Conference Paper

Reflecting on Design Practice: Exploring Video Documentary of Designers in Action.

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Abstract

In 1945 Vannevar Bushs As We May Think envisioned a future of networked media that would create new relationships among people, their ideas and their activities. In the ensuing years much of our world has been shaped by this vision. This talk will cover ...

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... There are a wide variety of methods and technologies used for data collection and analysis. These range from interview techniques [1] to protocol [19] or video analysis [20]. Indeed there is often a large variation in the implementation of techniques with no accepted standard for controlling variables within an experiment. ...
... It is hard to unambiguously show that one set of results is superior to competing sets or that any one test shows some form of universal truth. Comparing the different approaches used in two separate tests both studying the same area [2] [20] gives an example of this problem. ...
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Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally the paper concludes with a possible scheme for the implementation process required for such a solution and the roles to be played by a Design Observatory approach.
... Moreover, Brandt and Grunnet introduce props in prototyping as both 'things to think with' and 'things to act with' in their effort to transcend current practice (Brandt and Grunnet 2000: 1). Similarly, Buur et al. (2000) present video as a design material where they use improvised video scenarios as 'a collaborative inquiry into ''what might be''' and thus create a shared narrative of a possible future to be negotiated and reified between the participants. Buchenau and Suri (2000) present the concept of experience prototyping for 'understanding existing experiences, exploring design ideas and in communicating design concepts' through enactment, role-playing and hands-on experiences with design materials to answer questions such as 'what would it feel like if . . ...
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When we stage participatory prototyping, we arrange constraints and possibilities and envision a place of co-creation for designers and users. We argue that the activity of participatory prototyping can benefit from unfolding in imaginative places that are radically distant from the places of current practice. Our work with participatory prototyping indicates that a radicalisation towards an imaginative place of co-creation provides participants with an extended space for imagining future practices. Departing from the Scandinavian participatory prototyping heritage, our research is an inquiry into staging the places of participatory prototyping. Staging imaginative places is carried out by a careful selection and coordination of anchoring elements that maintain references to current practice and elements of transcendence that afford the imaginative place. As such, we supplement the qualities of the prototype and the process of prototyping with a concern for the place in which prototyping unfolds. We present two cases of participatory prototyping sessions that outline our work with staging imaginative places for participatory prototyping.
... The primary source of data from the workshop was the video obtained from the preparation and broadcast. Several methods have been proposed for applying video data within the context of design [15,4,5]. In [14] Iversen discusses how video may be used when designing with children. ...
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In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children. KEYWORDS Design method, Mission from Mars method, eBag, requirements for new technology, shared narrative space, participatory design.
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This thesis explores the integration of work practice and system design in deliberating upon how to increase the sensitivity of system design towards everyday work practice. The attempt to make work practice visible and intelligible for system design necessarily relates to two very different bodies of knowledge: the actual work activities and knowledge of practitioners, and what is considered relevant information for requirements analysis in system design. The strategy of this work comprises the integration of ethnographically informed study of work practice and participatory design by drawing on the longitudinal fieldwork of studying technologically mediated radiology work and promoting work practice based participatory design interventions into technology projects in the clinic of radiology. The adopted theoretical attitude of interweaving construction and reconstruction necessitates questioning and reconfiguring some of the taken-for-granted assumptions of disciplinary dichotomies and conventional frames of reference both with regard to ethnographic traditions focused on current practices as well as technology-centered and future-oriented system design. Radiology, with its ongoing and complex transition from film-based to digitally mediated work, has provided the concrete setting for thinking about the relations between researcher, designer and work practice practitioner in an attempt to find ways in which to sensitise system design towards everyday work practice. Establishing the relevance between ethnographic findings of work and design specifications requires a reformulation of work practice that appreciates the everyday fluency of work practice and recognises the endogenous change for the needs of system design. The possibilities of extending the multi-voiced expertise prevalent in participatory design with an explicit interest on emic-etic views and knowledges inherent within ethnographic traditions is explored through reflecting on the changing researcher knowledge and location. The reflections are also used in developing a tool for work practice oriented participatory design and in constructing the role of participant interventionist. Through mutual exploration and constructive collaboration of ethnographic and participatory design traditions as well as scrutiny of actual design sessions, the dimensions of analytic distance, horizon of work practice transformations and situated generalisation are put forward as general interactions of work practice sensitive participatory design.
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In this paper we focus on events where collaborating parties get together to further the design work, and on how these events get staged in time and space. Our concern is the micro-organization of time and space, which we find is poorly explored in the literature on product development. We open the paper by provisionally placing this concern within the debate on engineering design and product development. We argue that seeing the process of product development as a chain of events, each propelling the design work—and deliberately designing such events, with a clear focus on space, time, and “rules of the game”—offers a promising perspective on concurrent engineering. With this as the starting point we report on the findings from a “walk-through” examination of the use of space in the R&D departments at the Danish company Danfoss. Moving from descriptive exploration to action research, we then present and discuss how we have taken part in developing what we believe to be supportive spatial and temporal environments for product development at two companies, Danfoss in Denmark and Xerox in the U.S. We end the paper by summing up what kinds of staging of events appear to be particularly productive for facilitating collaborative design.
E: Taking Video beyond 'Hard Data' in User Centred Design, proposed for Participatory Design Conference
  • J Buur
  • T Binder
  • Brandt