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The e-Learning Readiness of Teachers in Hong Kong.



There is a common understanding that the twenty-first century will be a more globalized and knowledge-based era. In response to this rapid change, Hong Kong is trying to transform itself into an information society. A lot of education reforms were implemented in schools in the past few years. Having learnt the lesson from the first IT plan (1998 - 2003), the Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) released its second Information Technology strategic plan, focusing on the real change of pedagogy, the promotion of life-long learning and e-learning, the use of wireless technology as the extension of the existing wired network, and the new roles of parents as well as students in the life-long learning environment. This research aims at studying readiness of Hong Kong teachers regarding e-learning. Results indicate that teachers in Hong Kong are not very prepared to use e-learning technologies for teaching and learning. There are differences in readiness perceived between male and females, secondary school teachers and primary school teachers, and teachers of different secondary schools of different bandings.
The e-Learning Readiness of Teachers in Hong Kong
Koon Keung Teddy So
The University of Hong Kong
There is a common understanding that the twenty-
first century will be a more globalized and knowledge-
based era. In response to this rapid change, Hong
Kong is trying to transform itself into an information
society. A lot of education reforms were implemented
in schools in the past few years. Having learnt the
lesson from the first IT plan (1998 - 2003), the
Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) released its
second Information Technology strategic plan,
focusing on the real change of pedagogy, the
promotion of life-long learning and e-learning, the use
of wireless technology as the extension of the existing
wired network, and the new roles of parents as well as
students in the life-long learning environment. This
research aims at studying readiness of Hong Kong
teachers regarding e-learning. Results indicate that
teachers in Hong Kong are not very prepared to use e-
learning technologies for teaching and learning. There
are differences in readiness perceived between male
and females, secondary school teachers and primary
school teachers, and teachers of different secondary
schools of different bandings.
1. Introduction
With the support of new communication technologies,
there is a common understanding that the twenty-first
century will be a more globalized and knowledge-
based era, when knowledge is treated as a commodity.
In response to this rapid change, Hong Kong is trying
to transform itself into an information society. A lot of
education reforms were implemented to our schools so
as to equip young people to take the challenge in the
past few years. We had our very first five-year
Information Technology strategic plan implemented in
all primary and secondary schools from 1998 to 2003.
In July 2004, the Education and Manpower Bureau
(EMB) released its second Information Technology
strategic plan, focusing on the change of pedagogy, the
promotion of life-long learning and e-learning, the use
of wireless technology as the extension of the existing
wired network, and the new roles of parents as well as
students in the life-long learning environment.
According to the report prepared by both IBM and the
Economist in 2003, the overall ranking of e-learning
readiness of Hong Kong is 19th of out 60 countries
around the world (The Economist & IBM, 2003). One
of the important factors influencing the success of e-
learning is teacher training. As the way to deliver the
online curriculum is new and different from the
traditional one, instructors must be trained to make use
of this state-of-the-art educational tool. “An ineffective
teacher can waste the time of 30 or 40 students. But
bad teaching online can touch thousands. ‘We can
create mass damage quickly.’” (The Economist &
IBM, 2003; p. 12)
As the readiness of teachers to use the new
technology is critical to the success of implementing e-
learning in schools, it is worthy to investigate if they
are prepared to embrace the new technologies in their
teaching and learning activities. The purpose of this
research is thus to find out how ready the teachers of
secondary and primary schools are to use the new
technologies, and what factors are influencing their
readiness. It is hoped that the experience gained from
this research is beneficial to other countries exploring
the use of e-learning technology in new teaching and
learning activities.
2. Literature Review
e-Learning readiness assessment helps an
organization to design e-learning strategies
comprehensively and to implement its ICT goals
effectively (Kaur, 2004). Learners must be “e-ready”
so that a coherent achievable strategy that is tailored to
meet their needs may be implemented (infodev, 2001).
In other words, this readiness assessment provides key
Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’05)
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information to organizations to supply solutions that
can cater to the specific needs of each learning group
(McConnell International, 2000).
Chapnick designed a model for measuring the e-
learning readiness of an organization in eight
categories: psychological readiness, sociological
readiness, environmental readiness, human resource
readiness, financial readiness, technological skill
(aptitude) readiness, equipment readiness, and content
readiness. The Ministry of Education of Singapore
found that this model is especially useful for principals
and heads of departments who intend to start e-
learning in the school (MOE, 2004). However, the
model does not fully fit the school environment. With
reference to Chapnick’s model, Kaur and Abas (2004)
designed a model for measuring the e-learning
readiness of the Open University Malaysia. The model
consists of eight constructs: learner, management,
personnel, content, technical, environmental, cultural
and financial readiness.
3. Methodology
This research adopted a survey method to study
Hong Kong teachers’ readiness for e-learning. A Five-
point Likert scale (5 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly
disagree) questionnaire was sent to 200 teachers of
secondary and primary schools. 148 were completed
and returned. 131 of them were valid. The return rate is
65.5%. Descriptive statistics and One-way ANOVA
test were applied to analyze the data.
4. Data Findings and Discussion
Results show that there are differences in readiness
perceived between male and females, secondary school
teachers and primary school teachers, and secondary
school teachers in different school bandings. The
results of this study are summarized in tables 1 and 2.
It is worthy to notice that in many aspects the
primary school teachers have significant different
perceptions when compared from those in secondary
school teachers. Although officially the amount of IT
training in terms of time and opportunity offered to
both primary and secondary school teachers from the
Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) is the same,
the primary teachers still consider themselves know
less about what e-learning is. Furthermore, they are not
just less confidence about themselves, in perceiving
the abilities of their students, they also feel that the
primary students do not have enough IT competencies
to use e-learning technologies.
Moreover, their confidence in their principals’
understanding and support of using e-learning in
teaching and learning is not as high as the secondary
school teachers. It can be originated from the
comparatively shorter history of having computers in
primary schools. In Hong Kong the secondary schools
had to teach computer studies as a subject since 1982.
Culture and confidence in using / operating computers
gradually has been developing in secondary schools
for more than twenty years. Most of the secondary
school teachers are university graduates who might
have experiences of using computers during their
university studies.
Not until 1998, the year when the first IT strategic
plan in education was launched, the primary schools in
Hong Kong did not have any computers. As a result, in
general, primary teachers as well as their principals
have only five to six years’ time to learn how to
operate computer, to try integrating IT into their
teaching, and even less time to explore the use of e-
learning. Moreover, most of the primary school
teachers were diploma graduates and they did not have
many chances of using computers in their pre-service
training. This might explain the phenomenon why the
primary teachers do not have much confidence in their
principals and themselves in using e-learning
technologies as the secondary school teachers.
The issue of accessibility is always been a problem
in different countries. According to the latest statistic
from EMB (2004), the average numbers of computers
installed in primary and secondary schools in Hong
Kong are 97 and 247 respectively. The computer to
student ratios of primary and secondary schools are
about 1:9 and 1:5 respectively. Hence accessing
computers is a bigger problem to primary pupils.
Although nowadays there are many public terminals in
many places open to all users, the young primary
pupils are considered too young to go around by
themselves. From the Asian point of views, young kids
should either stay at school or at home. As a result,
their accessibilities are further restricted.
Gender difference is always a controversial topic.
Some research found that there is a gender difference
while some did not. This research found that there is a
gender difference between male and female Hong
Kong teachers. In all three questions “I know what e-
learning is”, “I am ready for integrating e-learning in
my teaching”, and “I have enough IT competency to
Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’05)
0-7695-2338-2/05 $20.00 © 2005 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: Hebrew University. Downloaded on January 08,2022 at 21:15:18 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
prepare the e-learning materials”, male teachers show
higher confidence than the female teachers, although
they received equal amount of IT training from the
5. Conclusion
Although huge resources has been poured into the
IT in education planning, schools in Hong Kong are
still at the initial stage of employing e-learning in their
daily teaching and learning activities. It is necessary to
conduct a needs assessment in full scale before any e-
learning program is actually launched.
6. References
[1] Chapnick, S. (2000). Are You Ready for E-Learning?
Retrieved on Dec. 19, 2004 from
[2] Education and Manpower Bureau (2004). Empowering
Learning and Teaching with Information Technology.
[3] infoDev (2001). E-Readiness as a Tool for ICT
Development. Retrieved on Feb. 24, 2005 from
[4] Kaur, K. and Abas, Z. (2004). An Assessment of e-
Learning Readiness at the Open University Malaysia.
International Conference on Computers in Education
(ICCE2004), Melbourne, Australia.
[5] McConnell International LLC. (2000). Risk E-Business:
Seizing the Opportunity of Global E-Readiness Report.
Retrieved on Feb. 24, 2005 from
[6] Ministry of Education. Are you ready for e-learning?
Retrieved on Dec. 19, 2004 from
[7] The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited and IBM
(2003). The 2003 e-Learning Readiness Rankings: A White
Paper from the Economist Intelligence Unit 2003. Retrieved
on Dec. 19, 2004 from http://
Gender N Mean Std. Deviation F value Significance
My principal / senior management
know what e-learning is
4.010 .048
The IT infrastructure in my school
can support e-learning
3.947 .049
My school has a culture of
sharing and team work
4.257 .042
I know what e-learning is Male
6.898 .010
I am ready for integrating e-
learning in my teaching
4.355 .039
I have enough IT competency to
prepare the e-learning materials
6.632 .011
Table 1: e-Learning Readiness of Male vs. Female Teachers
Type N Mean Std. Deviation F value Significance
My principal / senior management
know what e-learning is
4.668 .033
My principal / senior management
support the use of e-learning
4.100 .045
I know what e-learning is Primary
4.333 .039
My students have enough IT skills
to use e-learning technologies
9.710 .002
Assess to web is not a problem to
my students
12.924 .000
Table 2: e-Learning Readiness of Primary School Teachers vs. Secondary School Teachers
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Owing to the coronavirus outbreak, face-to-face educational activities have been curtailed and there has been a rapid switch to e-learning environments. It is a matter of critical importance; therefore, how ready teachers are for this transition. This study presents a snapshot of the readiness of Turkey's in-service teachers for teaching online. Some 555 teachers, from pre-school to high school, participated in the study. The results indicated a medium-level of e-learning readiness and a pressing need for the appropriate training. Teachers' readiness differed significantly according to gender, major, school-type, professional experience, teaching level, e-learning experience and Internet usage.
The mobile initiative is changing education and social life worldwide. The question is how to offer the same user-friendly, aesthetically pleasing mobile learning courses on different mobile devices. Developing effective web sites courses and content isn't only about creating a course with solid material. Managers and course authors are concerned about adapting different courses to a variety of learning styles and individual needs and keeping users interested and engaged. A good place to start is to organize thoughts and figure out exactly what is wanted to be included in the web sites course. Responsive design gives the ability to create a single m-learning course that automatically adapts to any browser or device. This allows the target audience to benefit from the courses without having to worry about screen size and resolution. In this chapter, m-learning is discussed in a responsive design context that can be used across platforms and offers the design of courses according to m-learning instructional strategies.
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Çevrimiçi öğrenme gelişen genel ağ teknolojileri ile birlikte günümüz eğitim süre-cinde giderek önem kazanmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı Hung (2016) tarafın-dan geliştirilen Çevrimiçi Öğrenmede Öğretmen Hazırbulunuşluğu Ölçeğini (Teacher Readiness for Online Learning Measure-[TROLM]) Türkçeye uyarlamak ve geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması sonuçlarını ortaya koymaktır. Araştırma 96 öğretmenin katılımı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliği çalışmaları için açımlayıcı faktör analizi ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi yapılmış, güvenirlik çalışmaları için ise iç tutarlılık kat-sayısı hesaplanmıştır. Öz-düzenleyici öğrenme, kurumsal destek, iletişim öz-yeterliği, öğrendiğini aktarma öz-yeterliği olmak üzere dört faktörden oluşan 18 maddelik öl-çeğe ilişkin modelin doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda mükemmel uyum gösterdi-ği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Güvenirlik çalışması sonucunda ölçeğin iç tutarlılığının iyi; alt boyutlarının iç tutarlığının ise iyi ve kabul edilebilir düzeyde olduğu görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak, gerçekleştirilen analizler söz konusu ölçeğin Türkçe formunun geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermiştir. Çevrimiçi Öğrenmede Öğretmen Hazırbulunuşluğu Ölçeğinin birer öğrenen rolüyle öğretmenlerin çevrimiçi öğrenmeye hazırbulunuşluklarını ölçmek ve ilgili faktörler hakkında veri toplanması amacıyla kul-lanılabileceği düşünülmektedir.
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An e-learning needs assessment is designed to answer these questions: Can we do this? If we can do this, how the heck are we going to? What are the outcomes and how do we measure them? Here's a model that can help with one part of the assessment process--determining your e-learning readiness. Many training and development professionals receive negative responses from clients and managers upon hearing the term needs assessment. Many others, including myself, have noticed that such terminology substitutions as "organizational diagnosis" or "determining goals" make the "maybe we should step back and see what's really going on here before we implement the solution" discussion go much more smoothly. It would be a mistake to assume this backlash is merely a jargon battle. A traditional needs assessment, which is defined as a process for determining the gap between what learners know and what they need to know, may result in the creation of excellent training. However, in today's dynamic workplace, and given the proliferation of new high-tech education tools (you know, e-learning), focusing exclusively on creating excellent training is missing the mark.
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Virtual Schooling (VS) for secondary students using distance technologies has increased rapidly with the growth of online learning, including e-learning in New Zealand schools. Although VS requires a special set of teaching methods, teacher education programmes rarely include this new mode of schooling. Even less has been offered in terms of field experience. This paper describes a pilot virtual field experience that enabled future teachers to observe how an exemplary VS teacher taught her course using blended technologies in the USA. Future teachers' reflections revealed that they had overcome misperceptions in coming to the realisation that VS brought education into more learners' spaces and places.
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E-learning readiness is an important part of distance education as it is conceivably related to the success of e-learning initiatives. Policy makers and regulatory bodies have to be cognizant of the degree of e-readiness of a populace in order to design and implement efficient e-learning programmes. This paper reports on a study that was carried out to determine the e-readiness of a group of Open University Malaysia receivers (learners) and enablers (tutors) to provide significant information to the respective teaching-learning community. Data were gathered with the use of the e-learning Readiness Research Tool from a sample of 93 receivers and 35 enablers. The findings related to learner readiness are discussed in this paper.
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Today, e-learning is a common delivery media for education and training within many organizations. Yet, while both the supply and demand for e-learning opportunities has risen in recent years, many professionals are beginning to question whether e-learn-ers are prepared to be successful in an online learning environment (e.g., Gug-lielmino & Guglielmino, 2003; Watkins & Corry, 2005). After all, a learner's demonstrated success in a conventional education and training classroom may not be an adequate predictor of success in an e-learning classroom.One way of gauging a potential online learner's readiness is through self-assessment. As a first step in defining an instrument that measures an e-learner's readiness, with the cooperation of volunteer participants from the U.S. Coast Guard, this study looked into the validity and internal consistency of items within a self-assessment of e-learning readiness that is under development, and provided data for the continuing development and revision of the instrument. Having demonstrated evidence of internal consistency and construct validity, the self-assessment now provides a tool for continuing research into the prediction of e-learning performance.Funding for this study was provided by the International Society for Performance Improvement.
Conference Paper
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A national study in Australia in the late 1990s explored barriers to the adoption and reuse of computer-facilitated learning (CFL) in Australian universities. These barriers will be summarized. One of these barriers is that it is hard to find information on courseware that is educationally sound; usually such courseware is expensive to produce and so reuse is especially desirable. However, even when information and access to electronic courseware exists, reuse may still not occur. Two cases will be described to illustrate the complexity of reuse. These cases are: 1) a collection of 169 plastic surgery websites; and 2) an international consortium of veterinary microbiology resources based on a well-evaluated case study design. Some strategies for improving reuse are suggested.
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This paper reports and reflects upon the observed behaviours of teachers during the conduct of a large-scale telecommunications project. While teacher behaviours were not the focus of the project, they quickly became an exogenous force on the environment which could not be ignored. This paper is drawn from field notes which revealed a pattern of success and frustration, of adaptation and avoidance as those concerned dealt with the subjective and logistical changes in their lives and in their teaching practice. The story told here is about the complexity of change, and the struggles faced by individuals in coming to terms personally and professionally with externally-imposed change.
Teachers' computer acceptance is an important factor to the successful use of computers in education. This article explores the gender differences in teacher computer acceptance. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the framework to determine if such differences are present. Survey questionnaires were administered to 186 preservice teachers, the questionnaire consists of two independent variables (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use), together with the dependent variable (intention to use). The results of model testing using LISREL indicated that the two independent variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, directly affect the intention to computer use as stated in the TAM. Furthermore, significant gender differences in computer acceptance were also found: (a) perceived usefulness will influence intention to use computers more strongly for females than males, (b) perceived ease of use will influence intention to use computers more strongly for females than males, and (c) perceived ease of use will influence perceived usefulness more strongly for males than females. Impacts and implications to teacher professional development are also discussed.
Now, the bad news: while new digital technologies make a learning revolution possible, they certainly do not guarantee it. Early results are not encouraging. In most places where new tech-nologies are being used in education today, the technologies are used simply to reinforce outmoded approaches to learning. Even as scientific and technological advances are transforming agricul-ture, medicine, and industry, ideas about and approaches to teaching and learning remain largely unchanged.
This paper examines how Hong Kong has developed from a diglossic society, where the relationship between English and Chinese were largely in complementary distribution to each other, into a bilingual society, where there is a proliferation of mixed codes, involving a continuum of language use from "high" Cantonese and English to "low" Cantonese with code switching. Against this background, the Government's recently promulgated mandatory language policy on the medium of instruction in secondary schools is examined. Though the obvious purpose of this policy is to improve the credibility and prestige of mother tongue education, it has the effect of creating a set of elite monolingual English medium schools. Whether these will be able to fully serve the needs of a bilingual society is discussed, especially as Putonghua and High Cantonese are increasingly used in the domains of government and higher education, and a variety of mixed codes and modes used in other social and domestic domains. The paper concludes with a preliminary examination into possible directions in research into the development of a bilingual teaching code, which is genre and domain sensitive and responsive to student needs. Bilingualism in Hong Kong Johnson (1997) writes of a "remarkable shift within the local population throughout the community towards Chinese/English bilingualism over the past decade and a half. He cites recent sociolinguistic surveys which indicate that "whereas 40% of the population considered themselves bilingual in 1983, 70% did so ten years later". A realignment and redistribution of roles of the main languages have accompanied this across Hong Kong. In 1982, Luke and Richards described Hong Kong as a case of diglossia without bilingualism. The European expatriates, administers and businessmen alike tended not to learn either written or spoken Chinese, the language of 98% of the local population, and the majority of Chinese did not know English. The result was that the higher functions of language - those associated with government, the law and higher education, were conducted in English. A relatively small group of Chinese bilinguals acted as intermediaries between the two groups.