Conference Paper

Trust Requirements in Identity Management.

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Abstract

Identity management refers to the process of representing and recognising entities as digital identities in computer networks. Authentication, which is an integral part of identity management, serves to verify claims about holding specific identities. Identity management is therefore fundamental to, and sometimes include, other security constructs such as authorisation and access control. Different identity management models will have different trust requirements. Since there are costs associated with establishing trust, it will be an advantage to have identity management models with simple trust requirements. The purpose of this paper is to describe trust problems in current approaches to identity management, and to propose some solutions.

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... [12]. The centralized model is suitable for managing a lot of users, and it can be implemented in many different ways namely single sign-on [27], identifier domain, and Meta-identifier domain [28]. Several identity management systems are materialized using the centralized model notably PKI [29], and Kerberos [30]. ...
... Several identity management systems are materialized using the centralized model notably PKI [29], and Kerberos [30]. However, storing all the identities in a single IdP is an ineffective way to support user privilege delegation and cross-domain access, while also this model shows weak privacy protection [28]. ...
... Several protocols and IdM systems implemented federated model including security assertion markup language (SAML) [33], Liberty Alliance framework [34] and Shibboleth [35] open source project of the federated model. However, this model has several challenges like misusage of identities and the lack of an effective mechanism to keep uniformity and correctness of user information [28]. ...
Article
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Electronic healthcare (eHealth) identity management (IdM) is a pivotal feature in the eHealth system. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is an emerging technology that can achieve agreements of transactional data states in a decentralized way. Building identity management systems using Blockchain can enable patients to fully control their own identity and provide increased confidence in data immutability and availability. This paper presents the state of the art of decentralized identity management using Blockchain and highlights the possible opportunities for adopting the decentralized identity management approaches for future health identity systems. First, we summarize eHealth identity management scenarios. Furthermore, we investigate the existing decentralized identity management solutions and present decentralized identity models. In addition, we discuss the current decentralized identity projects and identify new challenges based on the existing solutions and the limitations when applying it to healthcare as a particular use case.
... However, in FIM, the trust relationship between the IdP and the CSP is bidirectional [18], both the IdP and the CSP have to trust each other. In particular, IdPs (as trustors) have to trust the SPs (as trustees) to securely handle and process a received user's identity data in a way that conforms to data protection laws [39], whereas the SPs (as trustors) have to trust the IdPs (as trustees) to correctly authenticate users that want to access their services and protected resources [39]. This means that the features influencing the trust level of each entity must be identified. ...
... However, in FIM, the trust relationship between the IdP and the CSP is bidirectional [18], both the IdP and the CSP have to trust each other. In particular, IdPs (as trustors) have to trust the SPs (as trustees) to securely handle and process a received user's identity data in a way that conforms to data protection laws [39], whereas the SPs (as trustors) have to trust the IdPs (as trustees) to correctly authenticate users that want to access their services and protected resources [39]. This means that the features influencing the trust level of each entity must be identified. ...
... In FIM, there are many features that build trust between CSPs and IdPs [18], [39], [42]. However, there is no unified standard for selecting them, as there are only a few research projects that focus on the analysis and identification of trust features for FIM. ...
Article
Abstract—Efficient identity management system has become one of the fundamental requirements for ensuring safe, secure and transparent use of cloud services. In such a borderless environment, entities belonging to different network domains need to cooperate dynamically with each other by exchanging and sharing a significant amount of personal information in a scalable, effective and seamless manner. The traditional approach to address this challenge has been identity federation, aiming to simplify the user experience by aggregating distributed rights and permissions. However, the current federated identity man- agement solutions are missing mechanisms to achieve agile and dynamic trust management, which remains one of the biggest obstacles to their wide adoption in cloud computing. In this paper, we aim to address this issue by introducing a novel dynamic trust model for Federated Identity Management. The proposed model relies on fuzzy cognitive maps for modelling and evaluating trust relationships between the involved entities in federated identity management systems. This trust mechanism facilitates the creation of trust relationships between prior unknown entities in a secure and dynamic way and makes Federated Identity Management systems more scalable and flexible to deploy and maintain in cloud computing environments. In addition, we pro- pose a set of trust features for Federated Identity Management, which serves as a basis for modelling and quantifying the trust level of unknown entities. The effectiveness of the proposed trust model is proven through performance analysis and experimental results.
... Responses to the fedReqiBi message come directly from the cloud providers to the broker. When a response message (fedResi) is received, the broker checks if the provider can provide all the requested resources or only part of them (lines [10][11][12]. In the first case, the timer is removed and a fedReqiAcki reply is sent to this provider (lines [13][14][15][16], starting the agreement to allocate the requested resources. ...
... If it has enough resources to fully meet the request (line 8), the cloud provider reserves these resources (line 9) and creates a fedResi message setting up the parameter canff as Full. This message is sent directly to the broker (lines [11][12]. A timer is started (line 13), in order to release the reserved resources if there is no confirmation from the broker within this time limit (lines 37-38). ...
... User authentication is a key point for access to the Federation Support (FS) and for allocation of resources from cloud providers. We adopt a centralized identity management [12], where an Identity Provider (IdP) authenticates users of FS and cloud providers. Algorithm 6 describes the behavior of the IdP and shows how it interacts with other components of the proposed model. ...
Conference Paper
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The concept of cloud federations recently attracted the focus of attention of the research community. Cloud federations allow cloud providers to cooperate through the integration of their services. There are two important issues that must be dealt with in a federated environment. First, it must be defined how resources will be shared and made available to users. The other issue concerns user management and authentication within the federation. This paper presents a conceptual model for federation brokerage, in which a global agent searches for resources and allocates them to users in a cloud federation. The proposed model also defines authentication mechanisms that allow user recognition across different cloud domains.
... In the IoT, identity also needs to capture all the constituent things. Identity has been defined and represented in various ways e.g. as globally unique identifiers, a combination of user characteristics [7], a set of attributes of the users [8] or even a set of claims [9], just to name a few approaches. However, when it comes to the IoT, the majority of approaches do not address the issues of identity and its management precisely, keeping in mind the correlation between the dynamic nature and scale of the things. ...
... We examine IoT identity and its modelling, and consider how our model can be used to address IoT identity issues in a systematic and comprehensive manner. There are a variety of approaches to identity management [7], including centralized identity management, federated identity management and isolated identity management. The choice of such an approach is typically a separate question to the nature of the identities supported. ...
... Commonly, the identity of an entity, subject or object, refers to the fact of who it is. Usually the identity of an entity is represented as a set of identifiers [7]. The identifiers can be referred to as the characteristic elements of that entity, that are used for identification process. ...
... Avec l'évolution émergente des réseaux informatiques, et notamment d'Internet, plusieurs SGI ont été proposés, afin de faciliter la création de la confiance entre les entités et l'usage des identités numériques pour ces derniers [36]. Ces systèmes peuvent être classés en quatre modèles différents [36,37]. ...
... Avec l'évolution émergente des réseaux informatiques, et notamment d'Internet, plusieurs SGI ont été proposés, afin de faciliter la création de la confiance entre les entités et l'usage des identités numériques pour ces derniers [36]. Ces systèmes peuvent être classés en quatre modèles différents [36,37]. Le premier modèle (modèle isolé) consistait pour les entités à gérer de façon totalement isolée leurs identités en fonction du service demandé [36], alors que le deuxième modèle (modèle centralisé) a permis de centraliser la gestion et d'apporter un grand confort aux entités [37]. ...
... Ces systèmes peuvent être classés en quatre modèles différents [36,37]. Le premier modèle (modèle isolé) consistait pour les entités à gérer de façon totalement isolée leurs identités en fonction du service demandé [36], alors que le deuxième modèle (modèle centralisé) a permis de centraliser la gestion et d'apporter un grand confort aux entités [37]. Plus récemment, avec l'avènement des services distribués et collaboratifs, deux autres nouveaux modèles ont vu le jour (le modèle fédéré et le modèle centré sur l'utilisateur). ...
Thesis
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Secure and efficient management of identities remains one of the greatest challenges that facing cloud computing, where entities belonging to different domains continually exchange and share a huge amount of personal information. Federated Identity Management is considered the most useful solution that simplifies the user experience, by providing secure access to services belonging to different domains, while reducing the complexity and cost of managing a large number of user accounts. However, trust management is considered as one of the biggest obstacles to the wide adoption of this approach in cloud computing. Actually, poor management of trust carries significant security and privacy risks. Most of the proposed solution typically follow a similar architecture based on a preconfigured, static and closed circle of trust, in which interactions are only possible with pre-configured entities. Such a trust model is unsuitable for cloud computing, where interactions are carried out between prior unknown entities. For other frameworks, there is no specified model to manage trust between cloud service providers and identity providers, as cloud service providers must decide by themselves which identity providers are trustworthy. As an answer to these problems, we propose a new trust model that relies on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Blockchain for modelling and evaluating trust relationships between the involved entities in federated identity management systems. This trust mechanism facilitates the creation of trust relationships between prior unknown entities in a secure and dynamic way. This makes Federated Identity Management systems more scalable and flexible to deploy and maintain in cloud computing environments. We also propose a set of trust features for federated identity management systems, which serves as a basis for modelling and quantifying the trust level of unknown entities. The proposed set is intended to be generic compared to previous work and useful for any federated identity management protocol. Intensive experiments were conducted on a prototype of this trust model to prove its effectiveness in a cloud computing environment.
... 1. Isolated Cloud IDMS Isolated Cloud Identity management system is based on the common deployment model used by the small or medium organizations. In an isolated Cloud IDMS, single server acts as a Service Provider (SP) as well as the Identity Provider (IdP) and is responsible for the storage of identity information and user operations (Alrodhan and Mitchell 2010;Cao and Yang 2010;Jøsang et al. 2005). A common use case is depicted in Figure 3, prior to the service acquisition, (1.1) CSCs are required to perform authentication at the CSP. ...
... This identity management system does not rely on a Trusted Third Party (TTP) for the credential issuance and verification. However, Isolated IDMS becomes unmanageable with the increase in services and resources, since each service needs to know the credentials of authorized users (Cao and Yang 2010;Jøsang et al. 2005). 2. Centralized Cloud IDMS Centralized Cloud identity management system is slightly different from the isolated IDMS, since it separates the functions of SP and IdP. ...
... 2. Centralized Cloud IDMS Centralized Cloud identity management system is slightly different from the isolated IDMS, since it separates the functions of SP and IdP. In a centralized IDMS, a single IdP (a trusted third party) is responsible for the issuance, storage and management of identity data (Cao and Yang 2010;Jøsang et al. 2005;Windley 2005). As a first step, IdP collects all the identity information from CSPs to manage centrally. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Cloud computing systems represent one of the most complex computing systems currently in existence. Current applications of Cloud involve extensive use of distributed systems with varying degree of connectivity and usage. With a recent focus on large-scale proliferation of Cloud computing, identity management in Cloud based systems is a critical issue for the sustainability of any Cloud-based service. This area has also received considerable attention from the research community as well as the IT industry. Numerous Cloud Identity Management Systems (IDMSs) have been proposed so far; however, most of those systems are neither widely accepted nor considered highly reliable due to their constraints in terms of scope, applicability and security. In order to achieve reliability and effectiveness in IDMs for Cloud, further extensive research needs to be carried out to critically examine Cloud based IDMSs and their level of security. Methods In this work, we have holistically analyzed Cloud IDMSs to better understand the general as well as the security aspects of this domain. From the security perspective, we present a comprehensive list of attacks that occur frequently in Cloud based IDMSs. In order to alleviate those attacks, we present a well-organized taxonomy tree covering the most desired features essential for any Cloud-based IDMSs. Additionally, we have specified various mechanisms of realization (such as access control polices, encryption, self-service) against each of the features of Cloud IDMSs. We have further used the proposed taxonomy as an assessment criterion for the evaluation of Cloud based IDMSs. Results Our in-depth analysis of various Cloud based IDMSs reveals that most of the systems do not offer support to all the essential features of Cloud IDMS and the ones that do, have their own certain weaknesses. None of the discussed techniques heuristically covers all the security features; moreover, they lack compliance to international standards which, understandably, undermines their credibility. Conclusion Presented work will help Cloud subscribers and providers in understanding the available solutions as well as the involved risks, allowing them to make more knowledgeable decisions while selecting potential Cloud IDMSs that best suits their functional and security requirements.
... After studying the existing literature on Identity Management models (Jøsang et al., 2005;Ahn and Ko, 2007), we can classify IdM models into three categories, Isolated IdM, Federated IdM and Centralized IdM. In Isolated IdM, every user is provided with a unique identifier by the identity provider so as to have an access to the isolated service requested by the user (example a user name or a password). ...
... The user has access to all the services using the same credentials. This model is further classified as Common identifier model, meta-identifier model and Single Sign On (SSO) model (Jøsang et al., 2005). The architecture of centralized IdM model is represented in Fig. 4. ...
... The level of trust requirement differs for every IdM system and also the cost associated with it, therefore an IdM system with simple level of trust can be maintained. A detailed analysis of trust requirement and trust issues in various IdM models is done in (Jøsang et al., 2005). ...
Article
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After the acceptance of blockchain technology, there have been applications which aim to use blockchain in their fields. Various approaches have been proposed in past to build a secure Identity Management (IdM) System. This is a novel systematic literature mapping of IdM in blockchain. This paper provides an extensive review on IdM with emphasis on how the emergence of blockchain has addressed the IdM challenges faced over the years. A thorough study has been done on the existing literature. The primary and secondary “search string” were identified and search was conducted on five databases; and after screening the analysis was done. Out of the total studied literature, 30 primary studies published from 2009- 2020 were selected. Through this paper, the researchers will be able to: 1) find out the research trends in IdM using blockchain, 2) understand the challenges in IdM and report whether blockchain can solve the IdM challenges, 3) scrutinize and understand how the different frameworks of IdM would deal with security, integrity and privacy problems, 4) know about initiatives taken for IdM using blockchain, 5) which consensus algorithms are popular among blockchains, 6) know about the research projects going on in the field of IdM using blockchain.
... For a review of different architectural models for eIDs see [28,44,38], where the benefits and drawbacks between standalone and federated systems is explored. In [38, p. 15] the authors discuss the privacy challenges of federated systems that are based around a Unique Identifier for each eID, therefore endangering linkability of the eID accross uses and services. ...
... Instead of electronic identity management, design moved towards a risk-based assessment of identity assurance. 28 Identity Assurance is considered to be more consumer-led in focus, with no need of central databases, extensive data sharing or data consolidation [16]. ...
... 26 Government Gateway is still used for several services: http://www.gateway.gov.uk/Help/Help.aspx?content= help government services online.htm. 27 Above footnote 9. 28 Not all transactions require the same level of certainty about somebody's identity. Some only require authentication of an attribute (i.e. that a person is above 18 years old to access age-restricted content) -see section 1 on the difference of identification -authentication. ...
Article
Gov.UK Verify, the new Electronic Identity (eID) Management system of the UK Government, has been promoted as a state-of-the-art privacy-preserving system, designed around demands for better privacy and control, and is the first eID system in which the government delegates the provision of identity to competing private third parties. Under the EU eIDAS, Member States can allow their citizens to transact with foreign services by notifying their national eID systems. Once a system is notified, all other Member States are obligated to incorporate it into their electronic identification procedures. The paper offers a discussion of Gov.UK Verify's compliance with eIDAS as well as Gov.UK Verify's potential legal equivalence to EU systems under eIDAS as a third-country legal framework after Brexit. To this end it examines the requirements set forth by eIDAS for national eID systems, classifies these requirements in relation to their ratio legis and organises them into five sets. The paper proposes a more thorough framework than the current regime to decide on legal equivalence and attempts a first application in the case of Gov.UK Verify. It then assesses Gov.UK Verify's compliance against the aforementioned set of requirements and the impact of the system's design on privacy and data protection. The article contributes to relevant literature of privacy{preserving eID management by offering policy and technical recommendations for compliance with the new Regulation and an evaluation of interoperability under eIDAS between systems of different architecture. It is also, to our knowledge, the first exploration of the future of eID management in the UK after a potential exit from the European Union.
... To enable the protocol flow discussed above, a notion of trust needs to be established between an IdP and an SP inside a federation. A SAML SP needs to trust that the IdP will authenticate a user using appropriate security mechanisms and release attributes to the SP as per the contractual agreement [9]. Similarly, the IdP has to trust that the SP will not abuse the released attributes and use them only for the stated purpose as per the agreement. ...
... However, there may not be any legal contract between the user and the IdP and therefore, the handling of attributes may be governed by the respective Terms and Conditions. The absence of any legal contract between a user and an IdP means that the handling of user attributes is only bound by a trust assumption where the user can only hope that the respective party will honour the imposed trust [9]. ...
... GET has been used since there are no other parameters to pass during the metadata fetch process from the SP. 9. When the SP receives this request, it returns its metadata. ...
... e analysis of the identity models based on Cameron identity principles ("laws of identity") [72] is performed to make a roadmap for managing and migration of identity in heterogeneous environments [81]. To identify the trust problems in the identity models, the author defined the trust requirement by focusing on the trust issues and comparing various available identity models based on these trust requirements [82]. Table 5 provides a tabular representation of these research works in literature for evaluating the identity models. ...
... e service provider then sends a direct request to the central identity provider to verify the user [74]. Centralised identity can manage a vast number of users and is applied in various ways such as a single sign-on [83], identifier, and a meta identifier domain [82]. e different identity management systems use a central identity system like PKI [84] and Kerberos [85]. ...
... Users have to store or memorise a range of passwords as they have to verify separately with each company. Organisations must use large hardware and high costs to secure user verification, passwords, and data [82]. (iii) Federal identity model: multiple identity providers agree and function under a shared trust framework in the federated identity model. ...
Article
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The land registry system is one of the essential components of any governance model required to ascertain the ownership records uniquely. This paper reviews the existing literature and provide a detailed literature review consisting of 3 stages based on three research questions (RQ) that highlight the step by step evaluation and analysis. We selected 48 primary articles out of 477 extracted from different scientific databases based on criteria and RQ defined in the research method section. The majority of these papers focus on assessing the identity issues related to the land registry system and reviewing the existing identity models to find the best possible identity model to resolve the identified identity problems in the land registry. This paper examines the current land registry model and its shortcomings. It explains the various blockchain types and their characteristics. It further evaluates the usability of blockchain technology in different aspects of the land registry. Identity management is one of such weaknesses in the blockchain-based land registry model that has been assessed in detail. Identity issues of blockchain-based models have been further evaluated on defined criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on possible identity models and their comparative analysis to ascertain the most suitable identity model to resolve the identity issues of land registry systems.
... Identity management and authentication relies on entities and people trusting each other [62]. A computer or other computing device, such as a mobile phone or other handheld device, is considered untrusted if it is possible for an attacker to access the device and compromise the security of authentication. ...
... In the field of user-37 CHAPTER 4. RELATED WORK centric identity management solutions, users control their own credentials. Besides password storage solutions, which have security problems of their own [45,46], there are also devices aimed at replacing passwords for everyday use; e.g., the Pico token [10] and the Authentication Pad [62], later known as the OffPAD [11,57]. These personal authentication devices are designed to replace existing methods such as the wide-spread usage of passwords, but also to give the user control over their credentials, instead of using thirdparties. ...
... [28] Describes how to protect digital identities' privacy by using anonymity and pseudonymity. [31] Describes trust requirements of different identity management models: isolated, federated, centralised, or personal. ...
... Trust models. Jøsang et al. in [31] analyzed trust requirements of different identity management solutions in a simplified model composed of clients, service providers, and identifier & credential providers. Depending on the interactions among the above entities, the authors divided the architectures in 4 types: isolated, federated, centralised, or personal. ...
Article
Full-text available
Within digital virtual space, secure and efficient user authentication and identification are essential to prevent identity theft and unauthorized access to sensitive information and services. The eIDAS network implementing the European (EU) Regulation 910/2014 links the electronic identity (eID) systems of EU countries to allow citizens to access services by authenticating with government eIDs. At authentication time, the eIDAS nodes transfer core personal attributes to the service providers (SPs), i.e., name, surname, date of birth, and an identifier. Since long-term applications require more personal or domain-specific data, e.g., to perform identity matching, the SPs must obtain them securely afterward in addition to the eIDAS attributes, with additional costs and risks. Herein, we extend the eIDAS network to retrieve and transfer additional person and domain-specific attributes besides the core ones. This process introduces technical, usability, and privacy issues that we analyze. We exploit a logical AP Connector acting between the eIDAS node and the local entities providing additional attributes. We implemented two AP Connectors, named AP-Proxy and AP-OAuth2, allowing the Italian pre-production eIDAS node to get additional attributes from the Politecnico di Torino university backend. In an experimental campaign, about 30 students have accessed academic services at three foreign universities with Italian eIDs and transferred additional attributes over the eIDAS network. Regardless of some usability and privacy concerns encountered, the user experience was positive. We believe our work is helpful in the implementation of the recently adopted European Digital Identity framework, which proposes to extend the person identification data set recognized cross border and the creation of digital wallets that link different data sets or credentials.
... A Gestão de Identidade (GId) pode ser entendida como o conjunto de processos e tecnologias usados para garantir a identidade de uma entidade, garantir a qualidade das informações de uma identidade (identificadores, credenciais e atributos) e para prover procedimentos de autenticação, autorização e auditoria [9]. Para prover a GId, é necessária a construção de um sistema integrado de políticas e processos para validação e troca de credenciais entre os envolvidos, além das definições, certificação e gerenciamento do ciclo de vida das identidades digitais que permitam o tratamento e manipulação de identidades (atributos de identidades) [10,11]. ...
... Dentre os modelos de GId, utilizados em ambientes colaborativos, destaca-se o de identidades federadas, no qual uma federação é uma forma de associação entre instituições parceiras (domínios administrativos) de uma rede colaborativa que usa um conjunto comum de atributos, práticas e políticas para trocar informações e compartilhar serviços, possibilitando a cooperação entre os membros e usuários da federação [11]. A adoção de um modelo de GId federada tem por objetivo remover a complexidade para o usuário, no que se refere a administrar um nome de usuário e senha para cada serviço que deseja acessar, permitindo que uma mesma identidade possa ser utilizada no acesso a diferentes serviços em domínios administrativos distintos [10,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
As organizações virtuais (OVs) permitem a formação de ambientes colaborativos com regras e políticas específicas para permitir o acesso dos pesquisadores aos recursos disponibilizados pelas OVs. Nestes ambientes, o modelo de identidades federadas oferece ao usuário autenticação única (SSO) e federada. As OVs podem ser formadas por domínios heterogêneos (instituições) que ultrapassam o escopo de uma única Federação; para isto, é necessário o estabelecimento das relações de confiança entre os domínios das diferentes Federações. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever um mecanismo de controle e gerência de segurança para ambientes colaborativos (GSOV) responsável por prover o estabelecimento das relações de confiança entre os domínios administrativos que estão em diferentes federações e que contribui com a autenticação e autorização dos usuários da OV.
... In any Identity management system, there are three common entities, they are the user, the identity provider, and the service provider. Isolated identity management model [22,23] is a simple model in which the identity provider and service provider are combined in such a way that user identification and authentication are carried at the service provider itself and all the identity management activities are carried out by that service provider only. If the user wants to access the services offered by other service providers, then he needs to again register with their respective identity providers. ...
... Since in this model identity data is placed in the identity provider in-house repository, the user loses control over his identity data and many privacy and trust issues arise. customer centric model [22,23] is an alternative to centralized model in which the user's identity data is stored at his own domain instead of outsourcing to identity provider thereby user has full control over his identity data. Based on user consent only identity provider can transfer identity data to service provider thereby increasing user privacy.one ...
Article
Cloud computing has made tremendous changes in IT industry by offering various services ranging from Iaas, Saas, Paas, Daas, IDaas to Xaas i.e. everything as a service. Identity as a service is one of the popular service offered by cloud providers which is used for Identity and Access Management which reduces the burden of identity management to companies. As the Identity data of user's moves out of organizational boundaries to cloud servers, the control over identity data is lost thereby security and privacy issues arise. To address these issues many Identity management systems have been proposed but none of them provided privacy at the fine-grained level. In this paper, we propose a SAML based ContextawareIdM, a model for fine-grained privacy-preserving identity as a service which employs Identity-based conditional proxy re-encryption to maintain and operate identity data's privacy at a fine-grained level.
... Usually, the user is not seen as a particular trusted third party, but represents a group that is trusted for common factors by the identity provider and the relying party. The user is primarily trusted to keep the credential for controlling the digital identity secret [15]. Thus, the identity can be solely used by the user itself. ...
... Additionally, the identity provider is trusted to adhere to agreed data privacy principles. The user expects that its data is kept confidential and is only disclosed to authorised parties when necessary [15]. The user and the relying party expect a stable service by the identity provider according to contractual agreements. ...
Preprint
The ubiquitous application of emerging blockchain technology in numerous technological projects leads to a tremendous hype. The significantly high prices of digital currencies and initial coin offerings as the new funding approach has fostered the public perception of blockchain as a cure-all and driven the hype even further. In this evolution, a clear view of the reasonable application of blockchain technology is not given and therefore, the purposeful use of traditional technologies is undermined. To clarify this situation, we derive a novel decision model for evaluating the applicability of blockchain technology that considers two key factors: the remediation of central governance and the management of digital objects. Based on these key factors, we closely analyse the domain of identity management for conscious blockchain application. Finally, we examine uPort, Sovrin, and ShoCard as distinct projects in this scope with regard to the inevitable necessity to implement a blockchain by using our decision model.
... In the ongoing development of traditional identity management patterns from isolated to centralized, and to the federated scheme, the IdP remained a TTP [2]. Within the isolated pattern, the IdP was specific to a service or a Service Provider (SP). ...
... In all traditional identity management models, the user needs to trust the IdP with regards to different criteria [2]. A user holds a credential, such as a password or a private key, to control its digital identity. ...
Article
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Identity management is a principle component of securing online services. In the advancement of traditional identity management patterns, the identity provider remained a Trusted Third Party (TTP). The service provider and the user need to trust a particular identity provider for correct attributes amongst other demands. This paradigm changed with the invention of blockchain-based Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) solutions that primarily focus on the users. SSI reduces the functional scope of the identity provider to an attribute provider while enabling attribute aggregation. Besides that, the development of new protocols, disregarding established protocols and a significantly fragmented landscape of SSI solutions pose considerable challenges for an adoption by service providers. We propose an Attribute Trust-enhancing Identity Broker (ATIB) to leverage the potential of SSI for trust-enhancing attribute aggregation. Furthermore, ATIB abstracts from a dedicated SSI solution and offers standard protocols. Therefore, it facilitates the adoption by service providers. Despite the brokered integration approach, we show that ATIB provides a high security posture. Additionally, ATIB does not compromise the ten foundational SSI principles for the users.
... O gerenciamento de identidades tem atraído atenção nos últimos anos como uma forma eficiente de prover confiança entre as entidades da Internet do Futuro, e de proteger ou mitigar os efeitos de entidades maliciosas [Sabena et al. 2010, Sarma andGirão 2009]. O gerenciamento de identidade (do inglês, Identity Management ou IdM) identifica as entidades, e controla o acesso a recursos por meio de restrições impostas [Josang et al. 2005]. Existe um consenso entre os pesquisadores sobre o papel vital do gerenciamento de identidades em muitas aplicações estratégicas, incluindo aquelas visionadas pela Internet do Futuro em diferentes contextos como entretenimento, saúde, investigações policiais, serviços fornecidos pelo governo (governo eletrônico ou e-government), comércio ubíquo ou u-commerce, inteligência empresarial e segurança corporativa. ...
... Esses paradigmas aplicam técnicas e ferramentas adequadas para cada um deles. O uso de identidades digitais, biometria, cartões inteligentes e técnicas de criptografia baseada em identidades são exemplos dessas técnicas e ferramentas aplicadas [Josang et al. 2005]. ...
Chapter
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The Internet as a platform for ubiquitous communication has quickly advanced in the last years. New services have emphasized the limits of the current Internet and motivated the development of the Future Internet. New network architectures are more complex, more distributed and, ideally, more secure. However, as new technologies emerge, new requirements and security issues are highlighted. These issues emphasize the importance of identity management systems for the Future Internet in order to provide adequate dynamic services in relation to users personal data and requirements. Therefore, this short course presents the state of the art of Identity Management Systems on Future Internet, particularly on Next Generation Networks (NGN), highlighting the challenges, encryption methods used, specific devices applied, proposed architectures and future perspectives. Resumo A Internet como uma plataforma de comunicação ubíqua tem evoluído rapidamente nos últimos anos. Cada vez mais, os serviços estão migrando para uma rede totalmente IP, enfatizando os limites da Internet atual e motivando a construção da Internet do Futuro. As novas arquiteturas de rede são mais complexas, mais distribuídas e, idealmente, mais seguras. No entanto, como novas tecnologias também surgem, novos requisitos e preo-cupações com segurança são ressaltados. Desta forma, a Internet do Futuro destaca a importância da gerência de identidade dos usuários finais em relação ao fornecimento e utilização dos seus dados pessoais e a necessidade de acesso a uma arquitetura de ser-viços dinâmicos. Este minicurso apresenta uma visão geral sobre o estado da arte em pesquisas relacionadas ao gerenciamento de identidades na Internet do Futuro, parti-cularmente nas redes da próxima geração, enfatizando os desafios, os métodos de crip-tografia utilizados, os dispositivos específicos, as arquiteturas propostas e perspectivas futuras.
... On the contrary, Web CSs are usually organized in a silo model: to communicate together, two users must be using the same CS. Large identity federation are difficult to build and present complex issues [2]. As a result users calling outside of their enterprise's domain are often stranded in a silo situation, with the fallback option of using self-asserted identities. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe our implementation of the WebRTC identity architecture. We adapt OpenID Connect servers to support WebRTC peer to peer authentication and detail the issues and solutions found in the process. We observe that although WebRTC allows for the exchange of identity assertion between peers, users lack feedback and control over the other party authentication. To allow identity negotiation during a WebRTC communication setup, we propose an extension to the Session Description Protocol. Our implementation demonstrates current limitations with respect to the current WebRTC specification.
... Identity federation is defined as a set of agreements, standards, and technologies that allow a group of service providers to recognize credentials from other service providers that belong to the federation [1] [3]. The federation gives users the illusion of using only one unique identifier while continuing to present a different one to each service provider. ...
Conference Paper
AC (Access Control) is the process of ensuring that an authenticated user accesses only what he or she is authorized to do with respect to certain models and security policies. In business collaboration systems, services are designed to conduct actions requested by a customer, using service provider's infrastructure. In such context, the agreement on a conventional access management system is difficult because it will depend on different infrastructures and security policies implemented by each involved party. In this paper, we investigate the authorization process that manages permissions and rights of access to shared services in a federation of enterprises and we propose a solution based on the Ethereum Blockchain platform and the Attribute Based Access Control Model (ABAC) to define this authorization process.
... First, the paper aims to propose a relevant level of description of privacy protection measures, mainly related to pseudonymity. The literature often provides either too high-level description in terms of models of trust [6,7], or too detailed technical description in terms of data flows. While both are necessary in their own contexts, we are looking for an approach able to catch at the same time the functional relations between parties, and relevant aspects of actual, existing systems, while not being lost with low-level details. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of privacy protection measures is of particular importance for existing and upcoming users' digital identities. Thus, the recently adopted EU Regulation on Electronic identification and trust services (eIDAS) explicitly allows the use of pseudonyms in the context of eID systems, without specifying the way they should be implemented. The paper contributes to the discussion on pseudonyms and multiple identities, by (1) providing an original analysis grid that can be applied for privacy evaluation in any eID architecture, and (2) introducing the concept of eID deployer allowing to model virtually any case of the relation between the user, the eID implementation and user's digital identities. Based on these inputs, a comparative analysis of four exemplary eID architec-tures deployed in European countries is conducted. The paper also discusses how sensitive citizens of these countries are to the privacy argument while adopting these systems, and presents the " privacy adoption paradox " .
... An identity consists of a set of attributes such as last name and address. Some of these attributes called identifiers may be used to uniquely identify an entity in the system [34]. Correspondingly, Identity Management is the set of technical, organizational and legal measures and processes adopted by an organization in order to handle Identities [49]. ...
Thesis
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Germany and other countries in the European Union have been rolling out digital identity initiatives to their citizens. These digital identities, or eIDs, may be used by citizens to not only access public services but also to interact with private service providers. Additionally, efforts are under way to enable the eID of one country to be useable in any other country of the European Union. While promising, the eID and interoperability efforts are not without their challenges. Meanwhile Blockchain or Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is emerging as a new technology with certain unique characteristics for dealing with coordination problems. In this backdrop, the goal of this thesis is to design a DLT-based architecture for Identity Management in Germany. Firstly a literature review is performed to shed light on Identity Management, the current German eID approach, DLT and related work. Then the requirements of the system are gathered using a chosen use case scenario. Based on these requirements an architecture is designed and implemented as a prototype. To conclude we evaluate the architecture and prototype using the gathered requirements and show that the proposed system is promising and satisfies the identified requirements.
... Similarly, in cross-domain Cloud computing environments, where an agreement is made among the group of trusted Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) to share their services and resources in demand spikes; identity credentials are required to be exchanged and shared. For such scenarios, FIM is the common deployment model, where CSPs with mutual trust relationship share the identity information of their subscribers with each other on demand or as per the requirement [1], [2]. With the introduction of FIM systems, Cloud subscribers are able to use the same identity credentials for gaining access to the set of shared Cloud resources. ...
Article
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Federated Identity Management (FIM) systems are well-known for achieving reliable and effective collaboration among various organizations. Despite numerous benefits, these systems have certain critical weaknesses such as lack of security and privacy while disseminating identity credentials (Personally Identifiable Information (PII)) across multiple federated Cloud environments. In addition to this, FIMsystems have limitations in terms of interoperability and lack compliance to international standards, since most of the systems are reliant on proprietary protocols for the exchange of identity information. In this regard, we propose a secure identity management system for federated Cloud environments that not only ensures the secure management of identity credentials, but preserves the privacy of Cloud Service Consumers (CSC) also. Furthermore, implementation of the proposed system involves state-of-the-art international standards (SCIM, SAML, REST and XACML) to ensure secure, quick and easy sharing & management of identity credentials in to, out of and around the Cloud. Further, we have performed rigorous evaluation of the proposed system using standard evaluation tools such as Scyther and JUnit. The results of our evaluation certify that the presented work ensures the desired features and level of security as expected from a secure identity management system for federated Cloud environment.
... Identifiers are a composition of a special category attributes that offer interrelation with a specific identity in a specific context [25]. Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) [26] are a new type of unique global identifiers that are used in SSI solutions, they are uniquely resolved and fully owned by the entity that creates them. ...
... Identities relationship to identifiers (adapted from[8]) ...
Conference Paper
This article introduces a working definition of Disposable Identities, alongside reference use cases and an exploration of possible technical approaches. The Disposable Identities enable developers of mobile or web applications to employ a novel selfsovereign identity and data privacy framework, aimed primarily at rebuilding trust in digital services by providing greater transparency, decentralized identity and data control, with integrated General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) compliance mechanisms. With a user interface enabling the management of multiple self sovereign identities, privacy consents, digital authorizations, and associated data driven transactions, the additional advantage of Disposable Identities is that they may also contain verifiable data such as the owner’s photograph, official or even biometric identifiers for more proactive prevention of identity abuse. Disposable Identities are designed for advanced decentralized privacy agreements, which can also be time, purpose and context bound through a secure digital contract; with verification functionalities based on tamper-proof technologies.
... Such information can (to some degree) be used online as identifiers. Using one or more identifiers, the authenticity of a subject can be verified in a computer network [71]. In general, an entity-be it physical and/or digital-has a single (digital) identity, which can comprise a set of identifiers describing it. ...
Article
In recent years, potentially disruptive identity-related topics emerged, such as digital twin technology for product lifecycle management or self-sovereign identity (SSI) for sovereign data control. In this study, we identify research streams and emerging trends in academic research on digital identity through a bibliometric analysis of 1,395 peer-reviewed articles and their 44,412 references. We derive seven distinct research streams and their interrelations by means of co-citation analysis. We name the seven research streams: i) Digital twin technology for smart manufacturing and industrial health monitoring, ii) identity-based signcryption schemes, iii) distributed networks and user privacy, iv) user authentication in wireless sensor networks, v) attribute-based encryption schemes, vi) secure data exchange in the Internet of Things and vii) blockchain and smart contracts for secure data management. Each stream’s high-impact publications and its development over time are reviewed and the interrelation between publications and streams are visualized. In addition, we extract directions for future research from the field’s most influential publications. The results offer a comprehensive and systematic overview of publications and discourses in digital identity research.
... Federated identity management is the most used IdM model in collaborative networks, where a federation is composed by partner institutions that use a set of common attributes, best practices and policies in order to exchange data and share services [10]. The federated identity model aims to help the user to manage his single identity (account) to access various service providers in different administrative domains [11], [12]. Among the IdM technologies, Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) [13] stands out in systems based on the federated identity model. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the Federation Semantic Attribute Mapping System (F-SAMS), a web services based system which enables a semi-automated dynamic trust establishment mechanism for managing identity federations. We present the conceptual model which allows current members to dynamically introduce new members into the federation in a trustworthy manner, using a web of trust model. F-SAMS enables existing members to interact securely with previously unknown new members of a federation and allows them to retrieve policy and semantic information about them.
Chapter
The proliferation of online services leads to an increasing number of different digital identities that each user has. In order to enforce access control policies, service providers need assurance that the information associated with users’ identities, either received by the user or a federation partner, are correct and trustworthy. Current identity assurance frameworks assess the trustworthiness of identity providers but do not define trust on the user attribute level of granularity. In this paper, we consider the user attribute as a dynamic structure that extends the foundation of attribute authenticity and trustworthiness by introducing the attribute level of confidence (ALOC). Basically, the ALOC encompasses additional information on attributes’ lifecycle and issuing mechanisms. We present the architecture design and demonstrate its components. This paper concludes discussing future research directions.
Chapter
Numerous Cloud Identity Management (IdM) systems have been designed and implemented to meet the diverse functional and security requirements of various organizations. These requirements are subjective in nature; for instance, some government organizations require security more than efficiency while others prioritize performance and immediate response over security. However, most of the existing IdM systems are incapable of handling the user-centricity, security & technology requirements and are also domain specific. In this regard, this chapter elaborates the need to use Cloud Computing technology for enhancing the effectiveness and transparency of IdM functions and presents a comprehensive and well-structured Extensible IdM Framework for Cloud based e-government institutions. We present the design and implementation details of the proposed framework, followed by a case study which shows how government organizations of Pakistan would use the proposed framework to improve their IdM processes and achieve diverse IdM services.
Chapter
With the change of the Internet from an information to a business platform, an evolution of identity management is ongoing, which affects the way in which we represent and provision identities in the digital world. Open identity management models are the result of this evolution and denote a shift from the traditional domain-based identity models to open models that represent identities as a set of claims (user attributes). Although open identity management models have been designed specifically to address the open nature of the Internet, traditional approaches are still pre-dominating in these networks. This chapter will focus on this contradiction and its reasons. One of the main reasons is the problem of establishing trust relationships between independent parties-a problem inherent to open environments with multiple trust domains. In open environments, participants often do not know each other, but nevertheless require an existing trust relationship to perform critical transactions. Governments, commercial organizations, and academia alike have addressed this issue by providing better assurance guidelines for identity management. The outcome is a number of identity assurance frameworks that identify and cluster certain security criteria into levels of trust or levels of assurance (LoA). These approaches are described, compared, and assessed with regard to their role towards a reliable identity management across the Internet. Limitations are identified and trust levels for attributes are proposed as potential fields for further research.
Conference Paper
The security of large applications and distributed systems is heavily dependent on Identity Management models and infrastructures. In this paper we introduce the Identity Management approach developed in the SecFuNet project, which emphasizes the use of smartcards to user authentication and user-centric attribute delivery policies. In current identity models, user attributes are stored in identity providers and any trust relationship may spread user information across trust networks formed among identity providers. In our approach, the user controls the release of his attributes that are stored in his own smartcard. Also, the approach makes use of secure elements and virtualization for protecting user information. This paper describes aspects of our authentication model and discusses the results obtained with a prototype implementation.
Conference Paper
Secure identification and authentication are essential processes for protecting access to services or applications. These processes are also crucial in new areas of application such as the cloud computing domain. Over the past years, several cloud identity management-models for managing identification and authentication in the cloud domain have emerged. In this paper, we survey existing cloud identity management-models and compare and evaluate them based on selected criteria, e.g., on practicability or privacy aspects.
Article
As cloud computing becomes a hot spot of research, the security issues of clouds raise concerns and attention from academic research community. A key area of cloud security is managing users' identities, which is fundamental and important to other aspects of cloud computing. A number of identity management frameworks and systems are introduced and analysed. Issues remaining in them are discussed and potential solutions and countermeasures are proposed.
Chapter
FIDO (Fast Identity Online) is a new online identity management architecture, developed and promoted by a large industry consortium. Its goal is to simplify and strengthen online user authentication by relying on local device user authentication. Another goal is to finally put passwords to rest. This solution requires strong trust between players and components in the architecture. These aspects have received little attention from the FIDO consortium. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trust requirements for FIDO, and assess the cost of establishing the required trust.
Conference Paper
Nowadays, the concept of Federations has drawn attention of the research community in the area of cloud computing. In a cloud federation, cloud providers build trust relationships and share resources, aiming to overcome momentary resource shortage or to offer a wider range of resources to their users. This paper introduces an infrastructure for building a cloud federation, which defines organization principles and strategies for searching and acquiring resources in a federation. In addition, aiming to allow cross-domain identity management, the proposed infrastructure incorporates authentication and authorization mechanisms in the context of a federation. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed infrastructure.
Conference Paper
The use of cloud computing and cloud federations has been the focus of studies in the last years. Many of these infrastructures delegate user authentication to Identity Providers. Once these services are available through the Internet, concerns about the confidentiality of user credentials and attributes are high. The main focus of this work is the security of the credentials and user attributes in authentication infrastructures, exploring secret sharing techniques and using cloud federations as a base for storing this information.
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This volume is the fourth part of a four-volume set (CCIS 190, CCIS 191, CCIS 192, CCIS 193), which constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on on Computing and Communications, ACC 2011, held in Kochi, India, in July 2011. The 62 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a large number of submissions. The papers are the papers of the Workshop on Cloud Computing: Architecture, Algorithms and Applications (CloudComp2011), of the Workshop on Multimedia Streaming (MultiStreams2011), and of the Workshop on Trust Management in P2P Systems (IWTMP2PS2011).
Thesis
Aujourd'hui, l'Internet change radicalement nos habitudes, avec l'arrivée massive du nomadisme, l'internet des objets, l'utilisation croissante de l'informatique en grille, les services Web, les réseaux sociaux et l'émergence de nouvelles approches dans ces dernières années. La virtualisation des infrastructures informatiques et le Cloud Computing ont particulièrement, permis de définir des nouveaux paradigmes, appelés X as a Service (XaaS), introduisant ainsi une rupture assez franche avec les modèles traditionnels, qui sont perçus comme une étape préparatoire vers l'Internet du Futur. En effet, la mise en œuvre de ces paradigmes, permet de mutualiser et de réorganiser le système informatique de manière différente, de dématérialiser les infrastructures physiques, de déporter les systèmes ou les applications sur des conteneurs virtuels distants. Par conséquent, l'architecture globale de l'Internet doit évoluer, en s'appuyant fortement sur ces nouvelles approches, en particulier, le Cloud Computing et la virtualisation. Malheureusement, comme toute technologie nouvelle, elle crée de nouveaux risques, qui viennent se greffer aux problèmes traditionnels : la séparation des privilèges, la gestion des accès, la gestion de l'identité, les failles des logiciels de virtualisation, l'isolation des machines virtuelles (VM), la protection des données personnelles, la vie privée, la réversibilité pendant l'externalisation (Outsourcing), etc. Les services basés sur les Clouds requièrent des fonctions de collaboration inter-fonctionnelles sécurisées ainsi que des systèmes de protection contre l'utilisation abusive des ressources. Ces systèmes doivent être équilibrés de façon raisonnable avec les besoins de confidentialité, d’intégrité, de protection de la vie privée des utilisateurs. Ils doivent permettre l’authentification des utilisateurs sans révéler des informations sur leur identité. Ainsi, une offre de services personnalisés aux clients dans un environnement virtuel et/ou transorganisationnel, en utilisant des mécanismes de sécurité adaptés à des infrastructures traditionnelles, peut prendre une dimension très complexe dans le modèle Cloud Computing, et peut constituer des défis à soulever pour les fournisseurs de ces services. Parmi ces défis à résoudre, la gestion d’identités des ressources, qui constitue un élément crucial pour authentifier les services à consommer, minimiser le risque d’accès frauduleux à des données personnelles, qui peut conduire à des conséquences désastreuses pour une entreprise ou un client. Les solutions existantes sont insuffisantes pour répondre aux défis soulevés par ces nouvelles approches. La mise en œuvre de ces modèles et ces outils posent des défis sécuritaires à la fois d’ordre organisationnel, architectural et protocolaire, pour garantir à chaque client des niveaux de sécurité. Ces niveaux doivent être identifiés pour guider les choix architecturaux et techniques à prendre, pour répondre en particulier aux exigences (LoA : Level of Assurance) et (LoT : Level of Trust), qu’un fournisseur de Cloud doit mettre en place pour garantir et protéger ses ressources. En effet, ces verrous et ces défis sécuritaires vont être relevés dans ce travail de recherche qui se situe dans le cadre du projet sécurité pour les réseaux du futur (SecFuNet : Security for Future Networks). C’est un projet collaboratif entre l’Europe et le Brésil, qui implique neuf partenaires européens répartis sur (la France, la Pologne, l'Allemagne et le Portugal) et 7 partenaires académiques brésiliens. Ce projet a pour ambition de proposer une nouvelle infrastructure de sécurité générale pour la communication des informations des utilisateurs sur Internet. L’objectif principal est de concevoir et développer une nouvelle architecture de sécurité cohérente pour les réseaux virtuels.
Chapter
Identity management is a fundamental component in securing online services. Isolated and centralized identity models have been applied within organizations. Moreover, identity federations connect digital identities across trust domain boundaries. These traditional models have been thoroughly studied with regard to trust requirements. The recently emerging blockchain technology enables a novel decentralized identity management model that targets user-centricity and eliminates the identity provider as a trusted third party. The result is a substantially different set of entities with mutual trust requirements. In this paper, we analyze decentralized identity management based on blockchain through defining topology patterns. These patterns depict schematically the decentralized setting and its main actors. We study trust requirements for the devised patterns and, finally, compare the result to traditional models. Our contribution enables a clear view of differences in trust requirements within the various models.
Conference Paper
Health is one of the major challenges facing governments today. Health needs have evolved. It is not only a matter of providing care to sick people, but rather of ensuring the wellness of the population through a good tracking of each patient, adapted prevention programs and decision-making tools facilitating to the doctor the diagnosis of the diseases and the prescription of the treatments. It is in this context that ICTs intervene through the process of dematerialization of procedures and transactions related to the field of health. Hence our contribution, which consists in proposing an e-health platform based essentially on the electronic health record and a structured, hierarchical and universal model of identification that uniquely identifies each stakeholder (patient and healthcare professional) while protecting personal data against manipulation, access or disclosure without the approval of their owner.
Chapter
Existing identity metasystems provide enabling tools to manage, select, and control of digital identities but they have not provided the support of trust management that should cover how trust requirements associated with digital identities are modeled, how runtime conditions for trust are evaluated, and how the results of trust evaluation are consumed by systems/applications. In this paper, the authors propose an approach toward a trust management enabled identity metasystem that covers the analysis of trust requirements and the development of trust management system in a consistent manner. The proposed trust management architecture extends the existing identity metasystems by introducing computing components for carrying out typical trust management tasks associated with digital identities. The computing components in proposed architecture provide intelligent services for these tasks. The proposed high level architecture targets the automation of the development of the trust management layer for digital identities.
Chapter
Electronic commerce has grown into a vital segment of the economy of many nations. It is a global phenomenon providing markets and commercialization opportunities world-wide with a significantly reduced barrier to entry as compared to global marketing in the 20th century. Providing protocols to secure such commerce is critical and continues to be an area for both scientific and engineering study. Falsification, fraud, identity theft, and disinformation campaigns or other attacks could damage the credibility and value of electronic commerce if left unchecked. Consequently, cryptographic methods have emerged to combat any such efforts, be they the occasional random attempt at theft or highly organized criminal or political activities. This chapter covers the use of cryptographic methods and emerging standards in this area to provide the necessary protection. That protection, as is common for web-based protocols, evolves over time to deal with more and more sophisticated attacks. At the same time, the provision of security in a manner convenient enough to not deter electronic commerce has driven research efforts to find easier to use and simpler protocols to implement even as the strength of the cryptographic methods has increased. This chapter covers current standards, looking at several facets of the secure commercialization problem from authentication to intrusion detection and identity and reputation management. Vulnerabilities are discussed as well as capabilities.
Chapter
This chapter presents a detailed discussion on modeling and management of identity for the IoT. In a large-scale system like the IoT, it is difficult to predict, in advance, which entities will interact and require access to services and to precisely identify the exact services to which they will seek access. This chapter highlights important questions concerning the nature of identity and identity management for such IoT systems. Further, a formal model of IoT identity covering all its aspects is discussed.
Article
This paper describes the architectural model of an intrusion-tolerant identity provider (IdP-IT) for large distributed systems such as clouds, computational grids or collaborative networks. Like any service available on the Internet, Identity Providers are subject to attacks that can result in intrusions that would be catastrophic for the security of information and resources of a distributed system. Usually these systems are built on clusters (or private clouds) systems. But this does not prevent attacks with malicious behaviour deployments. Our approach was developed for cloud federation, and at first, we developed the virtualization-based Intrusion Tolerant Identity Provider framework so we could reconfigure its external interfaces to each attack detection. Protocols have been extended to allow detection and system reconfiguration. In a second step we extend the previous model with memorization of user attributes and credentials on a cloud federation. For this extension we have developed a secure memory mechanism in these resources, usually considered unsafe for sensitive information. The developed mechanisms allows the correct functioning of these providers even under malicious attacks.
Thesis
Real-time web conversational services allow users to have audio and video calls over the Internet. Over-The-Top operators such as Google and Facebook offer cost-effective communication services with advanced conversational features. With the introduction of WebRTC standard, any website or web application can now have built-in communication capabilities. WebRTC technology is expected to boost Voice-Over-IP by making it more robust, flexible and accessible. Telco operators also intend to use the underlying technology to offer communication services to their subscribers over the web. Emerging web-centric communication platforms aims to offer modern methods of contacting and communicating over the web. However, web operators are unable to ensure the trustworthiness of their subscribers, since identities are based on self-asserted user profiles and credentials. Thus, they remain exposed to many social threats in which the context between communicating parties is manipulated. An attacker usually misrepresents himself to convey false information to the targeted victim. Typical social threats include phishing, spam, fraudulent telemarketing and unlawful content distribution. To ensure user security over communication networks, trust between communicating parties needs to be established. Communicating participants should be able to verify each other’s identity to be sure of whom they are talking to. However, authentication alone cannot guarantee the trustworthiness of a caller. New methods of estimating caller’s reputation should also be built in web calling services. In this thesis, we present a novel trust framework that provides information about the trustworthiness of callers in web communication networks. Our approach is organized in four parts. Firstly, we describe the notion of trust in real-time web communication services. A trust model approach is presented to formally introduce the trust computation parameters and relationships in a communication system. Secondly, we detail the mechanism of identity provisioning that allows communicating participants to verify each other’s identity in a Peer-to-Peer fashion. The choice of authentication protocol highly impacts user privacy. We showed how OpenID Connect used for Single-Sign-On authentication purposes can be effectively used for provisioning identities while preserving user privacy. Thirdly, a trust computational model is proposed to measure the trustworthiness of callers in a communication network. The legitimacy and genuineness of a caller’s identity is computed using recommendations from members of the network. On the other hand, the popularity of a caller is estimated by analyzing its behavior in the network. Each subscriber will be able to visualize the computed trust of other members before initiating or accepting a call request. Lastly, the reputation of a caller is used to combat nuisance calls generated over communication networks. Nuisance calls are described as unsolicited bulk spam phone calls generated for marketing and deceptive purposes. Caller’s reputation is computed using the diversity of outgoing calls, call duration, recommendations from called participants, reciprocity and repetitive nature of calls. The reputation is used to differentiate between legitimate and nuisance calls generated over the network
Technical Report
Full-text available
What does the word ‘trust’ mean? Scholars continue to express concern regarding their collective lack of consensus about trust’s meaning. Conceptual confusion on trust makes comparing one trust study to another problematic. To facilitate cumulative trust research, the authors propose two kinds of trust typologies: (a) a classification system for types of trust, and (b) definitions of six related trust types that form a model. Some of the model’s implications for management are also outlined.
Article
Passwords have long been used as the most common method for providing user authentication when accessing remote computer systems. However, there are many security problems associated with passwords including their susceptibility to the attacks of eavesdropping, playback, and exhaustive search. This paper describes a system which offers an innovative solution to the problem of establishing identities over insecure communications channels. The system embodies the security concept of a one-time pad because it requires that a different password be used for each access. Through the possession of a personal authentication device (the PassPort) and knowledge of a unique PIN number, an authorized user is able to generate the correct password to be used for each access.
Conference Paper
Among the various human factors impinging upon making a decision in an uncertain environment, risk and trust are surely crucial ones. Several models for trust have been proposed in the literature but few explicitly take risk into account. This paper analyses the relationship between the two concepts by first looking at how a decision is made to enter into a transaction based on the risk information. We then draw a model of the invested fraction of the capital function of a decision surface. We finally define a model of trust composed of a reliability trust as the probability of transaction success and a decision trust derived from the decision surface.
PSM 2.0 Help http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/psm/help_20 /passwords_help.html NIST: Electronic Authentication Guideline
Mozilla Project: Privacy and Security Preferences, PSM 2.0 Help http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/psm/help_20 /passwords_help.html NIST: Electronic Authentication Guideline. NIST Special Publication SP 800-63, June 2004.
Australian Business Number Digital Signature Certificate (ABN–DSC), Broad Specification. National Office for the Information Economy
NOIE: Australian Business Number Digital Signature Certificate (ABN–DSC), Broad Specification. National Office for the Information Economy, September 2003.
E-Authentication Guidance for Federal Agencies. Memorandum M-04-04 to the heads of all departments and agencies
  • Us Omb
Privacy and Security Preferences, PSM 2
  • Mozilla Project