer Games
IT University of Copenhagen
DK-2300 Copenhagen S
Lennart Nacke
Department of Computer Science,
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Canada, S7N 5C9
Kenton O’Hara
Microsoft Research Cambridge,
7 JJ Thomson Ave
Cambridge CB3 0FB, UK
Dan Dixon
Digital Cultures Research Centre,
University of the West of England,
Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
General Terms
Design, Theory
Games and game technologies increasingly transcend
the traditional boundaries of their medium, as
evidenced by the growth of serious and pervasive
games as an industry and research field. The most
recent phenomenon in this trajectory is gamification,
an umbrella term for the use of video game elements
(rather than full-fledged games) to improve user
experience and user engagement in non-game services
and applications.
Following the success of location-based service
Foursquare, this design approach has rapidly gained
traction in interaction design and digital marketing
[22], spawning an intense debate within the
professional community1 as well as numerous gamified
applications, ranging from productivity to finance,
health, sustainability, news, user-generated content
and tutorials. Several vendors now offer gamification as
a service layer of reward and reputation systems with
points, badges, levels and leader boards.2 At the same
time, gamification has caught the interest of
researchers as a potential means to create engaging
workplaces [16] or facilitate mass-collaboration [11].
To wit, the use of game design and game elements in
other contexts is an old topic in human-computer
interaction (HCI): Attempts to derive heuristics for
1 See e.g. the 2011 Gamification Summit and the gamification
day at the 2011 GDC Serious Games Summit.
2 See e.g. Badgeville, Bunchball, Bigdoor Media, GetGlue.
enjoyable interfaces from games reach back to the
early 1980s [9, 10]. More recently, researchers have
tried to identify design patterns that might afford joy of
use under the moniker funology”, explicitly drawing
inspiration from game design [3].
A growing body of research looks into games with a
purposepiggybacking game play to solve human
information tasks such as tagging images. This included
work detailing specific design features that afford
player enjoyment [20]. Furthermore, researchers in
HCI and management sciences have identified design
principles that enhance the motivational affordances of
computer-supported collaborative work [5, 21] –
principles which are congruent with research on the
motivational psychology of video games [17].
In persuasive technology [4], video games and game
aspects have been studied as potential means to shape
user behavior in directions intended by the system
designer [8, 14], or to instill embedded values [1].
Social psychological studies on contributions in online
communities or the motivational uses of recommender
systems arrived at conclusions that chime with core
design properties of video games [7, 15]. Likewise, it
suggests itself to model the reward and reputation
systems of gamified applications with economically
inspired approaches such as incentive centered design.
The user experience of video games has itself become a
substantial topic of HCI, with researchers developing
models and methods as well as heuristics for the
usability or playability of games [2, 18, 19]. An obvious
matter of interest is to which degree these can be
transferred to the design of gamified information
systems. Finally, a growing body of research points to
the significant role of social contexts in the constitution
of video game play experience [6], which immediately
raises the question whether and how the transfer of
(game) design patterns into ‘alien’ social contexts
might significantly alter their experiential affordances.
Workshop Goals
Faced with the broad adoption of ‘gamified’ applications
beyond HCI laboratories on the one hand and a rich if
disconnected body of existing research on the other,
the goal of this workshop is to bring together HCI
researchers from academia and industry to (a) take
stock and synthesize a shared picture of pertinent
existing and current research surrounding gamification,
and (b) identify potential new aspects and research
opportunities opened by new gamified applications. To
this end, we invite researchers to submit position
papers on (ongoing) empirical work or accounts of
existing approaches and findings that might elucidate
the user experience, psychology, social dynamics and
design of information systems employing game
elements. The primary intended outcome of the
workshop is to build a shared overview of the state-of-
the-art (published as a report) by clarifying the
questions below, and to seed a researcher community
that shall be built out via the workshop site and follow-
up events that connect other pertinent research
communities (e.g. game studies) towards substantial
research and publication efforts.
Workshop Questions
What is the current state of research surrounding
gamification? How might we integrate it?
Which existing approaches are well-suited to study
and model gamified information systems?
Do gamified applications feature specific or novel
characteristics not covered by previous research?
What happens when game design elements are
transferred into non-game social contexts?
Which promising (new) research topics and data
sources do gamified applications provide?
Participants and Expected Interest
We consider the collaborative study of the recent surge
of ‘gamified’ information systems to be of immediate
relevance to HCI researchers in all fields mentioned
above (funology, persuasive technology, communities,
motivational affordances, game UX, etc.): On the one
hand, the implementation of game design elements on
a mass market scale potentially surfaces phenomena
that wouldnt appear in laboratory prototypes. Gamified
systems ‘in the wild’ provide new objects of inquiry in
an unprecedented variety, data quality and scale. On
the other hand, the focused integration of the many
close but by-and-large decoupled research endeavors
would greatly benefit each in turn. Although workshops
in past conferences have already addressed single
issues [12, 13], none of them has taken such an
integrative approach. Therefore, at this point in time,
such a synthesizing workshop on gamification would be
of high interest to HCI researchers as well as
researchers working on the increased blurring of
(digital) life, work, and play in general.
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... Gamification, as defined by Deterding et al. [1], is the use of elements from the world of digital games to enhance user experience and engagement in services and applications that have no direct connection to games. However, it deserves mentioning that this word could be related to the utilization of games in general, as opposed to only digital games [1,2]. It is also essential to separate gamification from digital game learning since the former entails adopting game-like practices to enhance the experience, whilst the latter concentrates on developing genuine digital games and software with educational content. ...
... Unlike traditional teaching, where negative feedback could discourage students, negative feedback in digital educational games is considered a developing aspect and is accepted with a positive attitude [3][4][5]. Losses in digital games are not regarded as definitive negative experiences, and the ultimate aim is not merely success or failure [1,2,4]. Students have the ability to confront obstacles and alter their strategy after failure by playing digital games. ...
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In the modern day, educational demands necessitate student-centered instructional approaches at all levels of educational institutions. Through the integration of digital technology, these frameworks incorporate up-to-date teaching methods, encourage social engagement, and promote cultural values. Gamification in digital technologies assists in establishing an educational environment that is engaging, entertaining, personalized, and constantly available. This educational environment is based on digital learning resources and draws on stored human knowledge, articulating education by removing geographical and temporal boundaries. Kahoot! is a platform that allows the creation of and access to gamified assessment quizzes while integrating technology into the teaching and learning process. In this article, we present the results of a study based on a Kahoot! quiz used in a classroom with 27 6th-grade pupils in a Greek elementary school. Our objective is to determine the effectiveness of game-based learning by using Kahoot! as a supplementary element to traditional teaching methods. With the inclusion of a post-activity questionnaire for overall interest and motivation to learn while using Kahoot! and the Driscoll Questionnaire, we aim to explore the potential benefits of Kahoot! in the learning process, pupil engagement, and assessment. The analysis of the collected data from the questionnaire demonstrated a positive attitude toward Kahoot! as an alternative educational method and learning approach. It also revealed positive feedback on the motivation, enjoyment, sense of autonomy, creativity, and pupil interest in the learning process. In addition, the study indicated a moderate positive effect on pupils' understanding of the learning content and a slight inclination towards the technology-based, non-traditional approach compared to traditional teaching. Based on the findings, by fostering an encouraging and creative environment, we can improve pupil engagement and overall motivation while promoting autonomous learning through a game-based experience.
... According to Deterding et al. [9], the key aspects of gamification are dynamics -the use of scenarios that require user attention and real-time response; mechanics -the use of scenario elements, such as virtual awards, statuses, points, virtual goods; aesthetics -creating a general gaming experience that contributes to the emotional inclusion of the user; social interaction -a wide range of techniques and digital technologies that provide interaction that is characteristic of games. We partly agree with this vision. ...
... You can know for sure, that there is enough scientific and practical literature [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] on the study of this topic. Various authors have their own vision of solving this problem. ...
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The main purpose of the article is to model the stages of using digital technologies for introducing gamification into the education system. In recent years, gamification has been constantly on the list of trends in Industry 4.0. It is being researched by specialists in academic and corporate training, as well as by individual educational institutions. Therefore, we believe that we should take a closer look at this technology. The methodology implies the use of information-graphic modelling methods. Based on the results of the analysis, a multi-stage model of the use of digital technologies for the introduction of the gamification system into the educational process for a specific socioeconomic system was formed. The study has limitations and they relate to the use of one educational institution and do not take into account all the digital technologies that can be applied in accordance with the research topic. Further research requires the question of analyzing the complexity of the gamification implementation system in modern conditions and determining what negative consequences it can bring to the socioeconomic system.
... offered to solve problems that often arise in science learning. Current learning needs to focus on improving certain technical skills, new ways of thinking, and different learning approaches (McGrath, Naomi & Bayerlein, 2013). One approach that is in line with the characteristics of 21st century learning is gamification, namely game-based learning (Deterding, et. al., 2011). Gamification is a thinking game design technique and game mechanics to improve non-game contexts (Popkin, 2010). The use of game element design, game-play mechanics, aesthetics, and game thinking to be applied to non-game fields is carried out to motivate students (Kapp, 2012). The idea of gamification is behind the logic that the moti ...
... Turning to gamification, gamification is the adoption of game elements in a non-game context (Deterding, et. al., 2011). In this paper, the gamification of science learning referred to is the use of game elements in teaching science material so that students are motivated to "want" to learn. Gamification in learning focuses on efforts to influence students' psychological factors so that they can mediate learning outcomes (Kam & Umar, 2018). Lee & Hammer ...
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Salah satu strategi penguatan profil pelajar Pancasila Kurikulum Merdeka adalah melalui dimensi kreatif. Penguatan profil pelajar Pancasila dimensi kreatif berkaitan dengan Framework 21st Century Skills yang dirumuskan oleh World Economic Forum. Kerangka kerja tersebut memaparkan 16 keterampilan penting yang harus dimiliki anak agar dapat sukses di masa depan, salah satunya adalah kreativitas. Sayangnya, indeks kreativitas Indonesia masih berada di jajaran rendah negara-negara di dunia. Global Creativity Index (GCI) 2015 oleh Martin Prosperity Institute menempatkan Indonesia pada peringkat 115 dari 139 negara. Pembelajaran IPA sebagai pembelajaran yang esensial bagi siswa, harus tanggap mengenai hal ini dengan memfasilitasi perkembangan kreativitas siswa di dalamnya. Gamifikasi merupakan salah satu upaya dalam memantik ketertarikan, memacu motivasi, serta mendorong keterlibatan siswa (student engagement) pada proses pembelajaran. Banyak penelitian mengenai gamifikasi telah dilakukan dengan mengadopsi mekanika dan estetika permainan dalam pembelajaran dan secara umum berhasil meningkatkan motivasi serta hasil belajar siswa. Namun, keterkaitan antara penggunaan gamifikasi dalam pembelajaran dengan perkembangan kreativitas siswa belum banyak diteliti dan dibahas secara teori. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini mencoba memaparkan kajian literatur mengenai bidang-bidang yang mampu diintervensi oleh gamifikasi sehingga dapat mengembangkan dan membangun kreativitas siswa.
... A gamificação oferece oportunidades para aprimorar o aprendizado dos alunos, ajudandoos a compreender e aplicar conceitos de maneira lúdica e interativa (Deterding, Sicart, Nacke, O'Hara, & Dixon, 2011). Por isso, é importante ampliar a perspectiva da gamificação além da fixação de conhecimento e do engajamento dos estudantes, e destacar sua capacidade de estimular a compreensão profunda e crítica dos temas abordados (L. ...
... A gamificação originou-se de jogos digitais, que são definidos de várias formas: Koster and Wright (2004) definem como um "sistema que expõe o jogador a desafios abstratos regido por um sistema de regras, interatividade e feedback contínuo, com resultados pré-determinados que provocam uma reação emocional"; Salen, Tekinbaş, and Zimmerman (2003) Utilizando elementos dos jogos digitais é possível auxiliar na educação de jovens e adolescentes que estão familiarizados com esses recursos e tecnologias. A partir desses elementos, surge a ideia de gamificação, que pode ser definida como a utilização de elementos de jogos fora do seu contexto original, para engajar as pessoas, motivar ações, promover a aprendizagem e resolver problemas (Deterding et al., 2011) (Kapp, 2012). ...
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Al-cAdad wa al-Macdũd is a basic Arabic grammar topic that has its own distinctive features and features. However, some studies show that the level of mastery of al-cAdad wa al-Macdũd among students is weak. Therefore, this study aims to identify the effects of the gamification approach on the mastery of al-cAdad wa al-Macdũd among students. For that purpose, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 Form 6 students at Maahad Ahmadi, Gemencheh Negeri Sembilan. Students are divided into two groups, namely experimental groups using gamification approaches and control groups using traditional approaches. The t-test was used to analyze the data obtained. The results showed that there was no significant difference in pre-emptiness in pre-test for both approaches [t (58) =], but there were significant differences in post test [t (58) = 17.588, p <.05]. In the post test, the mean score for the experimental group is higher than the min score of the control group. This shows that the gamification approach can help students learn the al-cAdad wa al-Macdũd topic well. This study is expected to help Arabic language educators in diversifying the Arabic language grammar and teaching techniques, especially the al-cAdad wa al-Macdũd topic so that students can learn it more fun and meaningful.
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The aim of this study is to determine the effect of learning through games on Kazakh students' learning Turkish words as a foreign language. It is difficult to learn a second language without vocabulary. In this context, when teaching Turkey Turkish to cognate peoples, the pronunciation of the words should be especially emphasized because there are differences in their pronunciation since they have the same origin. When teaching Turkey Turkish to native Kazakh speakers, attention should be paid to the phonetic features resulting from the pronunciation of words. It is possible to eliminate pronunciation differences while teaching Turkish words to native Kazakh speakers through games. Games are areas where every student adds something emotionally and connects. The subject you want to explain or teach can be achieved very easily, without getting tired, with the help of games. While teaching vocabulary to A1-A2 level students whose native language is Kazakh, the teacher used games related to the subject and tried to measure the memorability of the learned words in this research. In the study, a case study, one of the qualitative research designs, was used and the data was obtained through observation. Data was collected through five different games called Kahoot!, What's That?, Silent Cinema, Select-Match and Hidden Words, which were applied to the students for 4 weeks. According to the findings, it was observed that Kazakh students willingly learned Turkish words faster through games. It was concluded that the use of games is effective in teaching foreign language Turkish vocabulary to Kazakh students.
The short paper explores the integration of serious games and speculative fiction in leadership education. The serious game Future Blocks uses sci-fi narratives to foster strategic thinking, adaptability, and foresight in participants, essential skills in effective leadership. The preliminary research investigates the game’s potential to stimulate critical thinking and creativity while enhancing communicative skills through its engaging and interactive structure. It demonstrates the potential of serious gaming in leadership development pedagogy.
The growth of digital gaming as a leisure activity across different population groups has caused great interest to the integration of digital games in language learning. Numerous research in the field of digital game-based language learning (DGBLL) showed the effectiveness of digital games as a tool of motivation and integrated development of language skills. However, the potential of digital games for language learning remains under-used in the formal university settings. This paper presents the results of the study aimed at defining the beliefs of university language teachers, belonging to the young generation, about DGBLL, their inclinations to implement DGBLL in the formal university settings for a variety of language skills and their vision of the obstacles that hinder incorporation of digital games in language learning. The findings of the research, obtained through a number of in-depth interviews, demonstrate that university teachers have generally positive attitudes to digital gaming as a resource for language learning, but being aware of serious constraints to incorporating DGBLL in the university settings, they are generally not inclined to use digital games in their teaching practices.
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Under-contribution is a problem for many online communities. Social psychology theories of social loafing and goal-setting can provide mid-level design principles to address this problem. We tested the design principles in two field experiments. In one, members of an online movie recommender community were reminded of the uniqueness of their contributions and the benefits that follow from them. In the second, they were given a range of individual or group goals for contribution. As predicted by theory, individuals contributed when they were reminded of their uniqueness and when they were given specific and challenging goals, but other predictions were not borne out. The paper ends with suggestions and challenges for mining social science theories as well as implications for design.
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Various logical, social, cognitive, and emotional sources of motivational affordance principles for information and communication technology (ICT) design and use, are presented. Autonomy-supportive social contexts tend to facilitate self-determined motivation, healthy development, and optimal functioning, while motivational analysis of self has aspects such as defining or creating the self and relating the self to society. Competence provides an inherent source of motivation for seeking out and putting effort to master optimal challenges that are developmentally appropriate. Relatedness is a psychological need indicating the innate desire to belong while interaction with others is the primary condition that involves relatedness. Leadership is a condition that involves and satisfies the need for power, while emotion relates to motivation that energize and direct behavior.
Can the workplace be redesigned to include avatars, three-dimensional environments, and a host of virtual rewards that form newly transparent reputations for you and your team? This grounded and thought-provoking book by Byron Reeves and Leighton Read argues that it is not only possible, it is inevitable. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOs) are a new cultural phenomenon at the intersection of electronic entertainment and social networking. Borrowing the key design principles from these games can address a host of classic challenges in the workplace including collaboration, innovation, leadership, and of course, boredom. No longer the sole domain of adolescent boys, today’s best complex social games capture countless of hours of attention from men and women across the age spectrum who are carrying out activities in these entertainment titles that look surprisingly like the same tasks being performed by enterprise information-workers. There is a lot to be learned from the context that makes this behavior engaging, for example: positioning tasks within compelling stories that matter to the player, providing the tools for internal marketplaces where economic behavior replaces command and control, and affordances that help solve the problem of “what do I get when we win” Reeves and Read show how to choose and implement the right elements for your business. Of course, the psychological power of game design can have both positive and negative consequences for the workplace. That’s why it’s important to put them into practice correctly from the beginning–and Reeves and Read explain how by showing which good design principles are powerful antidotes to the addictive and stress-inducing potential of games. Supported by specific case studies and years of research, Total Engagement completely changes the way you view both work and play.
In this paper, I will discuss two questions: (1) Why are computer games so captivating? and (2) How can the features that make computer games captivating be used to make other user interfaces interesting and enjoyable to use? After briefly summarizing several studies of what makes computer games fun, I will discuss some guidelines for designing enjoyable user interfaces. Even though I will focus primarily on what makes systems enjoyable, I will suggest how some of the same features that make systems enjoyable can also make them easier to learn and to use.
In this paper, I will describe my intuitions about what makes computer games fun. More detailed descriptions of the experiments and the theory on which this paper is based are given by Malone (1980a, 1980b). My primary goal here is to provide a set of heuristics or guidelines for designers of instructional computer games. I have articulated and organized common sense principles to spark the creativity of instructional designers (see Banet, 1979, for an unstructured list of similar principles). To demonstrate the usefulness of these principles, I have included several applications to actual or proposed instructional games. Throughout the paper I emphasize games with educational uses, but I focus on what makes the games fun, not on what makes them educational. Though I will not emphasize the point in this paper, these same ideas can be applied to other educational environments and life situations. In a sense, the categories I will describe constitute a general taxonomy of intrinsic motivation—of what makes an activity fun or rewarding for its own sake rather than for the sake of some external reward (See Lepper and Greene, 1979). I think the essential characteristics of good computer games and other intrinsically enjoyable situations can be organized into three categories: challenge, fantasy, and curiosity.