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Characterizing Challenged Minnesota Ballots

Authors:
  • UII America

Abstract

Photocopies of the ballots challenged in the 2008 Minnesota elections, which constitute a public record, were scanned on a high-speed scanner and made available on a public radio website. The PDF files were downloaded, converted to TIF images, and posted on the PERFECT website. Based on a review of relevant image-processing aspects of paper-based election machinery and on additional statistics and observations on the posted sample data, robust tools were developed for determining the underlying grid of the targets on these ballots regardless of skew, clipping, and other degradations caused by high-speed copying and digitization. The accuracy and robustness of a method based on both index-marks and oval targets are demonstrated on 13,435 challenged ballot page images.
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... The skewness in the ballot paper needs to be investigated as this is a common uncertainty circumstance found in reality Smith et al. (2009). The paper skew is also known as one of the types of degradation in the ballot Nagy et al. (2011). Therefore, we also test the proposed method to deal with the skewness. ...
... As shown in Table 3, the proposed method can detect well the skewness with the accuracy 80.95% even when the paper ballot is inverted. These results conform with another experiment reported in Nagy et al. (2011). ...
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... The skewness in the ballot paper needs to be investigated as this is a common uncertainty circumstance found in reality Smith et al. (2009). The paper skew is also known as one of the types of degradation in the ballot Nagy et al. (2011). Therefore, we also test the proposed method to deal with the skewness. ...
... As shown in Table 3, the proposed method can detect well the skewness with the accuracy 80.95% even when the paper ballot is inverted. These results conform with another experiment reported in Nagy et al. (2011). ...
... Endowing such tools with green interaction requires combining them with automated processing to fill out the forms for operator correction of incorrect entries. We eventually programmed automated ballot tallies [92], but never got around to combining them with the GUI. ...
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... Although virtually all ballot readers now use optical scanners with CCD or CMOS arrays, many ballot scanners still simply mimic OMR. Work by Nagy et al. [2] has found ways to reliably determine the locations of the target ovals assuming the form was designed for reading on a fixed grid OMR system. This can find the ovals and the marks if they can be identified, but often the voter will erroneously choose to mark the form in locations other than in the ovals and knowledge of the target locations will not help in finding these marks. ...
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This volume contains papers presented at E-Vote-ID 2021, the Sixth International Joint Conference on Electronic Voting, held during October 5-8, 2021. Due to the extraordinary situation provoked by Covid-19 Pandemic, the conference is held online for second consecutive edition, instead of in the traditional venue in Bregenz, Austria. E-Vote-ID Conference resulted from the merging of EVOTE and Vote-ID and counting up to 17 years since the �rst E-Vote conference in Austria. Since that conference in 2004, over 1000 experts have attended the venue, including scholars, practitioners, authorities, electoral managers, vendors, and PhD Students. The conference collected the most relevant debates on the development of Electronic Voting, from aspects relating to security and usability through to practical experiences and applications of voting systems, also including legal, social or political aspects, amongst others; turning out to be an important global referent in relation to this issue. Also, this year, the conference consisted of: { Security, Usability and Technical Issues Track { Administrative, Legal, Political and Social Issues Track { Election and Practical Experiences Track { PhD Colloquium, Poster and Demo Session on the day before the conference E-VOTE-ID 2021 received 49 submissions, being, each of them, reviewed by 3 to 5 program committee members, using a double blind review process. As a result, 27 papers were accepted for its presentation in the conference. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics connected with electronic voting, including experiences and revisions of the real uses of E-voting systems and corresponding processes in elections.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Voting, E-Vote-ID 2021, held online -due to COVID -19- in Bregenz, Austria, in October 2021. The 14 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 55 submissions. The conference collected the most relevant debates on the development of Electronic Voting, from aspects relating to security and usability through to practical experiences and applications of voting systems, as well as legal, social or political aspects.
Chapter
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In November 2000, when the now-infamous "butterfly ballot" confused crucial Florida voters during a hotly contested presidential race, the importance of well-designed ballots to a functioning democracy caught the nation's attention. Recognizing that our entire voting process—from registering to vote to following instructions at the polling place—can be almost as confusing as the Florida ballot, Design for Democracy builds on the lessons of 2000 by presenting innovative steps for redesigning elections in the service of citizens. Handsomely designed itself, this volume showcases adaptable design models that can improve almost every part of the election process by maximizing the clarity and usability of ballots, registration forms, posters and signs, informational brochures and guides, and even administrative materials for poll workers. Design for Democracy also lays out specific guidelines—covering issues of color palette, typography, and image use—that anchor the comprehensive election design system devised by the group of design specialists from whose name the book takes its title. Part of a major AIGA strategic program, this group's prototypes and recommendations have already been used successfully in major Illinois and Oregon elections and, collected here, are likely to spread across the country as more people become aware of the myriad benefits and broad applicability of improved election design. An essential tool for designers and election officials, lawmakers and citizens, Design for Democracy harnesses the power of design to increase voter confidence, promote government transparency, and, perhaps most important, create an informed electorate.
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The contributions to document image analysis of 99 papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI) are clustered, summarized, interpolated, interpreted, and evaluated
  • P S Remson
  • R Niemi
  • Mj
  • B G Rammer
  • F E Bederson
  • M W Conrad
  • Traugott
P.S. Remson, R.G> Niemi, Mj. Rammer, B.G. Bederson, F.e. Conrad, and M.W. Traugott, Voting Technology, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2008.
The Machinery of Democracy: Voting System Security, Accessibility, Usability, and Cost The Brennan Center Task Force on Voting System Security
  • Brennan Center
  • Justice
Brennan Center for Justice, The Machinery of Democracy: Voting System Security, Accessibility, Usability, and Cost, Technical report, The Brennan Center Task Force on Voting System Security, June 27 2006, http://brennan.3cdn.netlcb3 25689a9bbe2930e _ Oam6b09p4.pdf.