Conference Paper

Cluster-Based Forwarding for Reliable End-to-End Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign
DOI: 10.1109/INFCOM.2007.224 Conference: INFOCOM 2007. 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, 6-12 May 2007, Anchorage, Alaska, USA
Source: DBLP


Providing efficient and reliable communication in wireless sensor networks is a challenging problem. To recover from corrupted packets, previous approaches have tried to use retransmissions and FEC mechanisms. The energy efficiency of these mechanisms, however, is very sensitive to unreliable links. In this paper, we present cluster-based forwarding, where each node forms a cluster such that any node in the next-hop's cluster can take forwarding responsibility. This architecture, designed specifically for wireless sensor networks, achieves better energy-efficiency by reducing retransmissions. Cluster-based forwarding is not a routing protocol. Rather, it is designed as an extension layer that can augment existing routing protocols. Using simulations, we demonstrate that cluster-based forwarding is effective in improving both end-to-end energy efficiency and latency of current routing protocols.

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Available from: Robin Kravets
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    • "Furthermore , the forwarding schedules in all related schemes are not proper, where the interferences may still exist among two hops' transmissions, even though priority timer-based forwarding is utilized in [27] [31]. Similar to existing braided multipath routings, the size of forwarding list has not been explored in detail, and only depends on the density of network deployment in almost schemes [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30], which does not adapt to the varying and heterogeneous wireless links. R3E [31] relies on the common neighbor nodes between two adjacent hops on the guide path, and hence cannot tolerate the case that the number of common neighbor nodes gets small or asymmetric links appear, under which the network performance will get worse sharply. "
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    • "They proposed a concept called collective ACKs which solves the ACK storm problem [30] by inferring the success of a transmission to a receiver based on the ACKs from other neighboring receivers. More generally , link correlation has a broad impact on network protocols that utilize concurrent wireless links, which include but are not limited to (i) traditional network protocols such as broadcast [27] [32], multi-cast [12] [16], and multi-path routing [13], or (ii) diversitybased protocols such as opportunistic forwarding [5] [7] [10], collaborative forwarding [6], and network coding [2] [21] [25]. "
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    • "Intra-channel interference caused by external signals in the unlicensed shared spectrum can also lead to link correlations where the interferer's signal can corrupt neighboring links simultaneously. Link correlation has significant effects on diversity based algorithms in wireless networks such as opportunistic routing [4], network coding [5] and collaborative forwarding [6]. Without considering link correlation, modeling and simulating such algorithms often overestimates their performances [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: By exploiting reception diversity of wireless network links, researchers have shown that opportunistic routing can improve network performance significantly over traditional routing schemes. However, recently empirical studies indicate that we are too optimistic, i.e. diversity gain can be overestimated if we continue to assume that packet receptions of wireless links are independent events. For the first time, this paper formally analyzes the opportunistic routing gain under the presence of link correlation considering the loss of DATA and ACK packets. Based on the model, we introduce a new link-correlation-aware opportunistic routing scheme, which improves the performance by exploiting the diverse uncorrelated forwarding links. Our design is evaluated using simulation where we show (i) link correlation leads to less diversity gain, (ii) and with our link-correlation-aware design; improvement can be gained. We also provide a unique model to generate strings of randomly correlated receptions.
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