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A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System


Abstract and Figures

Augmented reality is one of the emerging technologies to reconstruct the historical building and monument in the previous era, where the user experiences with the real environment or virtual scene. In education, Virtual Heritage becomes as a platform of learning, motivating and understanding of certain events and historical elements for the students and researchers. The significance of reconstruction of digital culture heritage are to preserve, protect and interpret of our cultural and history. In recent year, there are a number of significant researches and techniques that have been developed, which is focusing on virtual restitution of historical sites. This paper will present an overview on augmented reality in Virtual Heritage system and also consists with the explanation of techniques to reconstruct the historical sites.
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A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage
Zakiah Noh1, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar1, and Zhigeng Pan2
1 Faculty of Computer Science and Information System, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor,
2 State Key Lab of CAD&CG, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,
310027, China
Abstract. Augmented reality is one of the emerging technologies to reconstruct
the historical building and monument in the previous era, where the user ex-
periences with the real environment or virtual scene. In education, Virtual Heri-
tage becomes as a platform of learning, motivating and understanding of certain
events and historical elements for the students and researchers. The significance
of reconstruction of digital culture heritage are to preserve, protect and interpret
of our cultural and history. In recent year, there are a number of significant re-
searches and techniques that have been developed, which is focusing on virtual
restitution of historical sites. This paper will present an overview on augmented
reality in Virtual Heritage system and also consists with the explanation of
techniques to reconstruct the historical sites.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Virtual Heritage, 3D Recon-
1 Introduction
With the increase of computational speed and advancement of specific computer
technology, virtual reality or augmented reality applications become feasible in mul-
tidisciplinary areas such as in simulation, education, entertainment, medical and
game. Furthermore, researches in Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR)
have shown considerable growth with the development of interactive computer tech-
nology and sophisticated 3D modeling packages.
Virtual Heritage is one of the computer-based interactive technologies in virtual
reality where it creates visual representation of monument, artifacts, building and
culture to deliver openly to global audiences [1]. In education, Virtual Heritage be-
comes as a platform for enhancing the learning process, motivating and understanding
of certain events and historical elements for the use of students and researchers. In
developing Virtual Heritage application, eight requirements have been specified: high
geometric accuracy, capture of all details, photorealism, high automation level, low
cost, portability, application flexibility, and model size efficiency [2].
Digital technology is used for the anthology, preservation and discovery of art and
cultural heritage. However, in the developments of the concept of cultural park, AR
A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System 51
technologies are significance on the re-enact of historical monuments to reproduce on
site historical places as in the golden period [3].
Recently, AR technology has become a well-accepted technology among
scientific community and public, which used for combining of real and virtual objects
and mixed it into the real environment. In virtual heritage, this technology is used for
improving the visitor experience of a cultural heritage site.
This paper will present a review on augmented reality in virtual heritage. Section 2
will discuss the previous research works of Virtual Heritage system. Section 3 will
elaborate about augmented reality in Virtual Heritage and Section 4 will explain fur-
ther about 3D reconstruction in AR for virtual heritage. Afterwards, we conclude this
paper with summarize the related to this study.
2 Virtual Heritage System
Mixed reality is one of the technologies that encompass all the fields of reality,
namely physical reality, augmented reality, augmented virtuality and virtual reality.
Mixed reality refers to space which consists of real and virtual elements that interact
with each other. The user will be experienced by putting them into certain type of
reality. This technology has affected various fields of applications, from sociology to
informatics and from art to architecture [4]. The concept of virtuality continuum de-
fined by Milgram and Kishino [5] that relates to the mixture of classes of objects
presented in any particular display situation.
Virtuality continuum defines the environment consisting of real object or real envi-
ronment. This real world scene can be observed either via conventional video display
or not using any particular electronic display system. For example, in cultural heritage
system, visitor can see the real museum or artifact in real scene.
The continuum also presents the virtual environment, known as Virtual Reality that
consists of only a virtual element. Virtual environment allows a user to interact with a
computer-simulated environment where the user experience is real or imagined one.
This technology completely immerses a user into an artificial environment such as in
development of virtual museum. The most current VR environments are primarily
visual experiences, which displayed either on a computer screen or through stereo-
scopic displays, speakers or headphones.
Augmented reality and augmented virtuality are two technologies in the mix reality
area. AR is a combination of real object and computer-generated data where virtual
object are blended into the real world. It means that user could see virtual and real
object coexisted in the same space. Thus, AR technologies supplement reality rather
than completely replacing it [6]. In [6], three criteria of AR system are defined: 1)
Combination of real and virtual; 2) Interactive in real-time; 3) Register in 3D. For
instance, in virtual Pompeii, the virtual characters are superimposed into a real envi-
ronment. The visitors can see the animated characters acting a storytelling drama on
the site of ancient Pompeii using mobile AR-life system’s i-glasses in the real world.
On the other hand, augmented virtuality, also referred to as mixed reality, is a
technology that merges the real world element into virtual environment. Augmented
virtuality environment is mostly in a virtual space, where physical objects are inte-
grated and interacted with the virtual world in real-time. For example, augmented
52 Z. Noh, M.S. Sunar, and Z. Pan
virtuality technologies bring the visitor into the virtual museum environment. Various
techniques are used to achieve this integration such as using streaming video from
physical spaces.
In general, the term of heritage refers to the study of everything that is inherited
and recovery to remain through the archeology, art, tradition, religious and cultural.
Cultural heritage is one of the valuable assets need to be preserved and protected for
the future generation.
The aim of Virtual Heritage is to restore ancient cultures as a real environment that
user can immerse and understand a culture. By creating ancient culture simulation,
Virtual Heritage applications become as a link between the user of the ancient culture
and the modern user. The interaction between them is one way, where the Virtual
Heritage applications are dead and user can learn about the culture by interacting with
their environment [7]. The efficient approach is to use VR in teaching students about
ancient culture by sharing social space between user and virtual world.
According to [2], there are several motivations for Virtual Heritage reconstruction
which are:
Documenting historic buildings and objects for reconstruction in case of disaster;
Creating educational resources for history and culture;
Reconstructing historic monuments that no longer or only partially exist;
Visualizing scenes from viewpoints impossible in the real world due to size or
accessibility issues;
Interacting with objects without risk of damage; and
Providing virtual tourism and virtual museum exhibits.
Currently, Virtual Heritage has become increasingly important in the preservation,
protection, and collection of our cultural and natural history. The world’s resources of
historical in many countries are being lost and destroyed. With the establishing of
new technology, it can be used as a solution for solving problematic issues concerning
cultural heritage assets [8]. The paradigms of Virtual Heritage project are discussed in
the following section.
2.1 Virtual Hagia Sophia
Virtual Hagia Sophia was developed by researchers from MIRALab at University of
Geneva [9]. It was under the Conservation of the Acoustical Heritage by the Revival
and Identification of the Sinan’s Mosques (CAHRISMA) project. Hagia Sophia
Museum formerly was a mosque which is known as Masjid Sinan. The aim of this
project is to develop an interactive simulation of Hagia Sophia museum that produces
realistic environment with the illumination. This project also presented the simulation
of characters and sound background.
2.2 Ancient Malacca Project
The purpose of Ancient Malacca project [10] is to produce the visualization of envi-
ronment at Malay Sultanate of Malacca era during Sultan Mansur Syah's rule in 15th
century. This project was developed in 2003 at Virtual Reality Center at Multimedia
Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC) in Cyberjaya. The Ancient Malacca
A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System 53
Fig. 1. Ancient Malacca Virtual Heritage application [10]
project is based on research works done by historian that study about Malay Sultanate
of Malacca history. The visualization of Ancient Malacca project was implemented
by using high specification machine, namely SGI Onyx 3800 with 16 CPUs. This
visualization was developed by using Iris Performer's software and displayed using
dome approach. Fig. 1 shows the screenshot of Ancient Malacca project.
2.3 Virtual Campeche
Virtual Campeche [11] was created to simulate an old Mexican city located on the
Yucatan Peninsula. It was found by the Spanish in 1540. In 2001, UNESCO declared
Campeche as a World Cultural Heritage site. By creating the virtual Campeche, it
allows the user to visit virtual Campeche through a web-based application using stan-
dard PCs. It was developed based on standard approach that is data acquisition and
building reconstruction. To maximize interactivity and system responsiveness, three
main techniques was applied in the virtual Campeche; 1) level of detail, 2) progres-
sive scene display, 3) potential visibility computation.
2.4 Virtual Pompeii
In 1995, the virtual Pompeii project [12] was developed to recreate the theater area of
the ancient Roman city of Pompeii in virtual space. This project has integrated with
models of the Temple of Isis, the grand Theater, the Triangular Forum and connecting
areas in three dimensional. The supporting historical documentation, original musical,
dramatic compositions and imagery sources also have been produced in this project.
To construct an interactive historical recreation, virtual Pompeii project has exploited
the new immersive Virtual Reality as a medium.
3 Augmented Reality in Virtual Heritage
Recently, AR is widely being used in many applications such as education, entertain-
ment, virtual heritage, simulation and games. In virtual heritage, AR is used to en-
hance the overall experience of the visitor of a cultural heritage site. Furthermore,
with the interactive, realistic and complex AR system, it can enhance, motivate and
stimulate students’ understanding of certain events, especially for the traditional no-
tion of instructional learning that has proven inappropriate or difficult [13]. With the
54 Z. Noh, M.S. Sunar, and Z. Pan
increasing of development current technologies, a lot of projects related with AR
technologies are present, for example in Virtual Heritage application. The paradigms
of AR in Virtual Heritage project are discussed in the following section.
3.1 Ancient Pompeii
Papagiannakis et al. [14][15][16] described mixing virtual and real scenes in the site
of ancient Pompeii. Ancient Pompeii is a symbolic site for European cultural identity
and archeology history. This project is based on 3D reconstruction of ancient frescos-
paintings for real-time revival of their fauna and flora, featuring groups of virtual
animated characters with artificial life dramaturgical behaviors in an immersive, fully
mobile AR environment.
In this project, video-see-through HMD is used to capture real scene. After that, this
scene was blended by precise real-time registration and 3D modeling of realistic com-
plete simulation of virtual humans and plants in a real-time storytelling scenario based
on the environment. These virtual humans are completely with real-time body, speech,
face expression and cloth simulation. The project was performed in a mobile and wear-
able setup with markerless tracked camera and was implemented in real-time.
Fig. 2. Virtual human character in ancient Pompeii (Left) and AR scenario with plant simula-
tion (Right) [15][16]
3.2 AR Based System for Personalized Tours in Cultural Heritage Sites
The project developed by ARCHEOGUIDE [17][18] is associated with the develop-
ment of personalized electronic guide and tour assistant. The system was developed to
transform the method of viewing and learning about a cultural heritage site for the
visitors. In this beginning of system, the visitors are providing with user profile repre-
senting their interest and background. Then, the system provides a set of predefined
tour that the visitor must choose. From that, the system will guide the visitor through
the site, acting as a special instrument. To display AR reconstruction of the temples
and other monuments of the site, the system will depend on the position-orientation
tracking component. Fig. 3 illustrates the natural view from the visitor’s viewpoint
and followed by the same view augmented with the 3D model. The site visitors are
wearing AR glasses to see the 3D image display. This system is handy unit carried by
visitor during their site tours and communication networks.
A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System 55
Fig. 3. Original image (Left) and Augmented image (Right) of Ancient Olympic Games [18]
3.3 ARICH and ARCO Projects
Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage (ARICH) and Augmented Representation of
Cultural Objects (ARCO) has been discussed in [19]. For visualization of archaeo-
logical artifacts, ARICH project focuses on the design, development and implementa-
tion of an indoor augment reality system. The scope of this project covers the
automated modeling from architectural plans to efficient and realistic AR rendering.
The archaeologist provided 2D architectural plans to ARICH project as the input of
the system. Meanwhile, in ARCO project, it is based on novel and robust digital cap-
ture and presentation technique. The overview of this project is to technical solution
for automated creation of virtual cultural objects using object modeling through
photogrammetry. Enhancement of these objects, management of all data and re-
enactment and arrangement of the collections and their environment based on
augmented interface or a web browser.
3.4 Virtual Reality for Archeological Maya Cities
Ruiz et al. [20] developed the VR for archeological Maya Cities. Their project is
based on reconstruction of Calakmul’s archeological site located in the State of Cam-
peche, Mexico. AR technology is used in this system to give the visitor two different
sights of the same situation. At the one sight, the system will present a state of the
funerals which it’s physically reproduction. Another sight, the system can present
accordingly with laboratory test, which is theoretically virtual superposition of the
elements of Calakmul. The visitors can use this virtual Calakmul system in several
ways: 1) As a looped-projection of pre-established walkthrough around the structured;
2) As a self guided experience with or without immersive devices; 3) As a guided tour
for learning of each structure aided with an intelligent agent provided with a voice
recognition system. The advantage of virtual technology for Calakmul archeological
site is to provide more information and understanding about the Calakmul’s building
where the location is very deep in the tropical forest which requires five hours trip just
to see it.
3.5 The PRISMA Project
F. Fritz et al. [3] were presented the PRISMA project. The purpose of this project is to
design, develop and implement of new 3D visualization device based on AR
56 Z. Noh, M.S. Sunar, and Z. Pan
technologies that incorporates with a tourist application. The concepts of this combi-
nation are known as tourist binoculars with AR system, which multimedia personal-
ized interactive information can enhance the real scene in order to increase the user
experience. With these technologies, the user can retrieve interactive multimodal
information about monuments and historical buildings. Basically, the PRISMA sys-
tem record the real-time video stream using a video-see through visualization system
composed of a camera. To visualize the scene, this project used visualization device
that is binoculars and the point of view and rotation of the binocular is track by iner-
tial sensor. The camera mounted on the binoculars will capture the field of view of
the spectator. Then, it will send to the processing unit to add graphical data and the
augmented stream is sent back to the binocular screens.
4 3D Reconstruction Techniques for AR in Virtual Heritage
AR technologies are becaming increasingly popular. This technologies not only prac-
tically for the AR system developers but also for the scientific community. However,
the development of AR technologies involved the several issues as depicted in Fig. 4.
This figure illustrates the overview of AR issues in Virtual Heritage that have been
studied and well-structured that is reconstruction, registration, rendering or animation
and position orientation tracking. According to [6], registration is the one of problem
that limiting in building effective AR applications. Registration means an accurate
alignment of real and virtual elements. Without accurate registration, AR will not be
accepted in many applications because it fails to show precise results. In [14][15], the
project associated with the simulation of virtual humans and plants in a real-time. The
issues with the rendering and animation are considering increasing the realism and the
presence of the user in the scene. Besides that, virtual animation system currently
does not consider interaction with object in the scene. Position and orientation track-
ing system relates with the issues of position and direction of view. Based on [26],
there are a few current tracking technologies that offer high accuracy and low latency
Fig. 4. Structure of AR in Virtual Heritage
A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System 57
Table 1. Techniques for 3D Reconstruction
This technique commonly used for geometric surfaces of architecture
objects [21][22] or for precise terrain modeling. Image-based modeling
refers to the use of images to make the reconstruction of 3D models. It is
use a mathematical model to pick up 3D object information from 2D image
dimensions or they get 3D data using methods such as shape from shading,
texture, specularity, contour and from 2D edge gradients. Image-based 3D
modeling method consists of several steps: 1) design (sensor and network
geometry); 2) measurement (point, cloud, lines); 3) structuring/modeling
(geometry, texture); 4) visualization/analysis [23]. The advantage of
image-based representations is the capability to represent arbitrary
geometry. For modeling complete geometric structures, it is typically
essential to remove the labor-intensive task through this approach. This
technique also can handle subtle real-world effects captured by images, but
difficult to reproduce with usual graphics techniques [21].
3D geometric information of an object can directly capture through this
technique. It is based on costly active sensor that often lack in texture
information, but can give a very detailed and precise illustration of most
shapes. However, the information of texture or color can be attached from
the scanner through color channel or from separate digital camera,
[22][23]. Textures with high-resolution color that get from separate digital
camera support the creation of realistic 3D models. To wrap every aspect
of the object, it is generally required to make multiple scans from different
locations, which appropriate to object size, shape and occlusions. The
alignment and combination of the different scans can influence the final
accuracy of the 3D model, where every scanner has different range of
accuracy. Besides that, range-based modeling can provide precise and
complete details with a high degree of automation for small and medium
size objects, which up to the size of a human [22].
Image-based rendering uses images as modeling and rendering primitives.
The goal of this technique is to get more realistic and faster renderings and
to simplify the modeling task. This technique is considered as a good
technique for the generation of virtual view, where particular objects and
under specific camera motions and scene conditions. From the input image,
this technique creates novel view of 3D environment. In general, image-
based rendering technique is only used for applications requiring limited
visualization. The technique relies on accurate camera positions or
performing automatic stereo matching, where the absence of geometry
data, need a large number of closely spaced images to succeed [23]. Most
of image-based rendering match to image-geometry hybrids, by means of
the equivalent amount of geometry ranging from per-pixel depth to
hundreds of polygons [21].
Photogrammetric is an instrument for the efficient and accurate gaining
of information for topographic and thematic mapping applications. High
geometric accuracy can attain using photogrammetric methods, even
though without capturing all fine geometric details. To get image data, it
58 Z. Noh, M.S. Sunar, and Z. Pan
Table 1. (Continued)
can be acquired from ground level or at different altitude and with different
sensors. The main benefit of photogrammetric technique is the possibility
to simultaneously provide both geometry and surface texture for depicted
objects [24].
of image-and
The combinations of technique require the modeling of large structures and
scenes because there is no single technique by itself can efficiently provide
the complete model. Thus, the coherent solution is determined by image-
based methods and get details by laser scanning. The aerial and terrestrial
images for the main shapes and laser scanning for fine geometric details to
fully model the abbey of Pomposa in Italy have already used by [2]. [25]
combined the 3D technologies to model the heritage site of Selinunte and a
Byzanthine Crypt near Lecce (Italy) [22][23].
but none of the available system appropriate for outdoor usage with adequate preci-
sion such as for [17][18].
However, in this paper, reconstruction in AR will describe more details. In devel-
opment of reconstruction cultural heritage, 3D modeling became an important and
elementary step in the process of development. Nowadays, there are many investiga-
tions have been conducted in the fields of 3D modeling object. This is because 3D
modeling object can be used in many applications such as visualization, navigation,
animation and inspection. It also can be seen as complete process that starts from data
acquirement until ends with 3D virtual model visually on a computer screen. Based
on previous research works, there is no single technique that can be considered as a
best technique for all applications including reconstruction of cultural heritage. Most
of the techniques that were proposed have different accuracy, consistency and facility
to capture details and their level of automation.
On the other hand, in this study, the reconstruction technique is emphasized in or-
der to get accuracy and photorealistic 3D measurements. In [22] 3D object measure-
ment and reconstruction technique are divide in two: contact methods and non-contact
methods. In contact methods, coordinate measuring machines, calipers, rules and
bearing are used, meanwhile in non-contact methods, it used tool likes X-ray, SAR,
photogrammetry and laser scanning. Currently, the generation of 3D model is achiev-
ing using non-contact systems based on light waves. Several techniques for recon-
struction in Virtual Heritage application are shown in Table 1.
5 Conclusion and Discussion
We have presented a review of AR in Virtual Heritage studies that focuses on 3D
reconstruction of cultural heritage. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technology
are commonly used for cultural heritage purposes which focus on learning process, as
well as for education and entertainment through interactive experience. Virtual reality
technologies are totally simulated the environment, which commonly immerse the
user into synthetic environments. The user experiences in virtual reality environments
A Review on Augmented Reality for Virtual Heritage System 59
are real. Meanwhile, AR technology is a combination of real and virtual objects,
where virtual spaces are mixed with the physical spaces. Furthermore, AR can pro-
vide more information and knowledge for user to gain. For instance, in virtual Pom-
peii, the visitors can observe the animated characters perform in a storytelling drama
on the site of ancient Pompeii using mobile AR-life system’s i-glasses in the real
world environment. On the other hand, augmented contribute virtual in reality rather
than replace the real world.
In this paper, several projects related to AR and Virtual Heritage developed by
previous researchers have been discussed. In virtual heritage, every object in real
world such as museum must be modeled to create interactive virtual environment.
Hence, the system required a lot of memory to render every model that has been cre-
ated. Ultimately, it increases the computation cost and reduces the rendering speed in
order to perform large-scale sites. AR in Virtual Heritage is not required a lot of space
of memory. This is due to AR is not modeled everything in real world, but only adds a
certain virtual object in the real world. Thus, this may speed up the rendering process
because only small quantity of virtual objects will be rendered and overcome the
computation cost problems. The overview on AR issues in Virtual Heritage that have
been studied and well-structured consists of reconstruction, registration, rendering or
animation and position orientation tracking. However, in this paper, a major focus is
reconstruction in AR. The importance of reconstruction of digital culture heritage is
to preserve, protect and interpret of our cultural and history.
This paper will bring benefits especially for academic purposes and research stud-
ies in Virtual Heritage application. This Virtual Heritage application can enhance and
stimulate student’s understanding of certain features particularly for inappropriate or
difficult learning instructional. As a conclusion, we hope that this study is useful for
the AR system developer and therefore, contributing to the computer graphics com-
We would like to express our appreciation to Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
and Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) for provid-
ing financial support for this research through eScienceFund grant (79282).
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... Tourism is facing new opportunities for digital transformation and situational immersion of cultural heritage protection. Alternative experiences based on virtual visual presentation minimize interference with heritage sites [14]; augmented reality (AR) is applied to digital heritage services to enhance immersive experience and perceived value [11,15]. In recent years, the service scope of digital heritage has involved not only the digital presentation of landscape but also cultural relics and events. ...
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As a result of the post-pandemic situation, enhancing digital heritage services has become one of the key issues for the recovery of tourism. Disruptive innovation in human–computer interaction technology has brought new opportunities for digitalization and intelligent transformation in the contemporary cultural tourism industry. Existing research on the adoption behavior of digital heritage services primarily focuses on users’ assessments of behavior results. There is a considerable gap in research about the interaction and value co-creation between users and digital intelligence services and users’ cognitive construction logic of digital heritage services. Following reciprocal determinism, we propose a conceptual model to deconstruct the detailed transmission path of interactive affordance and sensory affordance to digital heritage adoption. In Study 1, a lab experiment in an AI-assisted smart screen digital heritage service context revealed that interactive affordance and user adoption of digital heritage services were partially mediated by psychological distance. Findings from a between-subject online experiment in Study 2 confirmed that embodied cognition and psychological distance play a parallel intermediary role in the impact of sensory affordance on adoption. In Study 3, a lab experiment in a VR-based digital museum context further verified that information overload moderates the influence of embodied cognition on psychological distance. This research reveals the deep-bounded, rational decision-making logic of digital heritage service adoption and provides significant practical enlightenment for the optimization of the affordance experience.
... In the Spanish context, some authors [66] point out that we learned the first results from applying virtuality to heritage in 2000 [67,68]. Although within this national scope, in museum and heritage spaces, the starting point for this technology did not arrive until 2010 [68], when the first museum installations using AR gradually appeared in Europe [64]. ...
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As a consequence of the scarcity of studies of augmented reality (AR) in Spain, this study developed a questionnaire to evaluate teachers’ perceptions on the use of AR for heritage teaching (n = 347 teachers: n = 131 in-service/n = 216 in-training). The objectives were to: (1) identify teachers’ existing knowledge about AR; (2) evaluate educational strategies teachers value most in AR apps for teaching; (3) evaluate necessary AR functions; (4) determine desired technical and functional characteristics; and (5) compare any significant differences between the two groups. The results provide a contribution to the increasing implementation of AR apps in heritage education, which promotes the understanding, enjoyment, experience and knowledge of heritage. Heritage education is increasingly present in Spanish classrooms due to awareness of the country’s rich heritage, and AR is a good tool for understanding and linking society with its heritage. From the results, it is clear that, despite their desire for implementation, there is a lack of teacher training in applying AR; both subsamples pointed out the importance of humanising the explanations in AR apps with experts or actors who mediate heritage and value the ease of use of these apps, multifunctionality, low battery consumption, and use in the background. Significant differences suggest potentially greater educational commitment among active teachers who seek deep and meaningful learning, above the superficiality and enjoyment reported by teachers in training and, on the contrary, the value placed on technical and visual aspects, related to the high use of mobile devices.
... ) with the real world, and, compared with AR, can achieve a broader goal in enhancing our understanding of the real and virtual environment. (M. Mengoni et al., 2018;Bekele & Champion, 2019). Over the years different studies have proved the feasibility of different application in cultural heritage based on VR, AR and MR (M. Carrozzino et al., 2010;Z. Noh et al., 2009;H. Rua et al., 2011;Z. He et al., 2018;A. Leopardi et al., 2019). The connection of the tangible and intangible characteristics helps to establish meaning and disseminate significance . Yet the relationship between the tangible and intangible is relatively weak in existing digital heritage, just presenting the physical exhibitions into a ...
This study examines the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) in gaining historical empathy skills. AR cards were used in different periods of the history lesson. A mixed design method including pre-test and post-test is used to A mixed methods research design with pre-test and post-test is used to determine the developments in empathy skills using the Historical Empathy Scale. Also, interviews were carried out to explore the role of AR in the development of historical empathy skills. The results indicated that using AR cards positively affected the development of empathy skills. Constructing mental schemas and visualization of historical events were the remarkable factors that mostly contributed positively to the development of empathy skills. We hope that the findings of this study would assist in the future design and implementation of AR in history courses.
This paper examines the process of developing an on-site innovative workflow for virtually reconstructing and representing the ruined Southern Decumanus of Jerash. The workflow involves capturing several related segments of disassembled and damaged Corinthian pillars using a digital camera to be imported into a 3D automated photogrammetric reconstruction-based software. The process uses digital photographs acquired in the field to reconstruct and reassemble virtually all the destroyed parts using Agisoft Metashape – a tool for photogrammetry pipeline – and Autodesk Meshmixer – a software for editing and cleaning meshes. The process also discusses managing and implementing the virtually reconstructed outputs utilising Unreal Engine (UE) to create an entire 3D virtual interactive environment for the Southern Decumanus. The new Virtual Reality (VR) system of Oculus Quest has been used in this research for visualisation and experiencing the reconstructed, reassembled virtual archaeological site. The experimental VR simulation would allow a future visitor an enhanced walk-through featuring an off-site interactive, immersive experience compared to the real-world one, which does not exist in reality and is therefore unavailable in-situ.
Augmented reality applications for Cultural Heritage have been implemented in the last years. The use of AR is currently diffused for many purposes, from technical and managing activities to dissemination. On the communication side, the main potential of such approach is the extension of human sight as to cover simultaneously the current situation of a point of interest (monuments, archaeological sites, artifacts, etc.) and the reconstruction of its ancient condition in different historical periods. Moreover, it allows to compare different possible hypotheses and evaluate the reliability of each of them in the general context of the known data. Despite the current limits of AR (due to the approximation in device positioning), which still influence the use of applications for mobile use, such technology is very promising in the fields of tourism, education, and entertainment; it allows to enrich 3D scenarios with different types of content. In the next future, it is reasonable to imagine a huge amount of information, in different formats, potentially reachable by people simply having a look at the remains of the ancient past and choosing their favorite topics. At the same time, the connection of AR with other emerging technological infrastructures (such as IoT) will allow to collect, view, and manage simultaneously lots of real-time diagnostic data in the same framework. This will foster the research activity toward the definition of new communication metaphors and cognitive solutions.
There is widespread confusion over the terms augmented reality, mixed reality, and virtual reality, but there is a further term as well, augmented virtuality. A new term, Extended Reality, or XR, promises to do away with the confusion by gathering all of the terms under its umbrella label. But there is also the apparently new concept of the Metaverse, which has again confused, inspired, or irritated. Rather than attempt to cover all the major developments of this rapidly changing field, this chapter selects highlights that provide particular opportunities and issues of concern for the field of virtual heritage.KeywordsVirtual realityVirtual environmentAugmented realityVirtual worldAugmented virtualityMixed realityExtended reality (XR)
Augmented reality (AR) is emerging rapidly in the field of Heritage Interpretation due to its feasible availability and accessibility. Heritage tourism is more concerned about the visitor experience at Historical sites, and AR can enhance this experience. The enhancement of tourist experience and better interpretations comes from better documentation. The advent of technology calls for user-friendly and cost-effective tools for the documentation of heritage structures. Photogrammetry helps people recreate three-dimensional (3D) virtual models with fewer resources and lesser time and high-resolution textures. AR representation of buildings is highly efficient to showcase conjectural models where there is a lack of structural evidence. Instead of actual reconstruction, the use of AR preserves the authenticity and integrity of the structure. This paper focuses on creating a minimum file size 3D model with the digital data recorded from Kashi Vishweshwar Temple, Kalabgoor, Telangana, India. It is a High-Resolution Photogrammetry model which is integrated into Augmented Reality. The working on Interactive Features, Accuracy of Floor Tracking, and Image Tracking are also explored in this analysis.
Design and computer graphics curricula for tertiary education include 3-D modeling skills. Students have to learn to represent (complex) 3-D objects by means of parametric surfaces or polygonal meshes. Three-dimensional modeling may be a complex task and students have to be able to accrue a certain deal of experience in the field before passing the exam. The main difficulties the students have to face mainly concern the comprehension of 3-D shapes and the choice of the most appropriate modeling techniques. This paper proposes a framework to support bachelor students of the design degree in modeling 3-D objects by means of parametric surfaces. The proposed framework provides two augmented reality (AR) apps for smartphones and a web portal. The mobile AR apps allow students to deeply visualize 3-D object shapes, thus performing a set of guided exercises in order to take practice in basic modeling techniques. On the other hand, the web portal allows students to share their models with teachers and classmates to get feedback and comments. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of the proposed solution as all volunteers involved in the experimental phase achieved better results after using the tools. Moreover, the students' opinions about the proposed framework are positive.
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Virtual Heritage (VH) is the use of electronic media to recreate or interpret culture and cultural artifacts as they are today or as they might have been in the past (Moltenbrey, 2001; Roehl, 1997). By definition, VH applications employ some kind of three dimensional representation; the means used to display it range from still photos to immersive Virtual Reality. Virtual Heritage is a very active area of research and development in both the academic and the commercial realms. (Roehl, 1997; Mitchell and Economou, 2000; Addison, 2000; Stone and Ojika, 2002; Champion, 2004b; Champion and Sekiguichi, 2004; Levy, 2004). Most VH applications are intended for some kind of educational use. While the main activity of virtual heritage is to create ancient artifacts, the real goal is to understand ancient cultures. Most VH applications are architectural reconstructions, centered on a reconstructed building or monument. However, in the same way that archaeologists and historians study the artifacts because they are the primary cultural evidence we have, VH uses architecture as a frame for recreating ancient cultures. The larger goal of VH is to recreate ancient cultures, not as dead simulations, but as living museums where students/users can enter and understand a culture that is different from their own. The closest analog is the real-world living museums, where actors in period dress occupy a life-size historical setting and interact with the visitors. Ultimately, we would like to see the users themselves creating activities in the virtual space as a way of exploring different cultural viewpoints. For example, students who know about the Virtual Egyptian Temple (Jacobson and Holden, 2005) and the supporting material may attempt to recreate activities there. In doing so, they would learn about what is and is not possible in the architectural and cultural space. In this paper we will begin by reviewing the issues and tradeoffs around building the architectural models for VH applications. These models are crucial in themselves and many of the issues involved in designing and creating them also apply to the dynamic and interactive aspects of VR. Then, we will touch on issues of how to bring culture to life in VR, the strengths and limitations for VR technology for VH applications. Finally, we will present the Virtual Egyptian Temple, our current project, as a working example.
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A virtual reality reconstruction of the Theater District in the Roman city of Pompeii is now available at no cost for all uses in art and education, at "". It includes supporting materials, such as a written introduction to the history of the area, a library of scanned images, and original musical and dramatic compositions. The original materials were produced for the "Pompeii Project" at Carnegie Mellon's Studio for Creative Inquiry in 1995/96. Silicon Graphics and other donors sponsored the project which showed at the DeYoung Museum in 1995. Educators may use these materials for direct instruction in Roman art, architecture and culture (show-and-tell learning design), as a resource for student projects (constructionist), as an electronic meeting place in an educational online shared community (constructivist), for a learning game or for applications in Museum education.
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In this paper we address the main problems and available solutions for the genera- tion of 3D models from terrestrial images. Close range photogrammetry deals since many years with manual or automatic image measurements for precise 3D modeling. Nowadays 3D scan- ners are also becoming a standard source for input data in many application areas, but image- based modeling still remain the most complete, cheap, portable, flexible and widely used ap- proach. After reviewing the different 3D shape techniques for surface reconstruction, we will report the full pipeline for 3D modeling from image data. Some modeling methods are also de- scribed and different examples are presented.
Conference Paper
This paper presents the ARCHEOGUIDE project (Augmented Reality-based Cultural Heritage On-site GUIDE). ARCHEOGUIDE is an IST project, funded by the EU, aiming at providing a personalized electronic guide and tour assistant to cultural site visitors. The system provides on-site help and Augmented Reality reconstructions of ancient ruins, based on user's position and orientation in the cultural site, and realtime image rendering. It incorporates a multimedia database of cultural material for on-line access to cultural data, virtual visits, and restoration information. It uses multi-modal user interfaces and personalizes the flow of information to its user's profile in order to cater for both professional and recreational users, and for applications ranging from archaeological research, to education, multimedia publishing, and cultural tourism. This paper presents the ARCHEOGUIDE system and the experiences gained from the evaluation of an initial prototype by representative user groups at the archeological site of Olympia, Greece.
This paper describes the development of an interactive visualization system based on Augmented Reality Tech- nologies and the integration into a tourist application. The basic idea is the combination of the commonly known concept of tourist binoculars with Augmented Reality. By means of Augmented Reality, the real scene is enhanced by multimedia personalized interactive information to increase the tourist experience of the user, who can retrieve this information by a user-friendly interface.