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Construction and evaluation of a user experience
Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
SAP AG, Dietmar-Hopp-Allee 16, 69190 Walldorf, Germany
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract. An end-user questionnaire to measure user experience quickly in a
simple and immediate way while covering a preferably comprehensive
impression of the product user experience was the goal of the reported
construction process. An empirical approach for the item selection was used to
ensure practical relevance of items. Usability experts collected terms and
statements on user experience and usability, including ‘hard’ as well as ‘soft’
aspects. These statements were consolidated and transformed into a first
questionnaire version containing 80 bipolar items. It was used to measure the
user experience of software products in several empirical studies. Data were
subjected to a factor analysis which resulted in the construction of a 26 item
questionnaire including the six factors Attractiveness, Perspicuity, Efficiency,
Dependability, Stimulation, and Novelty. Studies conducted for the original
German questionnaire and an English version indicate a satisfactory level of
reliability and construct validity.
Keywords. User experience; Software evaluation; User satisfaction;
Questionnaire; Usability assessment; Perceived usability
Questionnaires are a commonly used tool for the user-driven assessment of software
quality and usability. They allow an efficient quantitative measurement of product
Some questionnaires can under certain circumstances be used as a stand-alone
evaluation method, e. g. the IsoMetrics questionnaire . But in general, user
questionnaires have to be combined with other quality assessment methods to achieve
interpretable results (see e. g. ). In such a context, some usability questionnaires
provide rough indicators for certain product features , while others are designed to
discover specific usability problems (e. g. SUMI, see ). In any case, the results
have to be interpreted by a trained usability expert, taking into account also the results
from other assessment methods that have been used.
Author’s version of: Laugwitz, B., Schrepp, M. & Held, T. (2008). Construction and evaluation of a user experience
questionnaire. In: Holzinger, A. (Ed.): USAB 2008, LNCS 5298, S. 63-76.
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89350-9_6
2 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
The quantitative data from an assessment done by the users of a product can be a
useful addition to methods that allow a sophisticated assessment of the strengths and
weaknesses of interactive products, like for example usability tests or heuristic
evaluation methods .
A very effective way to get helpful feedback by end-users is to allow them to
assess what concerns them most immediately: How did the interaction with the
product feel, how was the use experience? This does not only include usability
aspects as they are described by ISO 9241-10  or the criteria of effectiveness or
efficiency according to ISO 9241-11 . The more fuzzy criteria that are subsumed
under the concept of user experience goals  are an even more promising subject to
a questionnaire assessment done by the users themselves. These criteria are for
example reflected in the concepts of hedonic quality  or user satisfaction according
to ISO 9241-11  (for a deeper discussion on user satisfaction see e. g. ).
The objective of the construction process described below was to develop a
questionnaire that allows a quick assessment done by end users covering a preferably
comprehensive impression of user experience. It should allow the users in a very
simple and immediate way to express feelings, impressions, and attitudes that arise
when experiencing the product under investigation.
The available questionnaires lay emphasis on one or two of the mentioned criteria
but none meets all three requirements. This paper contains an overview over the
objectives, theoretical assumptions, and procedure of the construction process as well
as the results of some validation studies investigating the quality of the questionnaire.
2 Construction of the Questionnaire
Quick assessment: Generally, questionnaires are a particularly efficient method to
apply and analyze. The application of some questionnaires may nevertheless be rather
time consuming when the absolute amount of time is considered. With the SUMI
questionnaire  the users have to decide on their level of agreement with 50
statements on usability. The long version of IsoMetrics  requires ratings for 75
different items. In these cases, the goal is to achieve a comprehensive usability
evaluation including detailed descriptions of particular usability problems, on the sole
basis of the questionnaire data. This is not what our questionnaire aims at. Rather, it is
supposed to be an efficient tool to enhance the results from expert evaluations or
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 3
Comprehensive impression of user experience: Traditional methods often focus on
usability criteria in a narrower sense, which correspond roughly to the concepts of
usability goals  or pragmatic quality . More recent approaches increasingly give
attention to the subjective reactions, also including emotional aspects of the user’s
experience, which can be subsumed under the concept of user satisfaction as outlined
in ISO 9241-11 . These criteria are also referred to as user experience goals , or
as hedonic quality aspects . A discussion of relevant usability criteria for special
user groups, for example elderly persons, can be found in .
According to Norman  product design affects users on three levels of
information processing, namely on a visceral level, on a behavioral level, and on a
reflective level. This implies that usability criteria do not cover all aspects relevant for
the user experience. This is also supported by studies (for example ) which show
that there is a dependency between aesthetic impression of a user interface and its
It could be shown that semantic differentials for assessing the pragmatic and
hedonic quality (e. g. ) are applicable not only to the evaluation of websites or
games but also for business software . However, this particular questionnaire
(AttrakDiff2) lays a greater emphasis on the hedonic aspects of product quality than
on the pragmatic aspects. This may not be perfectly appropriate for a comprehensive
evaluation of professional software. A contrary perspective is represented by the
SUMI questionnaire . Here only one of six scales aims at the measurement of
An overall picture has to include as many product aspects and features as possible
that are of relevance for the user. For the new questionnaire no potential (hedonic or
pragmatic) criteria should be excluded or favored a priori. The initial item pool should
include a range of criteria as wide as possible, reduction and selection taking place on
the basis of empirical data using an explorative factor analysis.
Simple and immediate: How does the interaction with the product feel? Which were
the most striking features of the product and of the interaction? The user should be
enabled to give his rating about the product as immediately and spontaneously as
possible. A deeper rational analysis should be avoided.
The questionnaire should not force the user to make abstract statements about the
interaction experience or remember details that are likely to be forgotten or had been
overlooked in the first place. An explicit evaluation demanded by the user
retrospectively is not always reliable (see e.g. ). This is supported by results 
where differently colored UIs affected users’ feelings differently (e. g. as measured
with a mood questionnaire), while this difference was not reflected by users’ answers
on questions regarding the UI quality.
Experts are able to evaluate user interfaces in detail. Detailed data can also be
gained from the observation of a user when interacting with the product. Thus, a user
questionnaire can lay its emphasis on criteria which are accessible immediately: the
user’s subjective perception of product features and their immediate impact on the
4 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
2.2 Theoretical Background
For the construction of our questionnaire we rely on a theoretical framework of user
experience . This research framework distinguishes between perceived ergonomic
quality, perceived hedonic quality and perceived attractiveness of a product. The
framework assumes that perceived ergonomic quality and perceived hedonic quality
describe independent dimensions of the user experience.
Ergonomic quality and hedonic quality are categories that summarize different
quality aspects. The focus of ergonomic quality is on the goal oriented or task
oriented aspects of product design. High ergonomic quality enables the user to reach
his or her goals with efficiency and effectiveness. The focus of hedonic quality is on
the non-task oriented quality aspects of a software product, for example the originality
of the design or the beauty of the user interface.
Thus, it is assumed that persons perceive several distinct aspects when they
evaluate a software product. The perceived attractiveness of the product is then a
result of an averaging process from the perceived quality of the software concerning
the relevant aspects in a given usage scenario.
According to this assumption the constructed questionnaire should contain two
classes of items:
•items, which measure the perceived attractiveness directly,
•items, which measure the quality of the product on the relevant aspects.
2.3 Generation of the Item Pool
Two brainstorming sessions (each lasting about one and a half hours) with fifteen
SAP usability experts were conducted. The experts were asked to propose terms they
suppose to be characteristic for the assessment of user experience. A moderator took
down the proposed terms. The experts were asked the following questions:
•To which properties of products are users particularly responsive?
•Which feelings or attitudes of users are caused by products?
•What are the typical reactions of users during or after usability studies?
All redundant answers were removed from the list of the initial 229 expert proposals.
All proposals that were not formulated as adjective were replaced by the
corresponding best fitting adjective. The consolidated cleaned up list consisted of 221
Seven usability experts then individually extracted a “top 25” list out of the whole
set of terms. In addition, they marked terms they considered to be inappropriate with a
“veto” (unlimited number). Adjectives that received more than one veto or occurred
less than twice in the top 25 lists were removed.
After this procedure a set of 80 adjectives remained. Since the target format of the
questionnaire is a semantic differential, the best fitting antonym for each of the 80
adjectives had to be identified. The sequence of adjective pairs and the polarity of
each pair was then determined randomly. In addition, a second version of the list with
complementary order and polarities was prepared.
Both lists had the format of a seven stage semantic differential (another example of
an application of semantic differentials in product design can be found in ). We
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 5
use a seven stage scale to reduce the well-known central tendency bias for such types
of items. An example of an item is:
2.4 Data Collection
In order to examine the specific properties of the adjective pairs concerning the
assessment of software products, the eighty items raw-version of the questionnaire
was used in six investigations. In the following, each of the six investigations is
•SYSTAT (number of participants N=27; location: University of Mannheim; paper-
pencil version of the questionnaire): The participants of an introductory course for
the statistics software package Systat were asked to perform a given task with the
software or to observe a person that works on the task. After that the participants
completed the questionnaire in order to assess the software quality.
•Cell Phone (N=48; University of Mannheim; paper-pencil): The participants of a
psychology class were asked to add an entry to the address book of their cell phone
and then to delete this entry. This application should then be evaluated with the
•BSCW (N=14; University of Mannheim; paper-pencil): Students rated the online-
collaboration software BSCW that had been used during a lecture. Each of the
participants had worked actively with the software before completing the
•Selection (N=26; University of Mannheim; paper-pencil): The participants of a
computer-science course had the choice to assess one of the following products:
Eclipse Development Workbench, Borland JBuilder, Microsoft Visual Studio,
Mozilla 1.7 Browser, Microsoft Internet Explorer 6, and Firefox 1.0. Ratings were
provided for Firefox 1.0, Microsoft Internet Explorer 6, and the Eclipse
•CRM Mobile (N=15; SAP AG, Walldorf; paper-pencil): During a regular meeting
of SAP usability experts, a user interface variant of the SAP Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) software was demonstrated. The experts filled
out the questionnaire after the demonstration.
•CRM PC (N=23; SAP AG, Walldorf, online version of the questionnaire): An
online investigation consisting of a short demonstration of a further variant of SAP
CRM and the electronic version of the questionnaire was conducted with SAP
All in all, 153 participants provided complete datasets. 76 of the participants had
completed the first version of the questionnaire while 77 had completed the second
version (see above). Those data were used for the process of item reduction as
described in the following section.
6 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
2.5 Reduction of the Item Pool
As described above the questionnaire should contain items that measure the perceived
attractiveness directly and items that measure the quality of the product on the
For this reason the item set was split into two subsets. The first subset contains 14
items that represent an emotional reaction on a pure acceptance/rejection dimension.
These items of valence do not provide any information concerning the reason for the
acceptance or rejection of the product. Examples for items from the first subset are
good/bad or pleasant/unpleasant. The second subset contains the remaining 66 items
from the item pool.
A factor analysis (principal components, varimax rotation) of the first subset of
items extracted one factor concerning the Kaiser-Guttman criterion1. This factor
explained 60% of the observed variance in the data. This factor is called
Attractiveness. To represent this factor in the questionnaire we picked the six items
with the highest loading on the factor. The original German items and their English
translations can be found in Appendix 1 (for details on the translation procedure see
A factor analysis (principal components, varimax rotation) of the second subset of
items extracted five factors. The scree test was used to determine the number of
factors2. These five extracted factors explain 53% of the observed variance in the
data3. We named these factors according to the items that showed the highest factor
loadings as Perspicuity (examples for items: easy to learn, easy to understand),
Dependability (predictable, secure), Efficiency (fast, organized), Novelty (creative,
innovative) and Stimulation (exiting, interesting).
Per factor, we chose four items to represent this factor in the questionnaire. Those
items were selected that had high loadings on the respective factor and low loadings
on all other factors. The original German items and their English translations can also
be found in Appendix 1.
All items that were not selected to represent one of these five factors were
eliminated from the data matrix. The reduced data set was now again analyzed by a
factor analysis (principal components, varimax rotation). This analysis extracted again
five factors according to the scree test. These five factors explained 70% of the
variance in the reduced data set. The table containing the loadings of the items of the
second subset4 on these factors can be found in Appendix 2.
For the final questionnaire we randomized the order of the remaining 26 items. In
addition the polarity of the items (i.e. the order of the positive or negative term per
item) was randomized.
1 If we apply the scree test  as a decision criterion to determine the number of factors also
only a single factor results from the analysis.
2 We choose the scree test since the Kaiser-Guttman criterion tends to extract too many
factors in item sets that contain a large number of items. For our data set the Kaiser-Guttman
criterion would lead to a solution with 13 factors.
3 The variance explained by each factor is 28.7% for the first, 11.1% for the second, 5.3% for
the third, 4.5% for the fourth, and 3.3% for the fifth extracted factor.
4 The items representing the factor Attractiveness are not contained in the table. These items
show, as expected, high loadings on all factors.
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 7
The final questionnaire contains thus the scales Attractiveness (six items),
Perspicuity, Dependability, Efficiency, Novelty and Stimulation (four items each).
We call this questionnaire in the following User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ).
To guarantee an efficient handling of data a tool (based on Excel) was developed
that calculates the scale means and basic statistics from collected questionnaires.
2.6 Creation of an English Version
The basic version of the questionnaire was prepared in German language. In order to
develop an equivalent English version, the following procedure was applied.
In a first step, the German version was translated by a native English speaker. The
results of this first translation were checked by a group of native English speakers.
According to this feedback, a reworked version was created. The new version was
translated back to German language by a professional translator (native German
speaker). The differences between the re-translated German version and the original
German version were examined and discussed with the translator as well as the native
English speakers. Based on this last consolidation, the final English version was
created. For first empirical data on the quality of the English version see 3.3.
3 Validity of the Questionnaire
Concerning the validity of the questionnaire we are currently able to report data from
two usability studies.
3.1 Validation Study 1
As described above the design of the UEQ fits perfectly into an existing research
framework on user experience . Perspicuity, Efficiency and Dependability
represent ergonomic quality aspects. Stimulation and Novelty represent hedonic
The task oriented aspects Perspicuity, Efficiency and Dependability should show a
strongly negative correlation with task completion time. The faster a user can solve
his or her tasks with a software product the higher should be his or her rating
concerning these ergonomic quality aspects. On the other hand we expect no
substantial correlation of the non-task related aspects Stimulation and Novelty with
task completion time. We tested these two hypotheses in a usability test.
8 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
Participants. The 13 participants were recruited during the 2005 annual conference
of the German SAP User Group (DSAG). They were not paid for their participation.
All had high experience using computers, and experience with SAP software.
Procedure. The participants had to walk through a scenario that contained typical
tasks of a sales representative. The scenario for the test was described to the
participants in a step-by-step instructional document. The scenario contained a
number of typical tasks a sales representative has to perform frequently during his or
her daily job (plan customer visits, search for contact persons, find the last customer
interactions, etc.). Each task was motivated by a little story, which explained the
context of the task and why the task is performed.
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 9
Each test session was conducted as follows:
1. The participant was greeted and guided to the test station.
2. The moderators introduced themselves and collected basic demographic data.
3. The participant was given an overview of the test session and about the intention of
4. The participant was then asked to solve the described tasks. The tasks description
was available on paper during the whole session. The participant was instructed to
think aloud during his or her attempt to solve the tasks.
5. After the participant finished the last task, the screen was turned off and the
participant filled out the User Experience Questionnaire.
6. The screen was turned on again and the participant had the chance to discuss
usability problems of the software and to ask questions. The moderators asked
follow-up questions related to the usability problems they observed during the test .
The total time required by participants to solve all tasks varied between 33 and 65
minutes (M = 41.62 minutes, SD = 9.64 minutes).
Results. Table 1 shows the correlations of the observed task completion times and the
observed values of the UEQ scales. As a measure of scale reliability we give in
addition Cronbachs alpha coefficient per scale.
Table 1: Correlation of the UEQ scales with the observed task completion times and
Cronbach’s alpha per scale.
UEQ Scale Correlation with task completion time Cronbach’s Alpha
Attractiveness -.54 .89
Perspicuity -.66 *.82
Efficiency -.73 *.73
Dependability -.65 *.65
Stimulation .10 .76
Novelty .29 .83
* Significant with p < .05
The correlations show the expected pattern. Perspicuity, Efficiency and Dependability
show a significant correlation (p < .05) with task completion time. Novelty and
Stimulation show only a weak correlation with task completion time.
Thus, our hypotheses do not have to be rejected. This can be seen as a first
indicator for the validity of the questionnaire. The values of Cronbach’s Alpha
coefficient are an indicator for a sufficient reliability, but here we have to consider
that the number of test participants was only small.
3.2 Validation Study 2
In a second validation study we investigated the relation of the UEQ scales to the
scales of the AttrakDiff2 questionnaire . This questionnaire was developed inside
the above mentioned research framework from Hassenzahl . It contains the scales
10 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
Pragmatic Quality, Hedonic Quality (which is here split into the two sub-aspects
Identity and Stimulation) and Attractiveness.
The concept behind the Attractiveness scales is nearly identical in both
questionnaires. These scales should thus show a high positive correlation. In addition
we can expect that the UEQ scales Perspicuity, Efficiency and Dependability show a
high positive correlation to the AttrakDiff2 scale Pragmatic Quality. The UEQ scales
Novelty and Stimulation should show a high positive correlation with the AttrakDiff2
The concept behind the AttrakDiff2 scale Identity is quite different to the concept
of any of the UEQ scales. For this scale we can thus not formulate any hypothesis
concerning its dependency to the UEQ scales. We tested our hypothesis again in a
Participants. 16 students of the University of Cooperative Education in Mannheim,
Germany, participated in this test. All had sufficient experience using computers. The
participants were not paid for their participation in the study.
Procedure. The participants had to walk through a scenario which contained typical
tasks in a CRM system (create a new account, create activities with the account,
search for data of already existing accounts, etc.). The scenario for the test was
described to the participants in a step-by-step instructional document. Each task was
motivated by a little story, which explained the context of the task and why the task is
The procedure for the test sessions was identical to the one for validation study 1
including the task completion step (step 4, see 3.1). After that, the sessions proceeded
5. Immediately after the participant finished the last task, the screen was turned off.
Eight of the participants filled the UEQ and eight of the participants filled out the
AttrakDiff2 at this point in time. It was randomly determined per participant to
which of these two groups he or she was assigned.
6. The screen was turned on again and for around 30 minutes the participant and the
moderator discussed about usability problems which were observed during the test
7. The participants that had already filled out the UEQ were now asked to fill the
AttrakDiff2 and vice versa. Thus, each participant evaluated the tested user
interface with the UEQ and with the AttrakDiff2 questionnaire. Since some of the
items in both questionnaires are similar the delay introduced by step 6 is intended
to reduce dependencies between the two evaluations.
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 11
Results. Table 2 shows the correlations of the UEQ scales with the AttrakDiff2
scales. The results show the expected pattern. The UEQ scales Perspicuity, Efficiency
and Dependability show a significant correlation with the AttrakDiff2 scale Pragmatic
Quality. The AttrakDiff2 scale Stimulation shows a high correlation with the UEQ
scales Novelty and Stimulation. The AttrakDiff2 scale Identity shows a high positive
correlation with the UEQ scale Dependability, but no significant correlation with the
UEQ scales Novelty and Stimulation.
Thus, our hypothesis does not have to be rejected. This is again an indicator
concerning the validity of the UEQ questionnaire. But again we have to mention that
the number of participants in the study was small, so these results need to be
confirmed in bigger validation studies.
Table 2: Correlations of the single scales from the User Experience Questionnaire and the
scales of the AttrakDiff2 questionnaire.
User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ)
iveness .72 * .56 *.30 .51 * .51 *.40
Quality .33 .73 * .59 * .54 *.31 .07
Identity .45 .45 .29 .62 *.30 .32
tion .42 -.17 -.40 -.14 .72 * .64 *
* Significant with p < .05
3.3 First Data on an English Version
Though this has not yet been tested systematically, there are indicators that the
language versions are sufficiently equivalent. For instance, two parallel
investigations, one conducted in Germany and one in the US with the respective
questionnaire versions delivered questionnaire scores as shown in Figure 1.
12 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
Figure 1: Questionnaire scores from two parallel investigations. Investigation “ASUG” has
been conducted at a conference of the American SAP User Group, while “DSAG” ran at a
conference of the German SAP User Group. The raw data have been transformed so that the
final data may range from -3 to +3. The error bars represent the 95% confidence interval for
each arithmetic mean.
The one investigation was conducted at the 2005 fall conference of the American
SAP User Group (ASUG), while the other investigation ran at the annual conference
of the German SAP User Group (DSAG). The scenario and the SAP system were the
same in both investigations; the only difference was the user interface language. The
differences of the average scores on the different dimensions appear to be only
In another investigation, only the English version of the UEQ was used. This
investigation was conducted as an online study with 21 participants who had tested a
new software product for about one week. Each of the participants filled out the UEQ
at the end of the testing period. In order to get an indicator for the reliability of the
questionnaire, the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was calculated for each of the
subscales. Table 3 displays those values.
Table 3: Cronbach Alpha values for an investigation conducted with the English version of the
UEQ Scala Cronbach’s Alpha
Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 13
Except for the subscale Dependability, in each of the other cases the Alpha value
exceeds the threshold of .7. According to this result, it may be assumed that the
reliability of the English version of the questionnaire is sufficiently high.
For the construction of the user experience questionnaire UEQ the process should
ensure that as many relevant product features as possible were taken into account. The
factors revealed by the factor analysis support the assumption that ‚soft’ (user
experience) criteria and ‘hard’ (usability) criteria of similar relevance for the end user
(two scales and three scales, respectively). This fact is not reflected adequately by the
structure of other user feedback questionnaires.
Studies reported here indicate a satisfactory level of reliability and construct
validity. Data from the English and the German version of the questionnaire that have
been collected in parallel studies confirm a good congruence of both language
The user experience questionnaire UEQ in its current form appears to be an easy to
apply, reliable and valid measure for user experience that can be used to complement
data from other evaluation methods with subjective quality ratings. Nevertheless,
further research will be done to provide a more detailed and extensive picture of
UEQ’s features from a methodical as well as from a practical point of view. In
particular, the overall factor structure and the relative weakness of the
“Dependability” scale will be in the focus of future studies.
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Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire 15
Appendix 1: Original German items and their English translation.
Scale Original German items English translation
Attractiveness unerfreulich erfreulich annoying enjoyable
Perspicuity unverständlich verständlich not under-
Novelty kreativ phantasielos creative dull
Perspicuity leicht zu lernen schwer zu lernen easy to learn difficult to learn
Stimulation wertvoll minderwertig valuable inferior
Stimulation langweilig spannend boring exiting
Stimulation uninteressant interessant not interesting interesting
Dependability unberechenbar voraussagbar unpredictable predictable
Efficiency schnell langsam fast slow
Novelty originell konventionell inventive conventional
Dependability behindernd unterstützend obstructive supportive
Attractiveness gut schlecht good bad
Perspicuity kompliziert einfach complicated easy
Attractiveness abstoßend anziehend unlikable pleasing
Novelty herkömmlich neuartig usual leading edge
Attractiveness unangenehm angenehm unpleasant pleasant
Dependability sicher unsicher secure not secure
Stimulation aktivierend einschläfernd motivating demotivating
konform nicht erwar-
expectations does not meet
Efficiency ineffizient effizient inefficient efficient
Perspicuity übersichtlich verwirrend clear confusing
Efficiency unpragmatisch pragmatisch impractical practical
Efficiency aufgeräumt überladen organized cluttered
Attractiveness attraktiv unattraktiv attractive unattractive
Attractiveness sympathisch unsympathisch friendly unfriendly
Novelty konservativ innovativ conservative innovative
16 Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, Martin Schrepp
Appendix 2: Loadings of the final questionnaire items on the
extracted 5 factors.
confusing / clear .661
easy to learn / difficult to
complicated / easy .851
not understandable /
usual / leading edge .849
dull / creative .785
conservative / innovative .772
conventional / inventive .790
demotivating / motivating .601
boring / exiting .661
inferior / valuable .725 .422
not interesting / interesting .838
obstructive / supportive .505
does not meet expectations /
meets expectations .438 .549
unpredictable / predictable .791
not secure / secure .740
inefficient / efficient .722
slow / fast .723
cluttered / organized .650
impractical / practical .419 .635
Only loadings > .4 are shown in the table.