Conference Paper

Bringing icons to life

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Abstract

Icons are used increasingly in interfaces because they are compact "universal" pictographic representations of computer functionality and processing. Animated icons can bring to life symbols representing complete applications or functions within an application, thereby clarifying their meaning, demonstrating their capabilities, and even explaining their method of use. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an iterative design of a set of animated painting icons that appear in the HyperCard tool palette. The design discipline restricted the animations to 10 to 20 second sequences of 22×20 pixel bit maps. User testing was carried out on two interfaces - one with the static icons, one with the animated icons. The results showed significant benefit from the animations in clarifying the purpose and functionality of the icons.

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... Baecker et al. Baecker et al. (1991) expanded their classification with the addition of the categories Orientation and Interpretation, of animations. Nevertheless, the authors include an example taken from Myers (1984), shown in Figure 5. ...
... The metalinguistic function in explanatory texts is reflected in the principles that assert the need to provide explanatory and didactic aswww.rcommunicationr.org Next, we look for parallels between the ten functions of Baecker et al. (1991) ...
... We encountered difficulties when trying to link some of the functions proposed by Baecker et al. (1991) with the blocks from the guidelines, in particular, those of "History" and "Choice," which were both considered to be hypothetical in Baecker and Small's work (1990). The animation type "His- Baecker and Small highlight that this was technologically feasible at the time, but that its effectiveness needed to be verified empirically. ...
Article
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Whenever a user performs a task or communicates via their computer or device, they are guided by visual cues to interact successfully with the interface. This human-computer interaction is, therefore, mediated by the communication established between designer and user through the texts, graphic elements, and animations that make up the visual design of the interface. Animation is an element of visual language of the graphical elements of an interface. This study aims to establish the functions of animation. We reviewed the literature and discussed the shortcomings identified in the existing taxonomies of functional animation. We then proposed an updated classification, partly inspired by the functions presented in Jakobson’s communication model. Based on a content analysis of the design guidelines from the leading mobile phone developers and comparing these sources, we propose the following list of categories: Identifying, Structural, Guide, Feedback, Didactic, Esthetic, and Emotive. This new taxonomy aims to contribute to the theoretical frameworks used in visual communication when studying interface design. It will be useful, for example, to help detect, classify, and assess the appropriateness of animations based on the functions they provide to an interface.
... Children"s prior experience with technology has been reported to be the main predictor for their ability to interact with software (Budiu & Nielsen, 2010). The technological expertise of adult users also plays an important role in their success at interpreting alternative representations of information such as icons (Baecker, Small, & Mander, 1991). Certain interface elements such as the "Back" button in the browser were not used by younger children, but were relied upon by older children (Budiu & Nielsen, 2010), suggesting differences in mental models based on increasing technological expertise. ...
... Involving children in the design of the icons is recommended to provide relevant designs (McKnight & Read, 2009). Animated icons have been shown to help adult users decode their meanings better than static icons, but designing animations for abstract functions is a tricky proposition (Baecker, Small, & Mander, 1991). Children have been observed to be critical of animation in general, finding it distracting and superfluous. ...
... Research in design and evaluation of icons, similar to that performed with other demographics (Leung, McGrenere, & Graf, 2011), should be replicated for children. Further, icons could be animated to see if they attract attention and improve communicability (Baecker, Small, & Mander, 1991), for example, using a shrugging action for the "I don"t know" button. ...
... In a series of experiments, Barcenilla and Tijus (2002) analysed the responses of 134 participants to the question "what does it mean?" for 14 medicinal pictograms. The average correct response rate was 39 %. ...
... The results indicate that animation is useful in helping users identify a key's function. Because animation could be also an effective means of portraying complex processes evolving over time, Baecker, Small and Mander (1991) investigated the use of animated icons to improve comprehension of functions. They found that all users understood the icon's function after seeing the animation, but they also noted that some users did, in fact, make misinterpretations. ...
... landslides), (ii) typical examples or the use of specimens to represent categories (e.g. a book to represent a library), or (iii) symbolic icons, when an image is used to represent a higher level of abstraction than the image itself (e.g. a broken wine glass to show fragility). Similarly, in terms of the way the meaning is expressed, Barcenilla and Tijus (2002) distinguish figurative pictograms as being either (i) metonymic, when one element indicates the whole (e.g. a book for library, a knife and the fork for restaurant), (ii) metaphoric, when another object is used to express an intended meaning (e.g. a bomb for a computer bug), or (iii) categorical, when a pictogram indicates a category (e.g. a car for both cars and trucks). ...
Article
Pictograms form part of our daily lives through their use in medication, transport, computers, etc., because they indicate - in iconic form - places, directions, actions or constraints on actions in either the real world (a town, a road, etc.) or virtual space (computer desktop, Internet, etc.). This chapter is essentially a review of research on the pictogram effect, which can be summed up as follows: a pictogram is better than a label, and recognizing an image is easier than reading text (Norman, 1990). This review covers theoretical and experimental studies from linguistics, psychology and cognitive ergonomics on the design and validation, comprehension and usage of pictograms. Among the various methods, an emphasis is placed on classification and the creation of pictogram taxonomies as tools for homogenization and design.
... Although there was originally some debate about their effectiveness [8,26,36], today icons are a major part of any interface, whatever the system or device, and have undoubtably greatly contributed to the success of personal computers. Huang et al. claim that "icons offer the perception of affordance, which can facilitate human-machine interaction in terms of ecological perception" [33]. ...
... The combination of motion (or animation) and icons can help clarify meaning, explain the purpose of a given tool, demonstrate its capabilities, and even convey its method of use [8,10,29]. There are essentially two kinds of animated icons: icons that incorporate animated graphics and kineticons [29]. ...
... Baecker et al. propose some high-level considerations for the design of the first kind of animated icons [8]; they identify ten basic ways in which they can be useful, and illustrate these with relevant questions. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.
... The use of pictographic symbols to convey meaning is a classic of interface design, and more broadly of machine display design [ [154], [195]]; these are commonly referred to as icons. Although there was originally some debate about their effectiveness [ [112], [165], [200]], today icons are a major part of any interface, whatever the system or device, and have undoubtably greatly contributed to the success of personal computers. Huang et al. claim that "icons offer the perception of affordance, which can facilitate human-machine interaction in terms of ecological perception" [177]. ...
... The combination of motion (or animation) and icons can help clarify meaning, explain the purpose of a given tool, demonstrate its capabilities, and even convey its method of use [ [112], [115], [168]]. There are essentially two kinds of animated icons: icons that incorporate animated graphics and kineticons [168]. ...
... Baecker et al. propose some high-level considerations for the design of the first kind of animated icons [112]; they identify ten basic ways in which they can be useful, and illustrate these with relevant questions. ...
Thesis
Dans ce manuscrit, j’étudie quatre obstacles potentiels à l’engagement d’un internaute avec une interface de visualisation d’informations interactive. Ma question de recherche principale est : comment ces obstacles sont-ils susceptibles de limiter l’engagement de l’utilisateur dans l’exploration efficace de données et comment remédier à ces limitations ? Je définis les quatre obstacles en termes de sous-coûts de la perception et de l’exploration en me référant au modèle proposé par van Wijk ; ils sont : 1) un coût de littératie, 2) un coût d’interprétation du contexte, 3) un coût de perception d’interactivité et 4) un coût de motivation initiale à explorer des données. Pour chacun, j’adopte soit une approche expérimentale pour mesurer le coût en question, soit une approche design pour aider les internautes à le surmonter. J’évalue aussi l’effet de certains éléments de design de visualisation reconnus pour leurs qualités communicationnelles sur l’engagement des internautes à explorer des données.
... We used one static image, a panel of four static images, and an animated icon as competitors for videos (Figure 1), since images can be generated by importing photos from a camera, and animated icons are what some other systems use. Comparisons across visual modes in previous research were usually between icons and images or icons and animations [2], and the focus was on nouns or action verbs only [5]. ...
... We used one static image, a panel of four static images, and an animated icon as competitors for videos (Figure 1), since images can be generated by importing photos from a camera, and animated icons are what some other systems use. Comparisons across visual modes in previous research were usually between icons and images or icons and animations [2], and the focus was on nouns or action verbs only [5]. 2. VERB LIST, IMAGES, AND VIDEOS Focusing on AAC for daily life, we selected 48 verbs from the BNC according to frequency in spoken language such as conversations [7]. The initial 60 verbs came from sorting all verbs in different forms in frequency descending order. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Icons and digital images used in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are not as effective in illustrating verbs, especially for people with cognitive degeneration or impairment. Realistic videos have possible advantages for conveying verbs, as verified in our studies with young and old adults comparing single image, multiple images, animations, and video clips. Videos are especially more effective for verbs that show concrete movements or actions. Based on our studies, we propose rules for filming video verb representations, exploring possible visual cues and other factors that may affect people's perception and interpretation.
... Ronald Baecker later worked with the Human Interface Group at Apple(Baecker, et al. 1991). 11 See for exampleBaecker & Small (1990),Baecker et al. (1991),Chang & Ungar (1993),Thomas & Calder (1995),Gonzalez (1996),Jeamsinkul & Poggenpohl (2002), andPetersen & Nielsen (2002). ...
... Ronald Baecker later worked with the Human Interface Group at Apple(Baecker, et al. 1991). 11 See for exampleBaecker & Small (1990),Baecker et al. (1991),Chang & Ungar (1993),Thomas & Calder (1995),Gonzalez (1996),Jeamsinkul & Poggenpohl (2002), andPetersen & Nielsen (2002). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Samandrag Digitale produkt er ein stadig viktigare del av kulturen vår og er knytte til aktivitetar i arbeid, leik og fritid. Mange av desse aktivitetane skjer gjennom skjermbaserte grensesnitt, som dermed spelar ei viktig rolle i å aktivere og engasjere folk i deira daglege liv. Skjermbasert, visuell bevegelse er eit stadig meir framståande kjenneteikn ved mobiltelefonar, dataspel, operativsystem og nettsider. Denne avhandlinga presenterer 'kinetiske grensesnitt' som eit sentralt omgrep for å analysere skjermbaserte digitale produkt som er prega av visuell bevegelse. Av fleire konsept som er innførde for å forstå kinetiske grensesnitt, refererer 'navimasjon' til navigasjonshandlingar som er knytte saman med bevegelse. Skjermbaserte grensesnitt er konstruerte produkt, og må utformast av nokon. Design av grensesnitt spelar ei viktig rolle i å forme meiningar og aktivitetar som vert mogelege via digitale produkt. Det er underskot på designforsking og litteratur som tek føre seg kjenneteikna til kinetiske grensesnitt. Korleis kan vi forstå bruk av bevegelse i kinetiske grensesnitt, og kva er kjenneteikna og det kommunikative potensialet til slike grensesnitt? Korleis kan vi undersøke eit slikt fenomen som kontinuerleg er under utvikling, i og gjennom design? For å forstå desse nye mogelegheitene er det behov for studiar som fokuserer på det kinetiske grensesnittet som ein medierande og kulturell gjenstand i seg sjølv, og erkjenner at desse er situerte i sosiale og kulturelle kontekstar. Denne avhandlinga inneheld tre publiserte forskingstekstar, derav to rapporterer om mine eigne designeksperiment som er utført saman med ulike partnarar innan eit større forskingsprosjekt kalla RECORD. I tillegg er ein metarefleksjon ('kappe') lagt fram for å plassere og bygge vidare på desse publikasjonane. Ved å nytte 'forsking gjennom design' kombinerer studien tekstanalyse og tekstkonstruksjon gjennom eksperimentell designproduksjon. Nye analytiske omgrep og konsept er genererte ved å kombinere analyse og design; desse omgrepa er nødvendige både for å forstå og utforme kinetiske grensesnitt. Avhandlinga tek utgangspunkt i eit sosiokulturelt syn på design og analyse av grensesnitt, og nyttar sosialsemiotikk og omgrep frå aktivitetsteori. Dette synet understrekar verdien av det sosiale og kulturelle i menneskeleg aktivitet og meiningsskaping. Avhandlinga argumenterer for at kinetiske grensesnitt spelar fleire roller i moderne kultur og bruk, gjennom semiotisk mediering og instrumentell mediering. Grensesnitt er meiningsfulle og kulturelle gjenstandar som nyttar teikn eller semiotiske ressursar for å kommunisere gjennom utforming og bruk. Samtidig gjer dei det mogeleg å utføre aktivitetar og handlingar gjennom instrumentell mediering, på ein måte som liknar verktøy eller instrument. Eg kallar sambandet mellom desse rollene for dobbel mediering. Forholdet mellom instrumentell og semiotisk mediering er komplekst, og denne avhandlinga legg fram ein ny modell for å forstå det kinetiske grensesnittet som både verktøy og teikn. Dette synet er komplimentert med ei utgreiing om den dialogiske utvekslinga som skjer mellom brukarar og kinetiske grensesnitt, kalla dialogisk interaksjon. Det viktigaste bidraget til avhandlinga er ei rekke nye omgrep som er innførde for å analysere og konstruere kinetiske grensesnitt, for eksempel for sosiale media og surfing på Internett. Studien gjev kunnskap om kinetiske grensesnitt, og demonstrerer at det er mogeleg å konstruere teori og analytiske konsept ved å kombinere designeksperimentering og analyse. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Abstract Digital artefacts pervade culture and social life in work, play and leisure. Many of these activities are carried out through screen-based interfaces, which therefore take on an important role in enabling and engaging people in their daily life. Screen-based visual movement is increasingly a key characteristic of mobile phones, gaming platforms, operating systems and websites. This thesis presents `kinetic interface' as a key concept for analysing screen-based digital artefacts that are characterised by visual movement. Among several concepts introduced for understanding kinetic interfaces, `navimation' refers to actions of navigation that are intertwined with movement. Screen-based interfaces are constructed artefacts; they have to be designed by someone. Interface design plays an important role in shaping mediated human activity and enabling meaning making. There is a lack of design research and literature on the features of kinetic interfaces. How can we understand the employment of movement in kinetic interfaces, and what are the features and communicative potentials of such interfaces? How may we investigate such a phenomenon that is still emerging, in and through design? In order to understand these emerging potentials, there is a need for studies that focus on the kinetic interface as a mediating and cultural artefact in its own right, recognising its situatedness in social and cultural contexts. This thesis includes three published research texts, two of which report on my own design experiments carried out with business partners within a larger research project called RECORD. In addition, a meta-reflection is presented so as to situate and extend these publications. Taking a `research by design' approach, the study combines textual analysis with textual construction through experimental design production. New analytical concepts are generated by combining analysis and design; these are needed for understanding as well as designing kinetic interfaces. The thesis adopts a sociocultural view on the design and analytical study of interfaces, informed by social semiotics and concepts from activity theory. This view emphasises the importance of social and cultural contexts in human activity and meaning making. The thesis argues that kinetic interfaces play multiple roles in modern culture and use, in terms of semiotic mediation and instrumental mediation. Interfaces are meaningful and cultural artefacts that employ signs or semiotic resources to communicate through their design in use. At the same time they enable activities to be carried out through instrumental mediation, much like tools or instruments. I call these related aspects double mediation. The relationship between instrumental and semiotic mediation is complex; this thesis suggests a new model for understanding the kinetic interface as both tool and sign. This view is complimented with an account of the dialogic exchanges taking place between users and kinetic interfaces, referred to as dialogic interaction. The main contribution of the thesis is a range of concepts that are introduced for analysing and constructing kinetic interfaces, for example in web browsing and social media. The study builds knowledge of kinetic interfaces, and demonstrates the possibility of constructing theory and concepts through design experimentation coupled with analysis.
... "Ideally, the meaning of an icon should be obvious to experienced users of a system, and also be evocative and self-evident to new users." [10] Icons were introduced into computer interfaces to represent data and functionality [111, page 22] enable a better recall of commands and to communicate a relatively large amount of information to the user in a compact form [76]. Unlike textual information, there are no clear rules or conventions in icon design, which means that they may be subject to misinterpretation or ambiguity. This could be a particular problem for older computer users if symbolic icons are used and not accompanied by additional verbal information, since recall is more difficult without the presence of cues [57,108]. ...
... Adding an attachment to a message "Do I drag this?" (Pointing to image on desktop) 10 Writing the body of a message "Touch here?" (Referring to body of message) Table 6.10: ...
Thesis
Improving computer interaction for older computer users.
... Several studies by Backer et al. investigating tutorials for application software support the thesis that dynamic visual representation is better than traditional static text [5,6]. Additionally, studies by Harrison indicate that visual online help is more effective than non-visualized texts and that written help is preferred over spoken instructions [9]. ...
... All participants were allowed to abort the experiment at any time if they wished but no participant used this opportunity. experiment planning 6 3.3 Procedure Figure 2 provides an overview of the procedure in our study. The actual steps where participants use tutorials are highlighted in light gray. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tutorials for software developers are supposed to help them to adapt to new tools quickly. While in the early days of computing, mostly text tutorials were available, nowadays software developers can choose among a huge number of tutorials for almost any popular software tool. However, almost no research was conducted to understand how text tutorials differ from other tutorials, which tutorial types are preferred and, especially, which tutorial types yield the best learning experience in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. To evaluate these questions, we converted a “proven” video tutorial for a novel software tool into a content-equivalent text tutorial. We then conducted an experiment in three groups where 42 undergraduate students from a software engineering course were commissioned to operate the software tool after using a tutorial: the first group was provided only with the video tutorial, the second group only with the text tutorial and the third group with both. Surprisingly, the differences in terms of efficiency are almost negligible: we could observe that participants using only the text tutorial completed the tutorial faster than the participants with the video tutorial. However, the participants using only the video tutorial applied the learned content faster, achieving roughly the same bottom line performance. We also found that if both tutorial types are offered, participants clearly prefer video tutorials for learning new content but text tutorials for looking up “missed” information. So while it would be ideal if software tool makers would offer both tutorial types, we think that it is more efficient to produce only text tutorials – provided you manage to motivate developers to use them.
... A few research studies report the benefits of implementing animation in software user interfaces [5][6][7][8]. The two main ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the effects of animation on usability and appeal of educational software user interfaces. Specifically, the study compares 3 interfaces developed for the Mathsigner™ program: a static interface, an interface with highlighting/sound feedback, and an interface that incorporates five Disney animation principles. The main objectives of the comparative study were to: (1) determine which interface is the most effective for the target users of Mathsigner™ (e.g., children ages 5-11), and (2) identify any Gender and Age differences in using the three interfaces. To accomplish these goals we have designed an experiment consisting of a cognitive walkthrough and a survey with rating questions. Sixteen children ages 7-11 participated in the study, ten males and six females. Results showed no significant interface effect on user task performance (e.g., task completion time and number of errors); however, interface differences were seen in rating of appeal, with the animated interface rated more 'likeable' than the other two. Task performance and rating of appeal were not affected significantly by Gender or Age of the subjects. Keywords—Animation, Animated interfaces, Educational Software, Human Computer Interaction, Multimedia.
... • Enriching graphical representations: Some types of information are easier to visualize with movement. Baecker, Small, and Mander reported in an experiment in [63] that the comprehension of a set of icons increased from sixty two percent to one hundred percent by animating them. It is important that the icons are only animated when the user indicated a special interest in it (for example by placing the mouse over them). ...
... For, while a book or painting is surely static, an image that is generated by a computer on a graphics display is " permanent " only until it is erased or replaced by another (or, in the extreme case, until t.he machine is shut off). Baecker et al. have recently demonstrated a system in which icons become animated to help users understand their meanings [9]; Laurel et al. have developed another in which icons become more and more agitated as they vie for the user's attention [lo]. In contrast , certain sounds-the humming of an air conditioner or of a disk drive-remain unchanging for such long periods that they can surely be considered steady-state rather than transient, for all practical purposes. ...
... " [9]. Animation has been applied in user interface [17,26], data visualization [16,22,23], algorithm animation [30] and software visualization [6,32] areas. It is used to emphasize change, or to interpret a complex idea or relationship. ...
Article
ABSTRACT There are many software visualization tools available today to help software engineers to explore software systems. However, when a system is huge, some of these tools do not satisfy the exploration requirements. The big problem is that the techniques the tools use do not provide an effective display and access mechanism,to handle huge information spaces within the limitations imposed,by available screen space. To alleviate the problem, this thesis describes methods that help users to explore huge
... Other animation effects such as flashing borders and title bars can focus the user's attention on a specific window. Animated icons, such as those described in Baecker, Small, and Mander (1991), also provide important state information to a user (e.g., progress indicators such as an hourglass with sand pouring through it or examples of an objects' behaviour). It is likely that animation will play a more important role in the future in helping the user integrate changing views of an information space displayed in a given window. ...
... One way to make tools more comprehensible is to simulate their behavior. Baecker, Small, and Mander [2] showed that such a simulation makes the tools in HYPERCARD easier to use. Decomposing the task into manageable elements is an important step in the solution process. ...
... The notion of animated icons is not in itself innovative. Previous research has shown that the use of animation in icons can to increase the usefulness of icons in terms of clarification and ease of use [1, 2, 3] for mainstream users, but new applications of animation in the user interface may benefit the visually impaired population as well. ...
Article
Icons are commonplace in Graphical User Interfaces. These same components that are intended to make computers easy to use can make technology difficult to access for the visually impaired. Eliminating icons would be unrealistic, but re-examining icons is a starting point in increasing accessibility in GUIs. A project is underway where animation is being added to icons in order to assist visually impaired users who wish to access computing resources. Initially animated icons were not shown to be superior to static icons in terms of the size needed to identify them. This paper will present the analysis of some factors that influenced the results. The extent of the motion in the icons and the visual profile of the participants themselves contributed to the ability to identify animated icons. These insights will assist interface designers in developing more accessible Graphical User Interfaces.
... The WIMP interfaces of the 80's will give way to multi-modal, multi-media dialogues aided by quasi-intelligent programmed agents (Laurel, 1990b). Although reality will not quite match the fantasy of the Knowledge Navigator (Apple, 1988), the quality of the interface will change through the use of handwritten input, gestural input, audio input and output, animation (Baecker and Small, 1990; Baecker, Small, and Mander, 1991), and live and recorded video (CACM, 1989), and through ready access to gigabyte data bases such as research compendia and encyclopedias. The naturalness of direct manipulation will be augmented with the power of simple filing and retrieval agents that will scan data bases, digital archives, and electronic news sources. ...
Article
This paper and the accompanying invited talk focus on new paradigms for computing in the nineties, with emphasis on computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). We define CSCW as computer-assisted coor-dinated activity such as communication and problem solving carried out by a group of collaborating individ-uals. CSCW represents a paradigm shift for computer science, one in which human-human rather than human-machine communications and problem solving are emphasized. This paper describes the nature of work in CSCW, sketches the history of the field, and formulates some issues that are important to ensure progress and future success.
... By re-examining the GUI, the interface components themselves can be redesigned and updated to provide more access to computers by the partially sighted. In particular the animation of icons will be examined, as animation has been shown to increase the usefulness c£ icons in terms of clarification and ease of use [1, 2, 6]. ...
Article
Universal access to information is critical for universal participation in society. The Graphical User Interface is a mainstream means for accessing the computing resources needed to access information. These interfaces have become challenging to the visually impaired. Many partially sighted individuals posses residual vision. While the enlargement of screen content is important, enlargement alone will not address all of issues involving the utilization of GUIs. While icons are generally useful, animation increases the usefulness of the icons. The sizes of static and animated icons are compared in order to ascertain the impact of animation on icon size. INTRODUCTION Universal access to the dynamic information resources that have become a part of society, business, and education is vital for all citizens. The visually impaired, specifically the legally blind, are a significant and diverse population who is among those who need to access computing resources to participate in and be productive in society.
... These non human-like faceless visual indications are the product of animated cycles. Animation has shown importance in relation to user perception of dynamic relations [7] and understanding of functionality [1]. The cycles are functions of ghost identities and current capacities. ...
Article
This paper describes an interface for disembodied, location-specific conversational agents (DELCA) called 'Ghosts'. The design includes conversation dialogue and a novel, non-intrusive minimal dynamic visualization. The paper presents two discrete visualizations Ghost Wake and Animated Ghost Icons (AGI), which make use of the temporal dimension to increase spatial resolution. The paper argues that design for ambient intelligence must strive for a balance between visibility and non-intrusiveness.
... There is some specific research on the selection of icons for children's interfaces. Uden and Dix [12] and Baecker et al [13] both suggest that children prefer animated icons, and it is the case that animated icons can offer more information. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes how the design of a novel writing interface for children was informed by requirements gathering. The derivation of a set of system requirements from observations of children using early prototypes of the interface and from modelling the system is described, and then two methods of gathering further requirements by surveying children are outlined. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The children were not able to contribute to the full range of requirements necessary for a complete system, but they contributed fun requirements that the observational work failed to identify. A model of the child's relationship to interactive systems is used to discuss why this is the case.
... animazioni (Baecker, Small e Mander, 1991) o il suono (Gaver W., 1986;Blattner, Sumikawa, e Greenberg, 1989;Gaver B., 1993). La modalità di azione sugli oggetti si sta velocemente modificando verso una maggiore naturalezza. ...
... In an extension of such modal representations, Henry et al. have described the use of multi-dimensional icons as a means of increasing the density of information presented in iconic models[173].In this case, the possible combinations of modal components are greatly increased through the provision of multiple viewing perspectives for a single icon. Similarly, Baecker et al. and Ludi et al. have reported on the use of animated icons to allow for increasedinformation density within a presentation model[174,175]. Within the biomedical domain, these types of icons are ideally suited for scenarios such as adverse event monitoring in multi-site or investigator clinical trials, where high-density information would be optimally presented via a single interface. In such instances, the provision of all possible multi-modal components relating to the various incoming data streams could lead to reduced usability. ...
... Moving icons (animated icons) are simple gif animations with a little motion to spice up web pages or operating systems' GUI, e.g. a cauldron bubbles, a book pages turn, a letter flies to a mail box. The term MICONs (moving/animated icons) was first coined by Russell Sassnet (1986), and then Baecker (Baecker et al. 1991) made some initial steps in language animation with the idea of 'micons'. He used a set of atomic micons to describe a set of primitives (objects and events) and developed a general purpose graphical language, CD-Icon, based on Schank's CD (as discussed in section 2.1.4). ...
... The notion of animated icons is not in itself innovative. Previous research has shown that the use of animation in icons can to increase the usefulness of icons in terms of clarification and ease of use [1,2,3] for mainstream users, but new applications of animation in the user interface may benefit the visually impaired population as well. ...
... • As interfaces devem fazer uso de ícones visuais intuitivos e animados de modo a transmitirem mais informação do que uma imagem estática [2,19]. ...
... When considering the specific testing designs for our experiment, we also took into account industry design standards for the ''conventional usages'' suggested by Norman (2002). For the affordance design in interactive InfoVis systems, we could specifically identify six common affordance types (Anwar et al. 2015;Baecker et al. 1991;Buxton 1990;Harrison et al. 2011;Tang et al. 2011) that are also used in interactive information visualizations: ...
Article
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Given the thriving of information visualization systems, rich interactivity is expected and essential for users to acquire further and insightful information. Mouseover has been widely used to hint interactivity or details about the hovered elements. However, in a mouseover-click visualization system we designed based on a hierarchical Sankey diagram, we have observed that a mouseover effect interfered users from clicking items and hence reduced the efficacy of the interaction and hid the information in the next levels. This paper examined this situation and studied the effectiveness of different mouseover hints on affordance for inviting clicks. We identified four types of perceived affordances and created seven designs, adopting Mechanical Turk to measure the effectiveness. Results showed that five out of the seven designs significantly improved users’ click-through rate, whereas more than 60% of users failed to click the hovered elements for revealing the next level of information without proper affordance hints, even after they brushed over these elements for multiple times. By comparing the performance of different designs, we proposed guidelines that support the reliability and motivate the interactivity of visualization design. Graphic Abstract Open image in new window
... Other study (Horton, 1994), focuses on user characteristics (e.g., user intelligence, experience and cultural background) and in the domain in which the icon is found (e.g., User interface, mobile device, functions) as factors that influence icon usability. Similarly, there are a few other studies which explore the overall effects on icon usability of some of these characteristics, for example, animation (Baecker et al., 1991) and spacing and size (Lindberg and Näsänen, 2003). While most of these works are related to the physical characteristics, less is done on other aspects of icons characteristics and its effect on users' perception. ...
... For instance, MiME [18] suggests mid-air static hand postures by highlighting a shape similar to the posture within the command names or icons. Animated icons have also been designed to more explicitly convey the meaning of a command by previewing its result [5], and to demonstrate how to perform a complex task [8]. FatFont [30], though less related, is a worth mentioning clever example of spaceoptimized font (digits only), where the amount of dark pixels in a numeral character is proportional to the number it represents and where multi digits numbers are nested so that every number occupies the same visual space as a single digit. ...
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We propose a novel perspective on the design of toolbar buttons that aims to increase keyboard shortcut accessibility. IconHK implements this perspective by blending visual cues that convey keyboard shortcut information into toolbar buttons without denaturing the pictorial representation of their command. We introduce three design strategies to embed the hotkey, a visual encoding to convey the modifiers, and a magnification factor that determines the blending ratio between the pictogram of the button and the visual representation of the keyboard shortcut. Two studies examine the benefits of IconHK for end-users and provide insights from professional designers on the practicality of our approach for creating iconsets. Building on these insights, we develop a tool to assist designers in applying the IconHK design principle.
... The abovementioned studies focused on the design of static icons, and only a few studies have considered dynamic icons, which either changed icon backgrounds (Baecker, Small, & Mander, 1991) or added text hints when the mouse was within the icon (Alpert, 1991). Practical interaction usually involves multiple GUI elements (other than icons) and associated operations in the whole display (other than the icon area), however, which are usually covered in metaphors. ...
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... This is indicated by (2). Pressing on "MENU" in state (3) causes the interface to return to state (1). Again the transition between is animated as indicated by (2). ...
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