Conference PaperPDF Available

E-Inclusion in Public Transport: The Role of Self-efficacy


Abstract and Figures

Many subgroups in today’s society are not skilled in using novel technologies. Even everyday technologies pose a barrier to technically non-skilled people and – if they fail to use them – exclude them from important parts of daily life. In this paper we discuss the relevance of self-efficacy for the use of one specific kind of everyday technology: the ticket vending machine. Results from observations and interviews within the research project InnoMat are presented to answer the question how self-efficacy influences the ticket buying behavior and show that this motivational factor leads to an active avoidance of ticket machines. Negative experiences seem to be one of the strongest influences, which indicate that the group of technically non-skilled users should be given special attention when developing a new generation of ticket vending machines.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
E-inclusion in Public Transport: The Role of Self-
Günther Schreder
, Karin Siebenhandl
, Eva Mayr
Danube University Krems, Department for Knowledge and Communication Management,
Research Center KnowComm, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30,
3500 Krems, Austria
{Günther.Schreder, Karin.Siebenhandl, Eva.Mayr}
Abstract. Many subgroups in today’s society are not skilled in using novel
technologies. Even everyday technologies pose a barrier to technically non-
skilled people and – if they fail to use them – exclude them from important
parts of daily life. In this paper we discuss the relevance of self-efficacy for the
use of one specific kind of everyday technology: the ticket vending machine.
Results from observations and interviews within the research project InnoMat
are presented to answer the question how self-efficacy influences the ticket
buying behavior and show that this motivational factor leads to an active
avoidance of ticket machines. Negative experiences seem to be one of the
strongest influences, which indicate that the group of technically non-skilled
users should be given special attention when developing a new generation of
ticket vending machines.
Keywords: e-Inclusion, self-efficacy, digital divide, ticket vending machine,
public transport, usability, accessibility
1 Motivation
Some social groups are disadvantaged by novel technologies either in using or
having access to them or in resources and skills needed to effectively participate in
the digital society. This phenomenon is referred to as the digital divide. Problems not
only include potential limitations in gathering information e. g. from the internet, but
also difficulties due to the increasing need to use digital devices in everyday life.
Bank opening hours are shortened as ATMs sprout; in public transport, ticket counters
are substituted by ticket vending machines. While it might still be easy to maintain a
normal life without using a personal computer or participating in newly created forms
of communication (like virtual communities, blogs and so on), being unable to
withdraw money or to buy a ticket for public transport is a severe restriction.
The InnoMat research project
sought to develop a design framework for a new
generation of ticket machines in order to best meet the needs of different user groups.
The InnoMat project was funded by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation
and Technology’s “Ways2go” (Innovation and Technology for Evolving Mobility Needs)
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
The aim of the project can be characterized as a contribution to e-inclusion by “design
for all”: with regard to groups who often face barriers in using public transport
systems in everyday life the target group was defined with senior citizens, people with
limited affinity for technology and disabled people.
The first step was to identify the special needs and requirements of the target group
in using public transport systems based on the insights from relevant literature.
Specific needs of disabled persons are mostly connected to questions of accessibility,
such as the existence of voice-output for visually impaired persons or the optimal
height of hardware elements to allow wheelchair users the access to the machine. A
similar approach can be found concerning the group of senior citizens who are often
seen as persons with reduced physical and mental abilities due to their age. Relevant
design aspects therefore include the contrast of screens, the size of (virtual) buttons
and text, the speed of required input and so on.
As important as these factors may be, older people (but not only them) are likely to
face further problems that are not identified as easily: Research into ticket queues at
12 major stations in Great Britain supports this assumption. Among those who could
have bought their ticket from a machine the decision to purchase at the counter was
driven by a lack of confidence in using the machine as well as a lack of confidence in
the ability to select a ticket [1].
ÖBB’s (Austrian Rail) sales statistics indicate that elderly people use ticket
machines less frequently than other groups [2]: 63 % of senior citizens purchase
tickets from a ticket machine, while 31 % opt to go to a ticket counter. ÖBB
passengers under the age of 26 use ticket machines almost exclusively (91 %), while
holders of regular travel cards (“Vorteilscard”) or family travel cards use ticket
machines relatively frequently (69-74 %).
To identify possible reasons for avoidance of ticket machines the role of the users´
confidence in their abilities to successfully buy a ticket at the vending machines will
be investigated. Insights into this aspect of the digital divide should allow creating a
new generation of ticket vending machines which should not only be easy to use
without much experience with novel technology, but also reduce subjective fears
associated with potential failure to use them.
A tendency to avoid novel technologies and a lack of technological knowledge can
build barriers that effect mobility and lifestyle. This certainly holds true for elderly
people and other socio-economic groups disadvantaged by the digital divide as they
especially rely on public transport [3].
2 Theory
From the mid-90s on studies showed that age, gender, ethnicity, social status,
education and income are the major socio-economic indicators for the societal gap
research programme. In a project managed by ÖBB Personenverkehr AG, the Danube
University Krems (Department for Knowledge and Communication Management), Plot EDV-
Planungs- und Handels Ges.m.b.H. and AlliedPanels Entwicklungs- und Produktions GmbH
developed the framework for a new generation of ticket vending machines.
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
that exists in the usage of digital technologies. While the discussion of the digital
divide was focused on the access to the internet and the necessary hardware, strategies
of inclusion showed that users´ lack of know-how seems to contribute to the
emergence of the digital divide as well. It is argued that a rather poor usability of
novel technologies combined with few or completely missing experiences with digital
technologies in school or workplace as well as a lack of support by social networks
lead to a reduced chance of acquiring adequate skills [4].
The question of so-called technological literacy [5], which includes the ability to
use not only computers and consumer electronics products but also everyday items
like cash and ticket machines, becomes more relevant among older generations.
People born before 1939, for example, did not have any opportunity to learn how to
use digital technologies at school or in the workplace [6].
In addition to senior citizens, some other groups are also disadvantaged by the so-
called “secondary digital divide” that emerges due to reduced technological literacy
[7]: people with lower levels of education and members of ethnic minorities number
relatively frequently among those with little experience of technology. Gender,
income level and occupation are also seen as predictors of a lower level of
technological literacy [8], [9].
Furthering opportunities for learning and skill acquisition might seem invaluable;
still a remarkable part of the population is actively avoiding the use of computers and
the internet. In the representative German Online Nonusers Survey [10] 234 (54%) of
the 501 nonusers stated that they did not want to connect to the Internet. A variety of
reasons are listed in Figure 1. It should be noted that only half of the nonusers (47%)
rejected private computer use partly due to financial limits, whereas the more
numerous answers pointed at a lack of interest or need or a general dislike. Van Dijk
and Hacker [4] see these results as an argument for not neglecting motivational
factors contributing to the digital usage gap.
Fig. 1. Reasons for not using the internet [10].
According to Eastin and LaRose [11] social cognitive theory offers an alternative
to the socio-economic explanations normally used when discussing the digital divide.
“Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in her capabilities to organize and execute the
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
courses of action required to produce given attainments”. [12] People with lower self-
efficacy display less motivation to engage in a task than do those with higher self-
efficacy. A correlation between learning to use computers and self-efficacy was
demonstrated by Karavidas, Lim and Katsikas [13], indicating that computer self-
efficacy also depends on the subjective feeling of having made progress during
In [8] “computer self-efficacy” was an important predictor for the use of technical
devices, while being influenced by "computer anxiety” as a mediator. For persons
with a low level of self-efficacy the probability of using the technology was generally
reduced. Additionally, persons with a high level of computer anxiety had less
experience with computers and the internet and used these technologies for a smaller
number of different activities. The combination of both resulted in an active
avoidance of technological devices. As senior citizens are frequent among the
described group, the authors stressed the importance to use technology that allows
senior citizens to experience success so that they are able to build up confidence in
their abilities.
Following these ideas the focus of this study is to answer some research questions
closely related to self-efficacy: Do the users´ or non-users´ beliefs to be able to
successfully buy the ticket show any relevancy concerning the purchase process? Are
any negative experiences connected to buying tickets at the machine? Furthermore the
research team sought to identify those elements of the current ticket machines that
have the strongest effects on users’ perception of their ability to cope with them.
2 Methods
With the aim of learning from users’ actual experiences, the project team decided to
observe the usage and specifics of the machines currently being used at Austrian
railway stations. Interviews gave additional information and helped to identify
particular problems and elements that currently hinder use.
2.1 Observations
The main aim of the observations was to identify those people who had problems in
using the ticket machines. The observations took place at two different railway
stations, one in Baden (Austria), one at a major station in Vienna (Südbahnhof). The
observation period was two hours each, periods covered weekdays and weekends. A
total of 50 people were observed as they used the ticket machines. The subjects were
categorized into three age groups: “young” (up to about 30 years of age), “middle-
age” (30-60) and “old” (over 60).
Following the question of self-efficacy special attention was paid on how
decisively subjects made their selection, whether they demonstrated any unusual
behavior or showed signs of nervousness, how often they corrected or cancelled their
input, and whether they actually managed to successfully purchase a ticket. In the
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
case of customers who corrected or cancelled, the page the machine showed at that
time was noted to identify critical steps during the process.
2.2 Interviews
Additionally a total of 65 people (roughly equal numbers of men and women) from all
age groups (15 to 89) were interviewed after purchasing a ticket either at the ticket
counter or from a machine. They were asked about their experiences in using ticket
vending machines and problems they had encountered so far. The interviews took
place on two weekdays at the railway station in Baden (Austria) and on a Friday and a
Saturday at the Südbahnhof in Vienna. To identify their level of affinity for
technology, the subjects were also asked about their use of mobile phones, computers,
cash machines and the internet.
2.3 Log file analysis
A sales data log file analysis was additionally carried out to support the observations
and interviews. Internal logs of an ÖBB ticket machine at Vienna Südbahnhof for the
time between 06:24 and 10:56 a.m. on 14 October 2008 were analyzed.
3 Results
The 50 people observed were split fairly evenly across both genders (45 % men, 55 %
women). One third of these people were classed as “uncertain” by two observers
(inter rater agreement: 100%). In contrast to other passengers, they did not make a
clear and direct selection or seemed to be not sure whether to use the machines and
how to do so. As displayed in Figure 2, the number of young people (i.e. estimated to
be under the age of 30) in the group of “uncertain” users was very low (only four out
of a total of 17), while about half of the middle-aged and elder customers were rated
as “uncertain”.
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
determined uncertain
Fig. 2. Number of determined and uncertain customers in the three different age groups.
Almost 70 % of the customers rated as uncertain had to cancel the purchase
process and start again at least once, while nearly two thirds ultimately gave up and
left the machine without purchasing a ticket (Figure 3). This means that the chance for
successfully operating the machine can be predicted to a very high degree during the
first few seconds after a person approached the machine!
determined uncertain
bought successfully
had to correct
had to cancel
Fig. 3. Percentage of determined and uncertain customers who bought successfully, had to
correct their input at least once and had to cancel.
We also observed some distinctive patterns of behaviour among members of this
group. They repeatedly watched other customers using the machines and frequently
received assistance from their companions or other customers, e.g. those using the
adjacent machine. Also typically, this group spent a lot of time looking at the
machines from a distance and approached it hesitantly; some members of this group
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
cancelled the purchase process and went away from the machine, only to return a
short time later and try again. We also observed that they spent a particularly long
time studying both the launch screen (Figure 4, left) and the options screen (Figure 4,
Fig. 4. Screen shots from the ÖBB ticket vending machines: launch screen (left) and options
screen (right).
Our analysis of the sales data log files indicated that this is a fairly common pattern
of behaviour. Of the 144 purchase processes started during this period, 61 were
cancelled before completion: 54 % at the launch screen and 20 % at the options
The observations suggest strong evidence for the role of uncertainty, but it remains
unclear, whether actual thoughts corresponding to a low self-efficacy are responsible
for this behaviour. Therefore, the results were complemented by interviews with users
and non-users of ticket vending machines.
Similar to the observations most customers interviewed had little problems buying
their tickets from the ticket machine. Of the 65 persons interviewed only 5 have never
used the ticket machines and one person did not even know they existed at all.
Nevertheless 78% of those persons who had at least once used a ticket machine
reported problems or difficulties to understand some aspects of the purchasing
process. The most common negative experiences were problems in operating
machines, such as pressing the wrong keys or buying the wrong ticket, difficulties in
understanding the complexity of the system, and having the impression that the
machines are not always working properly. Problems with payment, such as credit
cards being not accepted or wrong amounts of change were reported as well though
less frequently (see Figure 5).
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
Fig. 5. Percentage of experienced problems reported by customers.
Different age groups clearly had different problems with the machines. While older
passengers with little technical experience reported problems in actually operating the
machines, such problems were rare among younger interviewees: the group of
passengers under the age of 19 reported no problems of this kind at all.
For more information on the role of technological literacy, interviewees were asked
how frequently they used the ticket vending machine and also other everyday
technologies (ATM, mobile phone, computer, internet). The results showed that
seldom use of other everyday technologies is correlated to buying a ticket at the
machine less often (Rho=.21, p<.05, N=64)
Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that about two thirds of the
customers who experienced operating problems or misunderstanding seemed to
attribute this failure externally, which means they actually spoke of usability
problems, referring to an inflexible system or an overloaded screen. The remaining
third interpreted their failures as a result of their know-how and some of them even
expressed to be helpless in the face of the machine (C17:”It just didn’t work. Each
time I tried I got something different.”). Not surprisingly, all of these customers were
prone to avoid the ticket machines, two persons stated to never use the machine again
after one bad experience with it (C5:“I once tried to buy one, but I was completely
confused and got a wrong ticket.”).
Negative experiences were often combined with an expression of uncertainty:
some people mentioned their fear of inadvertently buying the wrong ticket (M15:
“One of my friends even once bought a ticket for a dog instead of a normal ticket!”)
or paying more out of ignorance (C28: If you ask me, the counter’s better, because
someone there tells you what’s what. If you buy a ticket from a machine, you might
pay twice as much as you had to!”). This is complemented by a conviction that they
would not be able to buy a ticket from a machine without help (C21: “Nobody showed
me what to do, and I don’t know what I am doing. If I knew how it worked, I would try
it myself.”). It should be mentioned, that even some of those people who used the
ticket machines regularly said that they had only learned to use them with the help of
other passengers (M19: I sometimes help people who don’t use the trains so often. I
also found the machines difficult to use at first.”)
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
4 Discussion & Conclusions
Our observations and interviews showed that “typical accessibility problems” like
letter size, contrast or button size did not occur even with elder people. In contrast,
most people were able to use the machine without any problems. But to ensure
eInclusion it seems to be important to focus on the problems of those who did not
succeed. For these people our studies revealed a number of serious barriers to the use
of the ticket machines, above all among older and middle-aged passengers.
Especially in these age groups some customers had little confidence in their ability
to successfully buy a ticket at the machine: Often they approached it only carefully
and sometimes even had to cancel their purchase process. When asked why they
avoid the machines, they referred to bad experiences, doubt in their own abilities, and
distrust with respect to the technology. These are clear indicators of low self-efficacy
in the context of using everyday technologies. A similar result was found in Great
Britain [1], where elderly did use the ticket machine only seldom and did confide less
in their own abilities.
When developing a new layout of a ticket vending machine, it will be important to
ensure that people with low technological self-efficacy are given the feeling that they
can buy a ticket easily and without the help of others. A relative easy and intuitive
step is to avoid computer terminology and to use everyday language instead (e.g., yes
instead of ok).
Additionally it is necessary that the purchase process in some way resembles their
cognitive scripts of this process. While a salesman at the ticket counter can easily
adjust the sales process to the customers’ diverse cognitive scripts, the ticket machine
is not as flexible. It only meets one possible cognitive script – the programmer’s. This
poses a barrier to people whose cognitive scripts are not addressed. To meet their
needs as well, the ticket machine’s interface could be split up into two modes: A fast
purchase mode and a step-by-step-mode that leads customers through the purchase
process and poses only one question after the other.
A considerable number of users were clearly already daunted by the multiple
options offered on the launch screen which may have caused problems because of the
rather unstructured, large amount of options it provides. The problem gets worse for
users who are not familiar with the fare systems of Austrian Rail and the local
transport services that sell their products on the same machines. The relevant fare and
discount options have to be entered before some products can be selected. As initial
steps, the choice of options could be better structured and a clearer visual demarcation
between higher level menu elements could be introduced. Furthermore, special
knowledge of the fare system should not be necessary to buy a ticket. Therefore it
would also be worth considering which of these factors could be calculated
automatically in the background without the need for user input.
Design examples gathered from systems currently in use in other countries provide
some clues to a more user-friendly graphic design: the French ticket machines show
that it is possible to reduce the number of options on the launch screen while
maintaining a maximum of possible interactions (buying and exchanging tickets for
national and international journeys, printing tickets bought online, see Figure 6).
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
Fig. 6. Start screen of the French ticket machines by SNCF.
A further barrier was encountered on the screen offering a so-called suggested
route that can be partly modified by the user. An increased number of users cancelled
the process on this screen, indicating that they either felt overwhelmed by the
information they were asked to provide or did not succeed in changing the
information in the way they wanted. The Austrian system displays the choices made
by customers as a virtual ticket in the left part of the screen. To make changes, it is
necessary to start at the top and to proceed in only one direction (see Figure 4, right).
It could be observed that some people tried to make changes by touching the left,
virtual ticket area. In the Netherlands, this problem does not exist as the buttons also
serve as information about the choices already made and changes are possible in any
order (see Figure 7). A demonstration of the system is available at
Fig. 7. Options screen of the Netherland’s ticket machines by NS.
In further development phases of the new generation of ticket machines, an
iterative usability engineering approach is planned: To support the user-driven design
methods, hard- and software mockup testing, laboratory tests with scenario machines
and (partial) working systems will be conducted with multiple users to ensure a
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
barrier free and easy to use prototype. This prototype will be evaluated in laboratory
experiments and field observations including users with high and low self-efficacy.
The suggested improvements in the design and the usability of ticket vending
machines will not only help people with low technological literacy, but also ease the
purchase process for all customers. In addition to the improvement of the design,
further measures should be taken to facilitate the access for people with low self-
efficacy, as the results by Karavidas et al. [13] suggest: at-home-trainings, local
support, information leaflets and advertisements can reach also those, who might even
avoid the railway station. An easy-to-use system will not only facilitate access to
public transport systems for people with low technological affinity, but could be a
chance to develop positive attitudes towards digital technology in general.
Many projects and ideas follow the approach of accessibility in order to support
and promote the mobility of these socio-economic groups by providing accessible
computer-based technologies and information services. Certainly the physical barriers
to access will be eliminated, but barriers like limited acceptance and limited affinity
for technology still remain. In addition, failing to use everyday technology can
decrease their feeling of mastery for technology in general. However, if everyday
technologies enable mastery and the user gains a feeling of success, self-efficacy can
be increased in the long run and might also reduce the perceived barriers with other
kinds of media. Thereby, easy-to-use everyday technologies can contribute to the
inclusion of technically non-skilled people in the eSociety. The project Innomat
provides an example how a neglected factor, the users’ self-efficacy, can be taken into
account and can improve the design beyond existing approaches.
1. Passenger Focus: Buying a Ticket at the Station; Research on Ticket Machine Use;
Technical report, London (2008). [26.01.09]
2. Schreder, G., Siebenhandl, K., Mayr, E., Smuc, M.: Hindernis Fahrkartenautomat? Höhere
Mobilitätschancen durch zugängliche und benutzerfreundliche Fahrkartenautomaten. In: von
Hellberg, P. Kempter, G. (eds.), uDayVII. Technologienutzung ohne Barrieren, 105--114.
Pabst, Lengerich (2009).
3. ÉGALITÉ, Ein gleichberechtigter Alltag im Telematik gestützten Verkehrsgeschehen. Wien
0&id_in=5863 [26.01.09]
4. Van Dijk, J., Hacker, K.: The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon. The
Information Society 19, 315--326 (2003).
5. Funiok, R.: „Ich fange erst gar nicht an, mich damit zu beschäftigen“ - Schwierigkeiten und
Wünsche älterer Menschen gegenüber der Kommunikationstechnik eine
generationsspezifische Fallstudie. Literatur- und Forschungsreport Weiterbildung, vol. 42,
63--72 (1998).
6. Weymann, A., Sackmann, R.: Technikgenerationen. Literatur- und Forschungsreport
Weiterbildung, vol. 42, 23--35 (1998).
7. Hargittai, E.: Second-Level Digital Divide: Differences in People’s Online Skills. First
Monday 7(4), 1--20 (2002)
Pre-print version: Please refer to the printed version for referencing:
8. Czaja, S.J., Charness, N., Fisk, A.D., Hertzog, C., Nair, S.N., Rogers, W.A., Sharit, J.:
Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and
Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE). Psychol. Aging 21, 333--
352 (2006)
9. Doh, M.: Ältere Onliner in Deutschland - Entwicklung und Prädiktoren der
Internetdiffusion. IT-basierte Produkte und Dienste für ältere Menschen
Nutzeranforderungen und Techniktrends, 43--64 (2005).
10. ARD/ZDF-Arbeitsgruppe Multimedia. ARD/ZDF Online Studie 1999. Media Perspektiven
8, 388–409 (1999).
11. Eastin, M.S., LaRose, R. Internet Self-Efficacy and the Psychology of the Digital Divide.
JCMC 6 (2000).
12. Bandura, A.: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman, New York (1997).
13. Karavidas, M., Lim, N.K. & Katsikas, S.L. The effects of computers on older adult users.
Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 697--711 (2005).
... In addition, self-efficacy has been shown to be important for behavior change in several behavior change areas, such as weight control, tobacco use, and exercise behaviors (Strecher, McEvoy De Vellis, Becker, & Rosenstock, 1986). While self-efficacy has also been argued to be important for travel behavior change (Schreder, Siebenhandl, & Mayr, 2009), it does not seem to be sufficient to make travel behavior change happen (Crudden, Anotonelli, & O'Mally, 2016). ...
... Likewise, Eastin and LaRose (2000) showed that Internet self-efficacy is positively correlated with Internet use. When it comes to travel behavior change, self-efficacy has been shown to be an important factor in the adoption of new travel behavior technologies; for example, people who think they are less technically skilled avoid public transportation ticket machines (Schreder et al., 2009). Thus, lack of self-efficacy may be a barrier for public transportation use. ...
... The findings showing that social support during participation in a travel behavior change intervention promote travel behavior change are in line with previous research (e.g., Skarin et al., 2017). The results of the present study are also in line with previous research showing that self-efficacy is important for travel behavior change (Schreder et al., 2009) and that selfefficacy alone seems to be insufficient to make successful travel behavior changes (Crudden et al., 2016). However, the results of the present study regarding satisfaction with travel differ from previous research (e.g., Taniguchi et al., 2014), which may be explained by the generally high reported satisfaction with travel (M = 3.77-4.25). ...
Full-text available
The present field study investigates the reduction of car use through a voluntary travel behavior intervention program that provides participants with temporary free public transportation. Three factors – self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction – have previously been shown to be important for behavior change during physical activity intervention programs. In travel behavior interventions, however, these factors have often been studied individually and less is known about their combined effects on travel behavior change. Furthermore, while motives for participating in travel behavior interventions have been frequently studied within travel behavior interventions research, there is a lack of studies investigating the influence of motives on travel behavior change. To better understand the importance of different motives as well as the importance of self-efficacy, social support, and satisfaction with travel on behavior change, a series of surveys were administered to 181 participants before, during, and after their participation in a voluntary travel behavior intervention. The results show that greater self-efficacy and social support during the intervention led to greater travel behavior change. These results indicate that in order to gain better results from travel behavior interventions, individuals should be helped to increase their travel-related self-efficacy, and significant others should be involved to provide social support. We discuss possible ways of accomplishing this.
... Furthermore technologies are inducing complications day by day for those who have less technical aptitude thus they get gradually cut off from modern culture in society .( Günther Schreder, 2009). ...
... Research has been accomplished keeping in view the existence of communal gaps. As study verifies mid-90s research that an important indicator of communal gaps exists in shape of literacy social status, ethnicity income and gender (Günther Schreder, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article aims to identify the problems faced by passengers in developing countries of suburbs and city containing facility of mass transportation system. The research was focused on the difficulties of common passengers that rises up to 80,000 passengers each day in acquiring ticket/tokens for travelling on Metro Bus System (MBS). Particularly the article focuses on the Ticket Vending Machine (TVM) procedure for tokens acquiring and smart card facility procedure for regular MBS users. Beside the role of literacy and training this article also aims the user behavior in adaptation of newly introduce intelligent ticketing system for MBS facility in Lahore. Absence of user friendliness in TVM and few other key issues has been also investigated in this Article. A discussion on highlighted fact that the interface has been adopted from turkey where the scenario and user both have vast difference from the user and scenario here in Pakistan; therefore users found confused in adaptation of such smart facility for MBS in shape of TVM. A rigorous field work was conducted for collecting behavioral and other routine practicing data. It has been done by visual observation (incl. photography), the behavior of everyday commuters and interviewing them using a structured questionnaire. Identification of negligence factor was the part of study in the efforts made by the government; to provide ease for passengers, who interact with TVM, specifically by elderly, disabled and underage travellers at MBS. Therefore beside the other prospects of this research the main focus of this study is to identify the TVM usage as ignored facility. Suggestions for the future prospects of TVM in Pakistan are also addressed.
... However, such a small action can exert notable, cumulative impact when performed habitually and co-operatively (Verplanken & Wood, 2006). In line with this concept, some researchers used the concept of self-efficacy as the "trust in one's own ability related to a specific task" (Schreder, Siebenhandl, & Mayr, 2009;Skarin, Olsson, Friman, & Wastlund, 2019, p. 452). An intervention program in Sweden revealed that participants sense of self-efficacy is positively related to their travel behavior change from car to public transport (Skarin et al., 2019). ...
Full-text available
A scoping review of soft-pull measures for increasing public transport use.
... Accordingly, it is not possible (and would not be wise) to create an interface that meets important criteria of a true story, like dramatic tension, development of character, inner conflicts, a climax and so on. For the ticket-purchase-narrative, we focused on those aspects of the buying process which caused most user problems with current machines [Schreder, Siebenhandl, Mayr and Smuc 2009]. ...
Full-text available
We suggest narrative interaction as a design possibility for human-machine interfaces in public information systems. Because current interfaces are often very complex and do not reflect the users' everyday ways of thinking, they pose barriers for people with low technological literacy. Using storytelling and narration for the graphical presentation of information in self-service technologies enables customers to draw on their everyday experiences. Therefore, it can be described as design principle towards more intuitive public information systems. We present a case study of a train ticket purchase process with a story structure that demonstrates the concept of narrative interaction.
... But 'power users' want to purchase tickets with two clicks and would reject such a step-by-step interface. Consequently, two different modes of purchase are potentially required to meet the needs of both user groups (Schreder/Siebenhandl/Mayr 2009; see Figure 3b). In intercultural knowledge communication, instead of trying to create a text that is comprehensible to all users (Figure 3a), a corresponding strategy of designing for two 'extremes' (Figure 3b) would be to write one version of a company newsletter for staff at head office and an adapted version for subsidiaries in other countries (leaving out specific information only relevant to head office staff, yet still keeping international staff up to date on key developments and events). ...
In this paper, we examine the consequences of knowledge asymmetries in complex communication scenarios, looking especially at those situations in which professionals - in our cases translators and visual information designers - are required to manage communication for other parties, produce texts and design information. After describing the general knowledge communication setting in information design processes, we will discuss the knowledge asymmetries and diversities which characterize this scenario. We base our arguments on conceptualizations of knowledge as constructive and situative. This constructivist, situational perspective on knowledge confronts us with new challenges for translators and visual information designers. To overcome these challenges, we propose an extended model of knowledge communication and different strategies for addressing the changes in information design and translation practice that result from a situated view on knowledge communication. This novel conceptualization of the knowledge communication setting manifests itself in four changes to the information design process: a changed view on user knowledge as situated, on artefacts as enriched, of target users as innovators, and of information designers as situation designers.
... When asked why they avoided the machines, they referred to bad experiences, doubt in their own abilities, and mistrust in the technology. (For more details, see [9].) They lack positive experiences of using everyday technologies. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the so-called "digital divide." The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of saturation, these gaps will more or less close. However, it is shown that differential access of skills and usage is likely to increase. The growth of a usage gap is projected. Multivariate analyses of Dutch official statistics reveal the striking effect of age and gender as compared to education. The usage gap is related to the evolution of the information and network society. Finally, policy perspectives are discussed.
Full-text available
The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.
This study examined the effects of computer anxiety and computer knowledge on self-efficacy and life satisfaction within the retired older adult computer users. Participants consisted of older adults (aged 53–88) recruited from computer clubs in Florida. Path analysis revealed that computer use helped to increase self-efficacy and lower computer anxiety thereby increasing overall life satisfaction. Gender differences in computer use were also examined. Males and females used computers at about the same rate but females reported more anxiety and less computer knowledge. Furthermore, more males reported using the Internet. Of those who reported using the Internet, more females reported browsing for health- and hobby-related information. The implications of these findings were discussed.
Internet self-efficacy, or the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of Internet actions required to produce given attainments, is a potentially important factor in efforts to close the digital divide that separates experienced Internet users from novices. Prior research on Internet self-efficacy has been limited to examining specific task performance and narrow behavioral domains rather than overall attainments in relation to general Internet use, and has not yielded evidence of reliability and construct validity. Survey data were collected to develop a reliable operational measure of Internet self-efficacy and to examine its construct validity. An eight-item Internet self-efficacy scale developed for the present study was found to be reliable and internally consistent. Prior Internet experience, outcome expectancies and Internet use were significantly and positively correlated to Internet self-efficacy judgments. Internet stress and self-disparagement were negatively related to Internet self-efficacy. A path analysis model was tested within the theoretical framework of social cognitive theory (Bandura (1997).
Much of the existing approach to the digital divide suffers from an important limitation. It is based on a binary classification of Internet use by only considering whether someone is or is not an Internet user. To remedy this shortcoming, this project looks at the differences in people's level of skill with respect to finding information online. Findings suggest that people search for content in a myriad of ways and there is a large variance in how long people take to find various types of information online. Data are collected to see how user demographics, users' social support networks, people's experience with the medium, and their autonomy of use influence their level of user sophistication.
Hindernis Fahrkartenautomat? Höhere Mobilitätschancen durch zugängliche und benutzerfreundliche Fahrkartenautomaten
  • G Schreder
  • K Siebenhandl
  • E Mayr
  • M Smuc
Ein gleichberechtigter Alltag im Telematik gestützten Verkehrsgeschehen
  • Égalité