Conference PaperPDF Available

User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability: Beyond Reductionism.

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Results from a series of web site studies suggest that the concept of user satisfaction comprises more than perceived aesthetics and usability. Satisfaction was repeatedly found to be a complex construct comprising ‘emotion’, ‘likeability’, and ‘expectation’ as well. A web site very high in appeal but low in usability scored highly on user satisfaction when first encountered. However, when faced with serious problems in a usability test, users’ overall level of satisfaction dropped considerably, but perceived aesthetics remained unchanged. Given the known importance of the first impression for subsequent judgments, our results suggest that user interface designers of e-commerce sites would be well advised to design pretty and usable sites. Designing for user efficiency and effectiveness alone is not enough unless the products and services offered on a web site are unique in the world.
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User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability
Beyond Reductionism
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Carleton Human Computer Interaction Institute
Carleton University
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
gitte_lindgaard@carleton.ca , cdudek@chat.carleton.ca
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#(89,:+$#9(f6%,?#=%6f>,9)2=$6&988%,%)&9(&$/%&6#$%&%?%(& #8&$/%&8#,6$&#:>,%66#9(
)9%6& (9$& %?93%& +& c;9;G& %88%=$@& K(& $/+$& =+6%D& hK& )%6#*(%,6& ;927)& <%& H2#$%
I26$#8#%)& #(& $/%#,& =9($#(2%)& H2%6$& $9& =,%+$%& 26+<7%& 6#$%6& +$& $/%& %B>%(6%& 98
:+3#(*&$/%:&6$,#3#(*70&c<%+2$#827G@&K(&U,+=$#(630&%$&+7@G6&PN___R&6$2)0D&26%,6
)#)&(9$& =/+(*%& $/%#,& :#()&+8$%,&=9:>7%$#(*&$+636&#(&;/#=/&$/%0&%(=92($%,%)
26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6@& U/%& %B>%,#:%($& ,%>9,$%)& /%,%& ;+6& )%6#*(%)& $9& $%6$& $/%
,9<26$(%66&98&$/%6%&+2$/9,6G&8#()#(*&;/%(&26%,6&+,%&%B>96%)&$9&:9,%&6%,#926
26+<#7#$0&>,9<7%:6@
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability e
2. FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
E& ;%<& 6#$%& 988%,#(*& %B=726#?%& ;,#$#(*& 2$%(6#76& ;+6& 26%)@& K(& +(& %+,7#%,
%B>%,#:%($D&$/#6&6#$%&;+6&892()&$9&<%&6#*(#8#=+($70&/#*/%,&#(&+>>%+7&+()&79;%,
#(& >%,=%#?%)& 26+<#7#$0& $/+(& 6%?%,+7& 9$/%,& 6#$%6& 26#(*& $/%& 6+:%& :%$/9)& 98
#(?%6$#*+$#9(&+()&)#88%,%($&*,92>6&98&62<I%=$6&P'#()*++,)&-&12)%3D&N__NR@&K(
=9($,+6$& $9& 6%?%,+7& 98& $/%& 9$/%,& 6#$%6& %:>790%)& #(& $/%& 6+:%& 6%,#%6& 98
%B>%,#:%($6D&+77&98&;/#=/&;%,%&$0>#=+7&6/9>>#(*&6#$%6D&$/%&>%(&6#$%&=9($+#(%)
(9& >,#=%6& 9(& *99)6& 9,& :9(%$+,0& $,+(6+=$#9(& :9)27%6@& K$6& >2,>96%& ;+6& $/26
+>>+,%($70&$9&:+,3%$&,+$/%,& $/+(& 6%77& *99)6@& U/%&>,%6%($&6$2)0&>,9=%%)%)&#(
$;9&>/+6%6@&K(&l/+6%&!D&+(&/%2,#6$#=&%?+72+$#9(&;+6&=9()2=$%)&$9&#)%($#80&$/%
(+$2,%D& 79=+$#9(D& +()& 6%?%,#$0& 98& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6& #(& $/%& ;%<& 6#$%@& U/%
92$=9:%&98&$/#6&%?+72+$#9(&6%,?%)&+6&+&<+6#6&89,&6%7%=$#(*&+()&)%6#*(#(*&26%,
$+636&$9&<%&>%,89,:%)&#(&$/%&62<6%H2%($&26+<#7#$0&$%6$@&l/+6%&N&=9:>,#6%)&$/%
26+<#7#$0&$%6$& %(+<7#(*&+& =9:>+,#69(&;#$/& +(& %+,7#%,& 6$2)0& 98& $/%& 6+:%& ;%<
6#$%D&+6&89779;64
l,%6%($&6$2)04 [,9;6%&6#$%&P!_&:#(R&Æ& 2(6$,2=$2,%)&#($%,?#%;& Æ&26+<#7#$0
$%6$&Æ&2(6$,2=$2,%)&#($%,?#%;
l,%?#926&6$2)04 [,9;6%&6#$%&P!_&:#(R&Æ&2(6$,2=$2,%)&#($%,?#%;
2.1 Heuristic Evaluation
U/%& /%2,#6$#=& %?+72+$#9(& ,%?%+7%)& 69:%& !eQ& #(6$+(=%6& 98& :9)%,+$%& P(& m
OeR& $9& 6%?%,%& P(& m& !!NR& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6@& [0& 92,& )%8#(#$#9(D& +& :9)%,+$%
>,9<7%:& *%$6& #(& $/%& 26%,G6& ;+0& <2$& )9%6& (9$& >,%?%($& >,9*,%66& $9;+,)6
+==9:>7#6/#(*& +& *9+7D& ;/%,%+6& +& 6%?%,%& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:& )9%6@& E6& =+(& <%
6%%(&#(&U+<7%&!&<%79;D&$/%&:+I9,#$0&98&$/%&>,9<7%:6&#(?97?%)&(+?#*+$#9(&P(&m
QQR@&A9:%& NM& 98& $/%6%& =9(=%,(%)& /0>%,7#(36& P%@*@& 79936& 7#3%& +&/0>%,7#(3&<2$
#6& (9$i& )9%6& (9$& 7993& 7#3%& +& /0>%,7#(3& <2$& #$& #6i& )9%6& (9$& <%/+?%& 7#3%& +
/0>%,7#(3R@& U/%& ,%:+#(#(*& O]& ;%,%& )2%& $9& 2(262+7D& 2(>,%)#=$+<7%D
#(=9(6#6$%($& (+?#*+$#9(& ,27%6& 9,& +;3;+,)& (+?#*+$#9(& 9>%,+$#9(6@& \9,
%B+:>7%D&:%(26&;%,%&c879+$#(*G&#(&+()&92$&98&?#%;D&89,=#(*&$/%&26%,&$9&6%7%=$
+(&9>$#9(&?%,0&H2#=370D&+()&$/%&+=$#?%&+,%+&62,,92()#(*&+&>9#($&9(&+&:+>&;+6
$#(0D&,%H2#,#(*&62=/&8#(%&:9$9,&:9?%:%($6&$/+$&#$& ;+6& +7:96$&#:>966#<7%&$9
>9#($&>,%=#6%70@&E(9$/%,&*,92>&98&>,9<7%:6&P(&m&ggR&=9(=%,(%)&?#6#<#7#$0&+()
=9:>,%/%(6#9(& 98& $%B$f9<I%=$6D& <%#(*& :+,,%)& <0& =9(826#(*& 9,& :#67%+)#(*
?9=+<27+,0D&=9($,+6$& >,9<7%:6D&9,&$%B$&)#6>7+06&$/+$&;%,%& >+,$70&9<6=2,%)&<0
9?%,7+>>#(*& *,+>/#=6@& A9:%& P(& m& NOR& ;%,%& )2%& $9& #(=9(6#6$%($& 606$%:
<%/+?#92,&9,&)#6>7+0& ,27%6D& %@*@& #(89,:+$#9(& )#6>7+0%)& #(& $/%& $9>:96$& 6=,%%(
>96#$#9(& #(& 9(%& 6=,%%(& ;+6& +$& $/%& <9$$9:& 98& $/%& (%B$D& 9,& $%B$& ;927)& :9?%
;/#7%&$/%&26%,&;+6&,%+)#(*&#$@&U/%&,%:+#()%,&P(&m&NgR&;%,%&2(#H2%&>,9<7%:6
(9$&8+77#(*&#($9&+(0&98&$/%&+<9?%&=+$%*9,#%6@
TGitte Lindgaard & Cathy Dudek
Table 1@ n2:<%,&98&26+<#7#$0&>,9<7%:6&<0&=+$%*9,0
n+$2,%&98&>,9<7%: n
n+?#*+$#9(D&(9$&#(=72)#(*&/0>%,7#(36 O]
F0>%,7#(36 NM
o#6#<#7#$0&-&=9:>,%/%(6#9( gg
A06$%:&<%/+?#92,f)#6>7+0&,27%6 NO
L$/%, Ng
Total 157
2.2 Selection of User Tasks
h>9(& 79+)#(*D& $/%& 6#$%& >7+0%)& +(& +(#:+$%)& #($,9)2=$#9(& $+3#(*& 6%?%,+7
:#(2$%6& ;#$/& +==9:>+(0#(*& 698$& :26#=& :+$=/#(*& $/%& ,/0$/:& 98& $/%
=9792,827D&%($%,$+#(#(*& +(#:+$#9(@&U/#6& #($,9)2=$#9(&7993%)& :9,%& 7#3%& +& Uo
=9::%,=#+7& $/+(& +(& %J=9::%,=%& 6#$%@& U/%& 6#$%& =9:>,#6%)& $/,%%& :+#(
6%=$#9(6D&%+=/&98&;/#=/&;+6&62<J)#?#)%)&#($9&6%?%,+7&62<J6%=$#9(6&;#$/&$/%6%
62<J)#?#)#(*&82,$/%,&$9&+& :+B#:2:&98&892,& 7%?%76@&U/%&%#*/$&26%,& $+636&;%,%
6%7%=$%)& $9& 6+$#680& $;9& 9<I%=$#?%64& P!R& +77& $/,%%& :+#(& 6%=$#9(6& ;%,%
,%>,%6%($%)& +()D& PNR& $/%0& ,%>,%6%($%)& )#88%,%($& 7%?%76& 98& )#88#=27$0& +()
(2:<%,&98&=7#=36&$9&$/%&$+,*%$& #(89,:+$#9(@&U+636&+>>%+,%)&6$,+#*/$J89,;+,)D
89,&%B+:>7%D&+63#(*&62<I%=$6&$9&8#()&92$&;/%(&$/%&=9:>+(0&;+6&%6$+<7#6/%)D
;/%$/%,& $/%& =9:>+(0& /+)& +(0& I9<& 9>%(#(*6D& +()& $9& 8#()& $/%& (%+,%6$& ,%$+#7
92$7%$@
2.3 Procedure
U;%($0& 62<I%=$6D& !_& :+7%6& +()& !_& 8%:+7%6D& ;%,%& ,%=,2#$%)& 8,9:& +,92()
$/%&h(#?%,6#$0&.+:>26&#(&+&6%:#J,+()9:&8+6/#9(D&%(62,#(*&$/+$&b(*7#6/&;+6
$/%#,&8#,6$&7+(*2+*%D&$/+$&$/%0&;%,%&,%*27+,&K($%,(%$&26%,6&PNJ!_/,6f;%%3RD&+()
$/+$&$/%0&/+)&(9&hK&)%6#*(&9,&%?+72+$#9(&%B>%,#%(=%@&&A2<I%=$6&8#,6$&#(6>%=$%)
$/%& 6#$%& 89,& !_& :#(D& /+?#(*& <%%(& $97)& $9& =9(=%($,+$%& 9(& $/%#,& #($%,+=$#?%
%B>%,#%(=%&+()&>,%$%()#(*&$/%0&;%,%&7993#(*&89,&+&*#8$&89,&+&6>%=#+7&>%,69(&$9
6%()&+6&+(&+>979*0@&E$&$/%&%()&98&$/%&!_& :#(2$%6D&+(&2(6$,2=$2,%)&#($%,?#%;
;+6& =9()2=$%)& $9& %7#=#$& +6& :+(0& %B>%,#%(=%J,%7+$%)& 6$+$%:%($6& +6& >966#<7%@
n%B$D& $/%0& =9:>7%$%)& $/%& %#*/$& 26+<#7#$0& $+636D& *#?%(& $9& +77& 62<I%=$6& #(& $/%
6+:%& 6%H2%(=%D& <%*#((#(*& ;#$/& $/%& %+60& $+636D& +()& %()#(*& ;#$/& :9,%
)#88#=27$& $+636@& U/#6& ;+6& )9(%& $9& *#?%& 62<I%=$6& +& 6%(6%& 98& 62==%66& +()
:9$#?+$%& $/%:& $9& ;9,3& $/,92*/& +77& $/%& $+636D& +6& ;%& %B>%=$%)& 69:%& 98& $/%
6%+,=/%6&$9& <%&2(62==%66827@&E77&62<I%=$6&+$$%:>$%)&+77&$+636D&+()&$/%,%&;%,%
(9& $#:%J& 9,& +==2,+=0& =9(6$,+#($6@& A2<I%=$6& ;%,%& +779;%)& $9& *#?%& 2>& #8& $/%0
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability Q
;%,%&2(+<7%&$9&,%$,#%?%&$/%&#(89,:+$#9(& (%%)%)& $9& =9:>7%$%& $/%& $+63@&E$&$/%
%()&98&$/%&26+<#7#$0&$%6$&+(9$/%,&#($%,?#%;&;+6&=9()2=$%)&#(&$/%&6+:%&:+((%,
+6& <%89,%& $9& 7%+,(& ;/%$/%,& $/%& #(#$#+7& #:>,%66#9(& ,%:+#(%)& =9(6$+($& 9,
;/%$/%,& +>>%+7& ;+6& +$$%(2+$%)& =9:>+,%)& ;#$/& $/%& 8#,6$& #($%,?#%;@& A2<I%=$6
;%,%&$%6$%)&#()#?#)2+770&#(& 6%66#9(6& 7+6$#(*& 2>& $9& !@e& /92,6@& U/%0& ;%,%& >+#)
p!e&.+(+)#+(&89,&$/%#,&$#:%@
2.4 Data Analysis
K($%,?#%;6& ;%,%& +2)#9& $+>%)@& 1+$+& ;%,%& $,+(6=,#<%)& +)& ?%,<+$#:& +()
62<:#$$%)&$9& +& =9($%($& +(+706#6@&A$+$%:%($6& ;%,%&)#?#)%)& #($9&e& =+$%*9,#%64
+%6$/%$#=6D& %:9$#9(D& %B>%=$+$#9(D& 7#3%+<#7#$0& +()& 26+<#7#$0@& & E%6$/%$#=6J$0>%
6$+$%:%($6&+77&,%8%,,%)&$9&?#62+7&H2+7#$#%6&98&$/%&#($%,8+=%&P$99&:2=/&<72%D&$99
:2=/&;/#$%& 6>+=%D& <,#*/$D& >,%$$0D& >7%+6#(*& $9& $/%& %0%R@& b:9$#9(&6$+$%:%($6D
)%8#(%)& #(& $%,:6& 98& 5266%77C6& .#,=2:>7%B& Z9)%7& 98& E88%=$& P5266%77D& !M]_RD
;%,%& $/96%& $/+$& =927)& 8#(#6/& $/%& 6%($%(=%& VK$& ;+6& W:+)%& :%& 8%%7Xq@Y
P2>7#8$#(*D& ,%7+B#(*D& =+7:#(*D& 8,26$,+$#(*R& +()& ,%>,%6%($%)& +& =9(=%>$& $/+$
=927)& ,%+69(+<70& /+?%& <%%(& =9($+#(%)& #(& 5266%77C6& P!M]_R& Z9)%7@
bB>%=$+$#9(& 6$+$%:%($6& %B>,%66%)& $/92*/$6& +<92$& =9:>9(%($6& $/+$& $/%
62<I%=$& ;+6& 62,>,#6%)& $9& 8#()& #(& $/%& #($%,8+=%D& $/92*/$& ;927)& <%& $/%,%D& 9,
6/927)&/+?%& <%%(& $/%,%@& K(& 69:%& =+6%6D&$/%0& 26%)& $/%& ;9,)& C%B>%=$%)C& #(& $/%
6$+$%:%($i&#(&9$/%,6&$/%#,&%B>%=$+$#9(& =927)& <%& )%,#?%)&8,9:&;/+$&;+6&6+#)@
\9,& %B+:>7%D& kK& ;927)& /+?%& $/92*/$& $/%0& ;927)& >2$& +77& $/%& >%(6& $9*%$/%,k
,%87%=$%)& +(& 2(:%$& %B>%=$+$#9(@& '#3%+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6& ;%,%& 9?%,+77
I2)*%:%($6&+<92$&$/%&6#$%&9,&=9:>+,#69(6&;#$/&9$/%,&6#$%6&P<%$$%,&$/+(D&K&7#3%
#$D& #$G6& 93+0D& 8#(%D& (9$& +6& *99)& +6R@& \#(+770D& 26+<#7#$0& =9::%($6& ;%,%& $/96%
$/+$&,%8%,,%)&)#,%=$70&$9&%88#=#%(=0& 9,&%88%=$#?%(%66D&89,&%B+:>7%D&c$/%,%&#6&(9
<+=3&<2$$9(Gi& cK&=927)& (9$&=7#=3& 9(& $/+$GD& +()& c$/%& =/9#=%6& +,%& (9$& 79*#=+770
)#6>7+0%)G@& A$+$%:%($6& #(& ;/#=/& 62<I%=$6& :%,%70& ,%+)& +792)& 6=,%%(& =9($%($
;%,%& %7#:#(+$%)@& A$+$%:%($6& ;%,%& =92($%)& 9(=%& 9(70& ,%*+,)7%66& 98& $/%
(2:<%,&98&$#:%6&+&*#?%(&;9,)&;+6&,%>%+$%)&#(&+(&#($%,?#%;@
3. RESULTS
K(& $/#6& 6%=$#9(D& $/%& )+$+& 8,9:& $/%& 8#,6$& #($%,?#%;& P<%89,%& 26+<#7#$0& $%6$& J
bB>%,#:%($& NR& +,%& =9:>+,%)& ;#$/& $/96%& 9<$+#(%)& #(& $/%& %+,7#%,& %B>%,#:%($
P<,9;6#(*& 9(70& `& bB>%,#:%($& !RD& )%$+#76& 98& ;/#=/& +,%& ,%>9,$%)& %76%;/%,%
P'#()*++,)& -& 12)%3D& N__NR@& U/%& )+$+& =9:>+,#(*& $/%& c<%89,%G& +()& c+8$%,
26+<#7#$0& $%6$G& =9()#$#9(6& +,%& ,%>9,$%)& #(& 6%=$#9(& g@N@& & \#,6$D& ;%& ;+($%)& $9
%B>79,%& ;/%$/%,& >%9>7%& ;927)& /+?%& :9,%& 9,& 7%66& $9& 6+0& +<92$& $/%#,
%B>%,#%(=%&;/%(&$/%0&%B>%=$%)&$9&=9:>7%$%&+&26+<#7#$0&$%6$D&69&+&$;9J$+#7%)&$J
]Gitte Lindgaard & Cathy Dudek
$%6$&;+6&>%,89,:%)&89,&$/%&$9$+7&(2:<%,&98&6$+$%:%($6@&&l+,$#=#>+($6&/+)&:9,%
$9&6+0&;/%(&$/%0&;%,%&%B>%=$#(*&$9&=9:>7%$%&+&26+<#7#$0&$%6$&PbB>%,#:%($&NR
$/+(&;/%(&$/%0&;%,%&I26$&<,9;6#(*&$/%&6#$%&PbB>%,#:%($&!R&;#$/&(9&>+,$#=27+,
>2,>96%&#(&:#()@&P$Pg]RmJN@NOD& >r@_eRD& +6& 6/9;(& #(&\#*2,%& !@& &'993#(*& (%B$
$9&6%%& #8& $/%& 6$,%(*$/&9,&H2+7#$0&98&$/%&%B>%,#%(=%&)#88%,%)D&$/%&>,9>9,$#9(&98
>96#$#?%&6$+$%:%($6&%+=/&*,92>&:+)%&+,%&)#6>7+0%)&#(&\#*2,%&N@
Figure1.&Z%+(&(2:<%,&98&+77&6$+$%:%($6@
Figure 2.&l,9>9,$#9(6&98&+77&$0>%6&98&6$+$%:%($6@
E& $;9J$+#7%)& $J$%6$& =9:>+,#(*& $/%& >,9>9,$#9(& 98& >96#$#?%& 6$+$%:%($6& #(
<9$/&%B>%,#:%($6&6/9;%)&$/+$&$/%&%B>%,#%(=%&98&cI26$&<,9;6#(*G&62<I%=$6&;+6
:9,%& >96#$#?%& $/+(& $/+$& 89,& 62<I%=$6& ;/9& ;%,%& >,%>+,#(*& $9& =9:>7%$%& +
26+<#7#$0& $%6$& P$Pg]Rm& !@MMD& >r@_eR@& L<6%,?+$#9(& 98& 62<I%=$6& )2,#(*& $/%
<,9;6#(*&6%66#9(&#(&<9$/&%B>%,#:%($6&6/9;%)&$/+$&c<,9;6#(*&9(70G&62<I%=$6
$%()%)&$9&:9?%&+,92()&$/%&6#$%&#(&+(&+)&/9=&8+6/#9(@&[0&=9($,+6$D&$/96%&;/9
3(%;&$/%&26+<#7#$0&$+636&;927)&89779;&6%$&92$&606$%:+$#=+770&$9&7993&$/,92*/
+6&:2=/& 98& $/%&6#$%& +6& $/%0&=927)& #(& $/%&!_:#(& <,9;6#(*& $#:%@&U/%6%& 7+$$%,
62<I%=$6&6+;&:9,%&98&$/%&26+<#7#$0&>,9<7%:6& 9;#(*&$9&$/%&6/%%,&)#88#=27$0&98
(+?#*+$#(*&$/%&6#$%@&U/#6&)#88%,%(=%&#(&<,9;6#(*&<%/+?#92,&>,9<+<70&+==92($6
89,&$/%&)#88%,%(=%&#(&>96#$#?%&6$+$%:%($6@
.9(6#6$%($& ;#$/& %+,7#%,& 8#()#(*6D& 6$+$%:%($6& 8%77& #($9& $/%& =+$%*9,#%6
:%($#9(%)&%+,7#%,&P7#3%+<#7#$0D&%:9$#9(D&+%6$/%$#=6&%B>%=$+$#9(&+()&26+<#7#$0R@
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Ex p t 1 Ex p t 2
Mean Number
0
0.5
1
Ex p t 1 Ex p t 2
Proportion Positive
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability M
U/%& :%+(& (2:<%,& 98& 6$+$%:%($6& #(& %+=/& =+$%*9,0& )#88%,%)& <%$;%%(
%B>%,#:%($6&+6&6/9;(&#(&\#*2,%&g@&&U/%6%&,%627$6&6/9;&$/+$&>%9>7%&/+)&:9,%
$9&6+0& #(& $/%&6%=9()& %B>%,#:%($& $/+(&$/%& 8#,6$D& >+,$#=27+,70&+<92$& 7#3%+<#7#$0
P$PgNRmJN@e_D&>r@_eRD&+()&+%6$/%$#=6&P$PNTRmJN@QeD&>r@_!R@&&U/%&:%+(&(2:<%,
98&%:9$#9(D& %B>%=$+$#9(&+()&26+<#7#$0&6$+$%:%($6&)#)&(9$&)#88%,&P>s@_eR& 8,9:
$/%&8#,6$&$9&$/%&6%=9()&%B>%,#:%($@
Figure 3.&Z%+(&(2:<%,&98&+77&$0>%6&98&6$+$%:%($6@
3.1 Usability Test
L8& $/%& !T_& $+636& +$$%:>$%)& +=,966& +77& 62<I%=$6D& 9(70& QM& POM@g]tR& ;%,%
=9:>7%$%)&62==%6682770@&U/%&+?%,+*%&62==%66&,+$%&;+6&g@Me&98&$/%&%#*/$&$+636@
n9& 9(%& =9:>7%$%)& +77& %#*/$& $+636& 62==%6682770D& +()& (9(%& 98& $/%& $+636& ;%,%
=9:>7%$%)&62==%6682770&<0&+77&62<I%=$6@&L(70&9(%&;+6&=9:>7%$%)&62==%6682770
<0&:9,%&$/+(&!e&62<I%=$6@&U/,%%&$+636&;%,%&=9:>7%$%)&62==%6682770&<0&!_J!e
62<I%=$6D& +()& +(9$/%,& $/,%%& <0& eJ!_& 62<I%=$6@& U/%& ,%:+#(#(*& $+63& ;+6& (9$
=9:>7%$%)&62==%6682770&<0& +&6#(*7%&62<I%=$@&U/%&(2:<%,&98& =7#=36&$9&62==%66
%B=%%)%)& $/%& 9>$#:+7& (2:<%,& #(& +77& $+636D& ,+(*#(*& 8,9:& !__t& $9& N]__t
+<9?%& $/%& 9>$#:2:& 89,& 62==%6682770D& +()& 8,9:& !__t& $9& ]Te_t& 89,
2(62==%6682770&=9:>7%$%)&$+636@&U/26D&;/%(&62<I%=$6&)#)&*#?%&2>D&#$&;+6&9(70
+8$%,& $,0#(*& /+,)@& U/#6& +779;%)& 26& $9& =9(=72)%& $/+$& $/%0& $993& $/%& $+636
6%,#92670@&U/%6%&)+$+&+769&=9(8#,:&$/+$&$/%&7%?%7&98&26+<#7#$0&;+6&?%,0&79;@
3.2 Comparison of First and Second Interview
n9;&=9:>+,#(*&$/%&c<%89,%G&+()&c+8$%,&26+<#7#$0&$%6$G&#($%,?#%;6D&$/%&)+$+
62**%6$& $/+$& $/%& 26%,& %B>%,#%(=%& =/+(*%)& 8,9:& $/%& 8#,6$& $9& $/%& 6%=9()
#($%,?#%;@&& E7$/92*/& ;%& %B>%=$%)& $/%&(2:<%,& 98&6$+$%:%($6& $9& <%& 79;%,& #(
$/%& 6%=9()& #($%,?#%;& <%=+26%& $/%& 62<I%=$6& /+)& +7,%+)0& 6+#)& +77& $/+$& $/%0
;+($%)&#(& $/%& 8#,6$& #($%,?#%;D& +& 9(%J$+#7%)& $J$%6$& 89,& >+#,%)& 6+:>7%6& 6/9;%)
$/+$&$/%& $9$+7& (2:<%,&98&6$+$%:%($6&)#)&(9$&)#88%,&P>s@_eR@&&U/#6&#6&6/9;(&#(
\#*2,%&O@
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Like Emotion Aesth Expect Use
Mean Number
Ex p t 1
Ex p t 2
!_ Gitte Lindgaard & Cathy Dudek
E6& <%89,%D& $/%& >,9>9,$#9(& 98& >96#$#?%& 6$+$%:%($6& ;+6& =+7=27+$%)@& & U/%6%
+,%& 6/9;(& #(& \#*2,%& e@& & E& $;9J$+#7%)& $J$%6$& 89,& >+#,%)&6+:>7%6& 6/9;%)& $/+$
>+,$#=#>+($6& :+)%& 6#*(#8#=+($70& 8%;%,& >96#$#?%& 6$+$%:%($6& +8$%,& $/%& 26+<#7#$0
$%6$&P$P!MRmO@T_D&>r@__!R@&&U/26D&+7$/92*/&$/%&$9$+7&(2:<%,&98&6$+$%:%($6&)#)
(9$& =/+(*%& 8,9:& $/%& 8#,6$& #($%,?#%;& $9& $/%& (%B$D& $/%& 26%,& %B>%,#%(=%& ;+6
+>>+,%($70&:9,%&(%*+$#?%&+8$%,&$/+(&<%89,%&$/%&26+<#7#$0&$%6$@
Figure 4.&Z%+(&(2:<%,&98&+77&6$+$%:%($6@
Figure 5.&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&6$+$%:%($6@
[,%+3#(*& )9;(& $/%& 6$+$%:%($6& <0& =+$%*9,0& +6& <%89,%& 6/9;%)& $/+$& $/%,%
;%,%&),+:+$#=& =/+(*%6& #(&69:%&98&$/%6%@&&U/#6& #6&6/9;(&#(&\#*2,%&T@&&K(&$/%
6%=9()& #($%,?#%;& 62<I%=$6& $%()%)& $9& 6+0& 7%66& +<92$& +%6$/%$#=6& P$P!MRmO@eQD
>r@__!R& +()& :9,%& +<92$& 26+<#7#$0& P$P!MRmJN@QQD& >r@_!R@& & U/%,%& ;%,%& (9
)#88%,%(=%& $/%& (2:<%,6& 98& 7#3%+<#7#$0D& %:9$#9(& +()& %B>%=$+$#9(& 6$+$%:%($6
P>s@_eR@&U/#6& #6& (9$&62,>,#6#(*@&& L(%& ;927)&%B>%=$& $/+$& >+,$#=#>+($6& +7,%+)0
6+#)&;/+$&$/%0&;+($%)&#(&$/%&8#,6$&#($%,?#%;D&+()&$/%,%&#6& (9& ,%+69(& $9& $/#(3
$/+$& $/%0& ;927)& ,%>%+$& $/%:6%7?%6& +& 6%=9()& $#:%@& & U/%& 7+,*%,& (2:<%,& 98
26+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6& =+(& <%& +$$,#<2$%)& $9& +& *,%+$%,& +;+,%(%66& 98& 26+<#7#$0
#662%6&,%627$#(*&8,9:&$/%&$+63&,%H2#,%:%($6@
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Inter vie w 1 Inter vie w 2
Mean Number
0
0.5
1
Inte r vi ew 1 Inte r vi ew 2
Proportion Positive
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability !!
Figure 6. Z%+(&(2:<%,&98&+77&$0>%6&98&6$+$%:%($6@
E& =9:>+,#69(& 98& $/%& >,9>9,$#9(& 98& >96#$#?%& 6$+$%:%($6& #(& $/%& $;9
#($%,?#%;6& 6/9;6& $/+$& $/%,%& ;+6& (9& 9?%,+77& )%=7#(%& #(& $/%& 26%,& %B>%,#%(=%
8,9:& 9(%& #($%,?#%;& $9& $/%& (%B$& #(& $%,:6& 98& +%6$/%$#=6& P>s@_eRD& +6& 6/9;(& #(
\#*2,%& Q@& U/26D& +7$/92*/& 62<I%=$6& /+)& 7%66& $9& 6+0& +<92$& +%6$/%$#=6& #(& $/%
6%=9()&#($%,?#%;& $/+(& #(&$/%& 8#,6$D& $/%0&)#)&(9$& 8#()& $/%&6#$%& 2*7#%,&+8$%,& $/%
26+<#7#$0&$%6$@
Figure 7@&&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&+%6$/%$#=6&6$+$%:%($6@
U/%&>+$$%,(&98&,%627$6&89,& $/%& 9$/%,& =+$%*9,#%6& +,%& 6/9;(& #(&\#*2,%6& ]J!!@
\9,&7#3%+<#7#$0& P\#*2,%&]R& +()& %B>%=$+$#9(& P\#*2,%&MR& $/%&9?%,+77& (2:<%,&98
>96#$#?%&6$+$%:%($6&,%:+#(%)&6#:#7+,&P>s@_eR@
0
0.5
1
Int er v ie w 1 Int er v ie w 2
Proportion Positive
(Aesthetics)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Like Emotion Aesth Expec t Use
Mean Number
1st Interview
2nd Interview
!N Gitte Lindgaard & Cathy Dudek
Figure 8@&&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&7#3%+<#7#$0&6$+$%:%($6@
Figure 9@&&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&%B>%=$+$#9(&6$+$%:%($6@
\9,&%:9$#9(&P\#*2,%& !_RD& +&$;9&$+#7%)& $J$%6$& P$P!]RmO@!QD&>r@__!R&6/9;%)
$/+$& 6#*(#8#=+($70& 8%;%,& >96#$#?%& %:9$#9(6& ;%,%& %B>,%66%)& #(& $/%& 6%=9()
#($%,?#%;& $/+(& $/%& 8#,6$@& K$& +>>%+,6& $/+$& >+,$#=#>+($6& =/+(*%)& $/%#,& :#()6
+<92$&$/%#,&%B>%,#%(=%&+8$%,&%(=92($%,#(*&26+<#7#$0&>,9<7%:6@
Figure 10@&&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&%:9$#9(&6$+$%:%($6@
0
0.5
1
Inter v iew 1 In te rv ie w 2
Proportion Positive
(Expect)
0
0.5
1
Inte rv ie w 1 Inte rv ie w 2
Proportion Positive
(Emotion)
0
0.5
1
Inte r vi ew 1 In te rv ie w 2
Proportion Positive
(Like)
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability !g
\9,& 26+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6D& $/%,%& ;+6& +769& +& )#88%,%(=%@& & E6& 6/9;(
>,%?#92670& #(& \#*2,%& eD& $/%,%& ;%,%& :9,%& 26+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6& :+)%& #(& $/%
6%=9()& #($%,?#%;& $/+(& $/%,%& ;%,%& #(& $/%& 8#,6$@& & F9;%?%,D& 7993#(*& +$& $/%
>,9>9,$#9(6& 98& >96#$#?%& +()& (%*+$#?%& 6$+$%:%($6& 6/9;6& $/+$& $/%0& =/+(*%)
$/%#,&:#()6& +<92$& $/%#,& %B>%,#%(=%& ,%*+,)#(*& 26+<#7#$0& +6& ;%77D& +6& 6/9;(& #(
\#*2,%& !!@& E& $;9J$+#7%)& $J$%6$& 89,& >+#,%)& 6+:>7%6& 6/9;%)& $/+$& $/%,%& ;%,%
6#*(#8#=+($70& 8%;%,& >96#$#?%& 26+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6& :+)%& )2,#(*& $/%& 6%=9()
#($%,?#%;& $/+(& $/%& 8#,6$& P$P!MRmN@M]D& >r@__!R@& U/26D& +7$/92*/& 62<I%=$6& )#)
#)%($#80& (2:%,926& (%*+$#?%& 26+<#7#$0& #662%6& <%89,%& $/%0& =9:>7%$%)& $/%
26+<#7#$0&$+636D&$/%6%&+662:%)&:9,%&>,9:#(%(=%&)2,#(*&$/%&26+<#7#$0&$%6$&+()
#(&$/%&62<6%H2%($&#($%,?#%;@
Figure 11@&&l,9>9,$#9(&98&>96#$#?%&26+<#7#$0&6$+$%:%($6@
4. DISCUSSION
.9(6#)%,#(*& 8#,6$& $/%& (9$#9(& 98& +%6$/%$#=6D& 92,& ,%627$6& +>>%+,D& 9(& $/%
62,8+=%D& $9& +*,%%& ;#$/& U,+=$#(630& %$& +7@G6& PN___R& 8#()#(*6& #(& $/%& 6%(6%& $/+$
62<I%=$6&)#)&(9$&=9(6#)%,&$/%&26%,&#($%,8+=%&2*7#%,&+8$%,&=9:>7%$#(*& 26+<#7#$0
$+636& $/+(& <%89,%@& F9;%?%,D& U,+=$#(630& +()& /#6& =977%+*2%6& 26%& $/%& $%,:
c+%6$/%$#=6G& #($%,=/+(*%+<70& ;#$/& c+88%=$G@& U/%0& +>>%+,& $9& <%7#%?%& $/+$
+%6$/%$#=6& ,+$#(*6& +,%& #()#=+$#?%& 98& 26%,& 6+$#68+=$#9(@& U/%#,& 62<I%=$6& ,+$%)
$/,%%& +6>%=$6& 98& $/%& 26%,& #($%,8+=%6D& (+:%70& +%6$/%$#=6D& %+6%& 98& 26%D& +()
+:92($&98&#(89,:+$#9(&9(& $/%& 6=,%%(@&u%$D&$/%& +2$/9,6& +,*2%&$/+$&V$/%,%& +,%
6$,9(*& =9,,%7+$#9(6& <%$;%%(& 26%,6G& 6+$#68+=$#9(& 8,9:& 26#(*& $/%& 606$%:& +()
$/%#,& >%,=%>$#9(& 98& #$6& +%6$/%$#=6& +()& 26+<#7#$0Y& P>@& !O!R@& [0& =9($,+6$D& 92,
,%627$6& 62**%6$& $/+$& $/%& #($%,+=$#?%& %B>%,#%(=%& =9:>,#6%6& +$& 7%+6$& $/%& 8#?%
)#:%(6#9(6&)#6=266%)&/%,%D&#(=72)#(*&>%,=%#?%)&+%6$/%$#=6&+()&26+<#7#$0@&U/#6
,%>%+$%)&8#()#(*&7%+)6&26&$9&+,*2%&$/+$&26+<#7#$0&,#*/$82770&<%79(*6& 2()%,&$/%
2:<,%77+& 98& 6+$#68+=$#9(& +()& $/+$& $/%& (9$#9(& 98& 26%,& 6+$#68+=$#9(& #6& :9,%
=9:>7%B& $/+(& +& =9,,%7+$#9(& <%$;%%(& +%6$/%$#=6& +()& 26+<#7#$0@& K()%%)D& 92,
0
0.5
1
Int er v ie w 1 In te r vi ew 2
Proportion Positive
(Usability)
!O Gitte Lindgaard & Cathy Dudek
,%627$6& 62**%6$& $/+$& $/%& $;9& +,%& (9$& =9,,%7+$%)& +$& +774& >%,=%#?%)& 26+<#7#$0& #6
7#3%70& $9& =/+(*%& +8$%,& %(=92($%,#(*& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6& ;/%,%+6& >%,=%#?%)
+%6$/%$#=6&#6&(9$@
E& =796%,& 7993& +$& U,+=$#(630& %$& +7@G6& & PN___R& 8#()#(*6& 62**%6$6& $/+$& $/%
26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6& $/%0& #($,9)2=%)& )#)& (9$& 6%,#92670& /+:>%,& 62<I%=$6G
>%,89,:+(=%@& U/%& +2$/9,6& )%6=,#<%& $/,%%& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6D& +77& 98& ;/#=/
)%7+0%)& >%,89,:+(=%D& 89,& %B+:>7%D& #($,9)2=#(*& +& )%7+0& 98& (#(%& 6%=9()6& 9(
+?%,+*%& >%,& $+63@& F9;%?%,D& +77& 62<I%=$6& =9:>7%$%)& +77& $/%& !!& $+636
62==%6682770@& [0& =9($,+6$D& 92,& 62<I%=$6& =9:>7%$%)& ,92*/70& 9(%& /+78& 98& $/%
%#*/$&$+636& 62==%6682770D& +6&)#6=266%)&%+,7#%,@&L2,&62<I%=$6&7#3%)&$/%&6#$%& 7%66
9?%,+77&+8$%,& %B>%,#%(=#(*& 6%,#926& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6D&+()& $/%& >,9>9,$#9(&98
(%*+$#?%& 26+<#7#$0& =9::%($6& #(=,%+6%)& #(& $/%& <%89,%J+8$%,& =9:>+,#69(& 98
26+<#7#$0& 6$+$%:%($6@& U/%& >,9<7%:& 6%%:6& $9& <%& #(& $/%& )%8#(#$#9(& 98
c+%6$/%$#=6G@&& U,+=$#(630& %$&+7@& PN___R&26%6& #$& #($%,=/+(*%+<70&;#$/& c+>>%+7GD
+()&c<%+2$0G@& &L2,&,%627$6&/+?%&=9(6#6$%($70&6/9;(&$/+$&c+>>%+7G&9,&;/+$&;%
=+77&c26%,&6+$#68+=$#9(G&=9:>,#6%6&:9,%&$/+(&c<%+2$0GD&;/#=/&<0&92,&)%8#(#$#9(
#6& $+3%(& $9& %H2+$%& c+%6$/%$#=6G@& & Z9,%&,%6%+,=/&#6&(%%)%)&$9&=7+,#80&$/%6%
#662%6&+()&6/+,>%(&$/%&$%,:#(979*0& ;%& 26%& $9&=+>$2,%&+()&)%6=,#<%&$/%& 26%,
%B>%,#%(=%@
a#$/& ,%6>%=$& $9& $/%& 6$,%(*$/& 98& $/%& 8#,6$& #:>,%66#9(D& 92,& ,%627$6& 62**%6$
$/+$&62<I%=$6& ;/9&3(%;& $/%0& ;927)& <%& >%,89,:#(*& 26+<#7#$0& $+636& 7#3%)& $/%
6#$%&7%66&9(&8#,6$&%(=92($%,&$/+(&62<I%=$6&;/9&;%,%&cI26$&<,9;6#(*G@&U/26D&$/%
)#88%,%($& $+63& )%:+()6& ,%627$%)& #(& )#88%,%($& <,9;6#(*& >+$$%,(6& $/+$& =+77%)
:9,%&+$$%($#9(& $9& 26+<#7#$0@& A2<I%=$6& ;/9&3(%;& $/+$&$/%0& ;927)&<%& +63%)& $9
=9:>7%$%& 26+<#7#$0& $+636& <,9;6%)& $/%& 6#$%& #(& +& 606$%:+$#=D& *9+7J9,#%($%)
8+6/#9(D& ;/%,%+6& $/96%& ;/9& ;%,%& cI26$& <,9;6#(*G& 7%$& $/%:6%7?%6& <%& =+,,#%)
+;+0& <0& $/%& 6/9;& 2(897)#(*& <%89,%& $/%#,&%0%6@& U/#6&,+#6%6& $/%& #662%& 98& 6#$%
)%6#*(&?#6&v&?#6&$/%&>2,>96%&+&*#?%(&6#$%&#6&#($%()%)&$9&8278#7@&[%=+26%&$/%&>%(
6#$%&)#)&(9$&+779;&26%,6&$9&6%7%=$&+()&<20&#$%:6D&;%&<%7#%?%&#$&;+6&)%6#*(%)&$9
0#%7)&+& >7%+6+($D& <2$&>+66#?%& %B>%,#%(=%@& &K(& =9($,+6$D& 6/9>>#(*&6#$%6& +#:& $9
%(*+*%& 26%,6& +=$#?%70& +()& *2#)%& $/%:& %889,$7%6670& $/,92*/& +& >2,=/+6#(*
$,+(6+=$#9(@&h6+<#7#$0&;+6&=7%+,70&(9$&+&:+I9,&)%6#*(&9<I%=$#?%@&F9;%?%,D&92,
26+<#7#$0&$+63&)%:+()6&7%)&62<I%=$6&$9&89=26&9(&26+<#7#$0@&.9(6%H2%($70D&$/%
8#,6$&#:>,%66#9(&6288%,%)@&U/%&8#,6$& #:>,%66#9(& ;927)& $/26& +>>%+,&$9&)%>%()
2>9(& $/%& 26%,G6& *9+74& #8& 6%%3#(*& +(& 9<7#*+$#9(J8,%%& %($%,$+#(#(*& %B>%,#%(=%D
62<I%=$6& >+0& :9,%& +$$%($#9(& $9& $/%& %B>%,#%($#+7& +6>%=$6& $/+(& $9& 26+<#7#$0
8+=$9,6D& <2$& ;/%(& ?#6#$#(*& +& 6#$%& $9& <20& *99)6D& $/%& ,%?%,6%& 6%%:6& $9& <%& $/%
=+6%@&&U/26D&26%,&6+$#68+=$#9(&6%%:6&$9&<%&),#?%(&<0&$/%&26%,6G&:9$#?+$#9(&89,
?#6#$#(*&$/%&6#$%&+()&=+((9$&<%&,%)2=%)&$9&+&<0J>,9)2=$&98&+%6$/%$#=6D&26+<#7#$0
9,&%?%(&+&=9:<#(+$#9(&98&<9$/@
User Satisfaction, Aesthetics and Usability !e
5. CONCLUSION
U/%&>,%6%($&6$2)0&62**%6$6&$/+$&*9+76&)%$%,:#(%&$/%&26%,6G&8,+:%&98&:#()D
;#$/#(& ;/#=/& $/%& 6#$%& #6& >%,=%#?%)& +()& #($%,>,%$%)D& +()& $/+$& $/#6& 8#,6$
#:>,%66#9(& :+0& =/+(*%& +6& +& =9(6%H2%(=%& 98& 8+=#(*& 6%,#926& 26+<#7#$0
>,9<7%:6@& a/#7%& 62<I%=$6& +,%& +;+,%& 98& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6& %?%(& ;/%(& $/%0
+,%& cI26$& <,9;6#(*G& $/%6%& +88%=$& $/%#,& 9>#(#9(& 98& $/%& 6#$%& 7%66@& \#(+770D& $/%
,%627$6&62**%6$&$/+$&=9(=%,(&89,&$,+)#$#9(+7&26+<#7#$0&#662%6&#6&+(&#($%*,+7&>+,$
98& $/%& #($%,+=$#?%& 26%,& %B>%,#%(=%D& /9;%?%,D& 26%,& 6+$#68+=$#9(& #6& +& =9:>7%B
=9(6$,2=$& #(?97?#(*& :9,%& $/+(& +(& #:>,%66#9(& 98& C+%6$/%$#=6C& 9,& C26+<#7#$0C
+79(%@& U/%& ,%7+$#9(6/#>& <%$;%%(& +>>%+7& +()& 26%,& 6+$#68+=$#9(D& +()& <%$;%%(
>%,=%#?%)f+=$2+7& 26+<#7#$0& ,%:+#(& %?+6#?%& +()& (%%)& :2=/& :9,%& ,%6%+,=/& $9
<%& =7%+,70& 2()%,6$99)@& a/#7%& $/%& 8#,6$& #:>,%66#9(& :+0& <%& 6$,9(*& +()& :+0
,%7+$%&$9& $/%& #::%)#+$%& +>>%+7& 98&$/%&;%<&6#$%D&6+$#68+=$#9(&:+0&=/+(*%&+6&+
82(=$#9(& 98& %(=92($%,#(*& 6%,#926& 26+<#7#$0& >,9<7%:6& #(& $/%& =9($%B$& 98
+==9:>7#6/#(*&+&6>%=#8#=&*9+7@&U/26D&#8&#$& #6& $,2%D& $/+$&$/%&8#,6$&#:>,%66#9(&#6
<+6%)& 9(& #::%)#+$%& +>>%+7D& hK& )%6#*(%,6& ;927)& <%& ;%77& +)?#6%)& $9& =,%+$%
+%6$/%$#=+770&+>>%+7#(*&6#$%6&$/+$&=7%+,70&+()&#::%)#+$%70&,%87%=$&#$6&>2,>96%@
6. REFERENCES
E()%,69(D& n@F@& P!M]!RD& Foundations of information integration theoryD& E=+)%:#=& l,%66D
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E()%,69(D&n@F@&P!M]NRD&Methods of information integration theoryD&E=+)%:#=&l,%66D&'9()9(@
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... Moreover, extant research did not find any direct relationship between the visual design quality of a product and perceived usability (Lindgaard & Dudek, 2003;van Schaik & Ling, 2009;Grishin & Gillan, 2019). It is possible that a mediator variable moderated the independent and dependent variables; the prototypes used as stimuli tended to lack the necessary aesthetic quality to appeal to the senses. ...
... Findings from the AttrakDiff instrument showed that both game interfaces employing low-and high-quality visual design significantly correlate with perceived game usability ( Figure 2). Unlike previous studies, in which the influence of visual design on perceived usability in digital products were not supported (Lindgaard & Dudek, 2003;van Schaik & Ling, 2009;Grishin & Gillan, 2019), the present study empirically shows that both low-and high-quality visual design had an influence on perceived usability in the domain of tablet gaming. Interestingly, it was found that the game interface with low-quality visual design had a small, positive, and significant correlation with perceived game usability. ...
Article
Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) has shown inconsistencies in the relationship between users’ perception of usability and the quality of visual design in digital products. Research is lacking in the gaming domain for visual design in user interfaces on tablet screens. Despite extensive research on visual aesthetics and perceived usability, best practices offer limited guidance for game interfaces from a user-centered design perspective. The objectives of this study are twofold: to employ a design-oriented methodology to create a real iOS tablet game app from start to finish using ideation, focus groups, iterative prototyping, usability testing, and empirically evaluating game participants’ experiences; and, to use experimental methods to examine the effect that the quality of visual design in a tablet game interface has on perceived usability and user engagement. In Phase I, we designed and developed a real iOS game; the user interface was rendered into two visual design conditions for hypothesis testing. In Phase II, we recruited 56 participants to play each game condition for 10 minutes for a within-subjects study. We administered the Multidimensional Mood, AttrakDiff, and User Engagement Scale (UES) questionnaires to collect data. Findings demonstrate that high-quality visual design does not necessarily promote perceived usability; although, both low- and high-quality visual designs showed significant influence. Participants rated their perceived usability of the game conditions to be equivalent. Findings also demonstrate that participants experienced a higher level of user engagement in the game interface with high-quality visual design.
... Reasons for this are, among others, divergent perspectives of customers (users) and product designers (perspective gap). For instance, the customer product impression relies on personal expectations (Lindgaard and Dudek, 2002) whereas the designer creates products according to his professional (design guidelines) and personal view (mental concept of the object). To get closer to a user-centered design, it has to be investigated how designers perceive and evaluate products and which requirements they claim as relevant and satisfying. ...
Conference Paper
Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions, can considerably affect technology development and rollout. For this purposes a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms that influence acceptance is urgently needed in the context of renewable energies when the goal is to reduce CO2 emission by 20% until the year 2020. The associated project of this study - TIGER - has the aim to develop a communication strategy to implement renewable energy technologies like geothermics. As a first step this research focuses on analyzing factors that determine the perception and thus acceptance of deep geothermal energy technologies. A study was conducted with a sample of 360 participants in the western part of Germany. The TPB (Theory of planned behavior) was expanded with further variables such as environmental attitudes and attitudes towards renewable energies. A structural equation model was used to analyze the correlation between proposed psychological antecedents and further moderating factors on the acceptance of geothermal power plants in the own neighborhood. Results show that underlying motives as well as barriers significantly affect the acceptance of geothermal energy. Behavioral control appeared as an important moderating effect in this model whereas the influence of environmental attitudes is not apparent. Furthermore, results also reveal that especially the scope of information plays an important role in acceptance of geothermal energy, meaning informed people show a significantly higher acceptance and less skepticism than not-informed people. This emphasizes the urgent need for information and communication in the context of relatively unknown technologies like geothermal energy.
... Reasons for this are, among others, divergent perspectives of customers (users) and product designers (perspective gap). For instance, the customer product impression relies on personal expectations (Lindgaard and Dudek, 2002) whereas the designer creates products according to his professional (design guidelines) and personal view (mental concept of the object). To get closer to a user-centered design, it has to be investigated how designers perceive and evaluate products and which requirements they claim as relevant and satisfying. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
The paper presents a quantitative study based on the Kano-model to gender-sensitive product design by adapting the Japanese user-centered approach of Kansei Engineering. Underlying assumption of the approach is that products are not only perceived by functionality, but essentially by emotions such as joy of use and satisfaction for the fulfilment of user-centered product requirements. Thereby, the customers’ satisfaction is investigated by applying the Kano-method, a procedure to structure product requirements and to determine their influence on customers’ satisfaction. In this study, product designers overtake the role of the customer in order to bridge perspective gaps between customers and designers of products. Thereby it is analyzed, how designers perceive and evaluate products, which requirements they claim as relevant and satisfying, and to what extent the gender plays a role. The results of the study indicate that for the creation of designers’ (as customers’) satisfaction, the same product requirements are – more or less – relevant for both genders. However, there are slight differences in the perception and evaluation of product requirements observable. While women place great importance on hedonic characteristics such as attractiveness, the men are rather indifferent regarding product requirements.
... While usability is known as one of the important factors in designing a new website, it has been shown that users' impression of the usability of websites is mostly influenced by the site's visual appeal (Lindgaard & Dudek, 2002). Although the relationship between perceived usability and aesthetics has been shown (Kurosu & Kashimura, 1995;Sonderegger et al., 2014;Tractinsky, 1997;Tractinsky et al., 2000), recent studies in the context of websites and applications are more interested in finding a relationship between the aesthetics and the other user's aspects such as satisfaction (Seng & Mahmoud, 2020), intention to use (Pengnate et al., 2019), and emotion (Bhandari et al., 2019). ...
Article
The Visual Aesthetic of Website Inventory (VisAWI) is the most commonly used self-report instrument for evaluating website aesthetics. However, at this time, there is no valid and reliable instrument in Farsi for Iranian users to evaluate website aesthetics. This study aimed to translate, validate, and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Farsi version of VisAWI. To do this, the cross-cultural adoption method was used in this study. First, the VisAWI was translated using forward-backward translation. Then, in order to evaluate scale validity, content and face validity were determined. The final version of a scale inventory with 12 items was given to 200 students to evaluate one of the most visited websites in Iran which is the first e-commerce website. The reliability of scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the validity of scale. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.79 for this version. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure model was best fitted for the data. Our results showed the scaled psychometric Farsi version of VisAWI items tended to be valid and reliable for Iranian users.
... The visual design has a significant influence on its usability (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013). It can impact effectiveness and efficiency by guiding users to avoid errors and complete their tasks (Schlatter & Levinson, 2013), and improve user satisfaction through beauty (Lindgaard & Dudek, 2002). Reinecke and Bernstein (2011) show that performance improves up to 22% on a website designed to express local cultural background in comparison to a global version. ...
Article
Visual esthetics is recognized as an essential factor of perceived usability, credibility, and overall quality of software systems user interfaces. Thus, it is crucial to assess this factor as part of the development process to improve graphical user interface (GUI) quality. And, although there exist diverse approaches to assess visual esthetics today, they significantly differ in their definition and techniques for measuring it. Therefore, we performed a systematic mapping to provide an overview comparing the existing approaches from the last ten years (2010–2020). We encountered 27 articles reporting different approach types, including assessments measuring user perception of visual esthetics via human responses, metrics based on GUI elements, extracting handcrafted features from GUI screenshots, and deep-learning-based approaches. Most of them implement objective approaches, either using metrics or feature extraction. The majority of the approaches are aimed at web GUIs, with only three focusing on mobile GUIs, considering their smaller screen size, less use of color, and a more vertical element alignment. Few approaches have been comprehensively evaluated regarding reliability and validity. These results indicate the need for further research considering the importance of visual esthetics as part of software quality. The results of this study present an overview and comparison of these approaches from the last decade providing a systematic basis for researchers to better understand the challenges for GUI visual esthetics assessments and the enhancement of these approaches.
... Aesthetics relates to levels of attractiveness or beauty and is often evaluated as emotional and visceral in nature (Norman, 2005). In contrast, usability measures how well a product serves its intended use, characterized by criteria concerning ease of use, effectiveness, and efficiency (Lindgaard & Dudek, 2002). Although aesthetics and usability seem to be conceptually distinct, several researchers have found that more aesthetically pleasing products are perceived as highly usable. ...
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Aesthetics and usability both play critical roles in product design. But how might measurement of these two conceptually-different features of products interfere with one another? The current research study examines the effect of differences in aesthetics on perceived usability. Participants completed three tasks on a simulated website with a low usability interface. One group of participants used an interface with high aesthetics, whereas a second group interacted with an interface with poor aesthetics. Both groups rated the usability and aesthetics of the interface after completing the tasks. The aesthetics manipulation was effective in that the high aesthetics group provided higher ratings on two aesthetics scales than did the low aesthetics group; however, differences in aesthetics had no significant effect on usability as measured by the System Usability Scale (SUS). These findings support the idea that users make independent judgments of usability and aesthetics.
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The Bot Usability Scale (BUS) is a standardised tool to assess and compare the satisfaction of users after interacting with chatbots to support the development of usable conversational systems. The English version of the 15-item BUS scale (BUS-15) was the result of an exploratory factorial analysis; a confirmatory factorial analysis tests the replicability of the initial model and further explores the properties of the scale aiming to optimise this tool seeking for the stability of the original model, the potential reduction of items, and testing multiple language versions of the scale. BUS-15 and the usability metrics for user experience (UMUX-LITE), used here for convergent validity purposes, were translated from English to Spanish, German, and Dutch. A total of 1292 questionnaires were completed in multiple languages; these were collected from 209 participants interacting with an overall pool of 26 chatbots. BUS-15 was acceptably reliable; however, a shorter and more reliable solution with 11 items (BUS-11) emerged from the data. The satisfaction ratings obtained with the translated version of BUS-11 were not significantly different from the original version in English, suggesting that the BUS-11 could be used in multiple languages. The results also suggested that the age of participants seems to affect the evaluation when using the scale, with older participants significantly rating the chatbots as less satisfactory, when compared to younger participants. In line with the expectations, based on reliability, BUS-11 positively correlates with UMUX-LITE scale. The new version of the scale (BUS-11) aims to facilitate the evaluation with chatbots, and its diffusion could help practitioners to compare the performances and benchmark chatbots during the product assessment stage. This tool could be a way to harmonise and enable comparability in the field of human and conversational agent interaction.
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In the field of digital libraries, research on user experience is sparse, especially in terms of emotions, impressions, and stimulation evoked by interaction with the digital library. Given the many different methods and tools available for assessing user experience, two questionnaires and eye-tracking were explored to see how each can contribute to understanding user experience in digital libraries. An eye-tracking study with 30 participants was carried out using two digital libraries. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed that overall, one digital library was experienced more positively, with the difference most evident in the hedonic quality. The eye-tracking data revealed different gaze patterns in the two digital libraries, with significant difference in measure values particularly on the search boxes. When eye-tracking was combined with the questionnaire data, several correlations were found, indicating that the search box position and the intuitiveness of the homepage had an impact on the user experience.
Conference Paper
The research on engineering software applications that employ artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) is at an all-time peak. However, most of the research in this area is focused on the interactions between humans and AI which, in turn, is predominantly concerned with either building immersive interfaces and user experiences that allow for increased telemetry or on handling AI and ML applications in production (MLOps). Nonetheless, the research on fundamental architectural differences between AI-powered applications and traditional ones did not receive its fair share of attention. To that end, we believe that a new take on the fundamental architecture of building software applications is needed. With the ever increasing prominence of content-driven AI-powered applications, it is our conviction that 1) content could be served by servers without clients requesting, 2) servers could (should) request data from clients without waiting for their requests, and 3) interfaces should dynamically adapt to updates that happen to the intelligence driving the application. Hence, in this paper, we propose the fluid architecture that facilitates the bidirectional interaction between clients and servers as well as accommodates the co-dependent evolution of interfaces and back-end intelligence in AI-powered systems.
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Standardised tools to assess a user’s satisfaction with the experience of using chatbots and conversational agents are currently unavailable. This work describes four studies, including a systematic literature review, with an overall sample of 141 participants in the survey (experts and novices), focus group sessions and testing of chatbots to (i) define attributes to assess the quality of interaction with chatbots and (ii) the designing and piloting a new scale to measure satisfaction after the experience with chatbots. Two instruments were developed: (i) A diagnostic tool in the form of a checklist (BOT-Check). This tool is a development of previous works which can be used reliably to check the quality of a chatbots experience in line with commonplace principles. (ii) A 15-item questionnaire (BOT Usability Scale, BUS-15) with estimated reliability between .76 and .87 distributed in five factors. BUS-15 strongly correlates with UMUX-LITE by enabling designers to consider a broader range of aspects usually not considered in satisfaction tools for non-conversational agents, e.g. conversational efficiency and accessibility, quality of the chatbot’s functionality and so on. Despite the convincing psychometric properties, BUS-15 requires further testing and validation. Designers can use it as a tool to assess products, thus building independent databases for future evaluation of its reliability, validity and sensitivity.
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Numerous authors (e.g., Popper, 1959) argue that scientists should try to falsify rather than confirm theories. However, recent empirical work (Wason and Johnson-Laird, 1972) suggests the existence of a confirmation bias, at least on abstract problems. Using a more realistic, computer controlled environment modeled after a real research setting, subjects in this study first formulated hypotheses about the laws governing events occurring in the environment. They then chose between pairs of environments in which they could: (I) make observations which would probably confirm these hypotheses, or (2) test alternative hypotheses. Strong evidence for a confirmation bias involving failure to choose environments allowing tests of alternative hypotheses was found. However, when subjects did obtain explicit falsifying information, they used this information to reject incorrect hypotheses.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This landmark volume brings together the work of the world's leading researchers in subliminal perception. This compilation marks a fundamental shift in the current study of subliminal effects: No longer in question is the notion that perception without awareness occurs. Now, the emphasis is on elucidating the parameters of subliminal effects and understanding the conditions under which stimuli perceived without awareness significantly influence affect, cognition, and behavior. "Perception Without Awareness" firmly establishes subliminal perception within the mainstream of psychological science. Well represented here are the two main research branches that have emerged: One directly investigates the nature of subliminal effects; the other uses subliminal techniques as tools for investigating psychological phenomena such as hypnosis, dreaming, repression, social judgment and inference, psychopathology, and symptom formation. Timely and thought-provoking, "Perception Without Awareness" is sure to be of enormous interest to all psychoanalytic clinicians and scholars, as well as cognitive, clinical, and social psychologists whose work touches upon issues relating to psychopathology, perception, cognition, and memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper reports a method for measuring usability in terms of task performance-achievement of frequent and critical task goals by particular users in a context simulating the work environment. The terms usability and quality in use are defined in international standards as the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which goals are achieved in a specific context of use. The performance measurement method gives measures which, in combination with measures of satisfaction, operationalize these definitions. User performance is specified and assessed by measures including task effectiveness (the quantity and quality of task performance) and User efficiency (effectiveness divided by tasktime). Measures are obtained with users performing tasks in a context of evaluation which matches the intended context of use. This can also reveal usability problems which may not become evident if the evaluator interacts with the user. The method is supported by tools which make it practical in commercial timescales. The method has been widely applied in industry, and can be adapted for use early in design, and to evaluate non-computer products and the performance of small work groups.