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Fundamental Components of the Gameplay Experience: Analysing Immersion.

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This paper presents a gameplay experience model, assesses its potential as a tool for research and presents some directions for future work. The presented model was born from observations among game-playing children and their non-player parents, which directed us to have a closer look at the complex nature of gameplay experience. Our research led into a heuristic gameplay experience model that identifies some of the key components and processes that are relevant in the experience of gameplay, with a particular focus on immersion. The model includes three components: sensory, challenge-based and imaginative immersion (SCI-model). The classification was assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires filled in by informants who played different popular games. It was found that the gameplay experiences related to these games did indeed differ as expected in terms of the identified three immersion components.
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... Theorists differ in whether they consider the experience of immersion to be progressive, wherein individuals proceed through stages of immersion in a linear order (i.e., becoming engaged, engrossed and then experiencing total immersion; see Brown & Cairns, 2004;Jennet et al., 2008), or whether immersion is a result of factors related to both the presentation of the video game and a player's engagement with the narrative and characters in the game (Calleja, 2011;Calleja et al., 2016;Ermi & Mäyrä, 2007). However, both perspectives share similarities in the factors that are important to immersion in a video game environment. ...
... Secondly, playing the game results in emotional reactions for players, including empathy with characters in the game and the avatar the player controls. Finally, immersion can involve becoming less aware of the real-world environment as individuals become more immersed in their game play (Brown & Cairns, 2004;Calleja et al., 2016;Calleja, 2011;Ermi & Mäyrä, 2007;Jennet et al., 2008). ...
... The children's engagement with the play frame as an actor in toy play was positively associated with their immersive engagement with the fictional world of the video game, especially with their tendency to use a virtual mallet. This finding suggests that there is an underlying link between children's enacting a role within the play frame (see Fig. 4.1;Auwӓrter, 1986;Garvey, 1991;Giffin, 1984;Kane & Furth, 1993) and their immersion within the virtual world of a video game (Brown & Cairns, 2004;Calleja, 2011;Ermi & Mäyrä, 2007), though these associations were explained by child characteristics. These findings support arguments that, in middle childhood, children's behaviour while playing video games is related to their other forms of play (Lillard, 2014;Singer & Singer, 2005, and this relationship is explained by child-level factors. ...
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Children's engagement in fictional worlds created when playing with toys and video games has received little research attention. We explored whether children's engagement with the play frame when playing with toy figures was associated with their engagement with the virtual world in a video game in a community sample of 251 seven-year-olds (M = 6.95 years, SD = 0.38, 44 % girls). Using observational coding, we found that children's engagement with the play frame by enacting roles 'within' the fictional world was positively associated with engaging with the virtual world in the video game. We also found that child characteristics, particularly children's sex and their propensity to talk during play, were associated with their engagement in the two forms of play, and explained the associations in engagement between play contexts. These findings are discussed in terms of the features of the two contexts of play and how they promote children's engagement with the fictional worlds.
... Immersion in video games is a concept that has definitions varying according to the authors. This research considers the work of Ermi [68] taken up in studies on serious games such as that of Hamari et al. [69]. Their work distinguished three types of immersion: sensory immersion, systemic immersion and fictional immersion. ...
... Given the results of the study, it appears that certain dimensions of immersion according to Ermi [68] reduce the psychological distance perceived by players. ...
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... La théorie de l'immersion, en l'occurrence, se propose d'appréhender ce moment de communion qui peut désigner l'aboutissement du processus de réception par exemple dans un contexte de comportement de consommation culturelle ou, plus spécifiquement, d'expérience vécue avec un objet culturel. La littérature traitant de l'expérience de consommation dans le champ culturel (théâtre, opéra, concert de musique classique ou de musiques actuelles …) regroupe un certain nombre de travaux ayant approché les particularités de cet état affectif, d'absorption et d'appropriation de l'objet de l'expérience, dans lequel se trouve le public et qui se traduit par un état d'immersion spécifique (Belaën, 2003(Belaën, , 2005Ermi et Mäyrä, 2007 ;Jennett et al., 2008). L'approche expérientielle d'analyse du comportement de consommation culturelle (Bourgeon-Renault, 2014) permet de répondre à plusieurs questions : -Comment favoriser l'appropriation et la co-production artistique en transformant le public en un spect-acteur ? ...
... As with the affordances' effect on presence, game immersion can often depend more on narrative elements than on graphical fidelity. These factors are however related, and Slater's sensory immersion [SW97] does play a role in engagement [EM05;CCN14]. 2 Slater's definition and reiterations [SW97; Sla99; Sla09; Sla18] of the term immersion as the "objective level of sensory fidelity a VR system provides" has for some time now been the common way to use it within the VR community, especially when contrasting it to presence, referring to "a user's subjective psychological response to a VR system" [BM07], but it is nonetheless interesting to explore another use of the term in this section. ...
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