Conference Paper

Exploring Intentional Modeling and Analysis for Enterprise Architecture

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Abstract

An enterprise architecture is intended to be a comprehensive blueprint describing the key components and relationships for an enterprise from strategies to business processes to information systems and technologies. Enterprise architectures have become essential for managing change in complex organizations. While "motivation" has been recognized since Zachman 0 as an important element of enterprise architecture, yet to date, most enterprise architecture modeling only deals with structure, function, and behaviour, neglecting the intentional dimension of motivations, rationales, and goals. The contribution at hand explores this challenge and aims to illustrate the potentials of intentional modeling in the context of enterprise architecture. After introducing two intentional modeling languages and their potential relation to an enterprise architecture construction process, we report on an explorative case study that aimed to investigate the practical implications of intentional modeling and analysis for enterprise architectures. Finally, we present key observations from interviews that were conducted with practitioners to obtain feedback regarding the material developed in the case study.

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... Languages capable of specifying all the relevant aspects of enterprise for organisational decision-making lack support for automated analysis (e.g., Archimate (Iacob et al., 2012), IEM (Bernus and Schmidt, 2006) and EEML (Krogstie, 2008)). Languages capable of automated analysis only cater for a subset of the relevant aspects for decision-making (e.g., BPMN 1 , i* (Yu et al., 2006), and System Dynamics (Meadows and Wright, 2008)). Co-simulation using a relevant subset of EM languages can be a pragmatic solution (Barjis, 2008). ...
... Defining states in terms of a type model is borrowed from UML 2 . An event driven architecture (Michelson, 2006) supports flexible interactions between components, and the concept of intentional modelling (Yu et al., 2006) is adopted to enable specification of component goals. Organisation is a Unit that comprises a set of Units and strives to accomplish its stated Goal. ...
... ESL was prototyped by extending an existing event-driven language LEAP (Clark and Barn, 2013) with the concepts borrowed from actor model of computation (Hewitt, 2010), multi-agent systems (Van Harmelen et al., 2008), and goals (Yu et al., 2006). These concepts and their augmentation with conventional class models and temporal logic closely match the required features specified in Fig. 3. ...
... They are capable of precise analyses for one or limited aspects. For instance, BPMN (Business Process Modelling and Notation) [11] analyses and simulates the behavioural aspect, i* [10] analyses the high level goals and objectives, and System Dynamic model simulates dynamic behaviour of the system. The multi-modelling and co-simulation environments, such as DEVS (Discrete EVent system Specifications) [25], AA4MM (Agent & Artifact for Multi-Modeling) [26], AnyLogic [28] and MEMO (Multi-perspective enterprise modeling) [9] technology, demonstrate further advancements by supporting the analysis of multiple aspects. ...
... From a methodological viewpoint, the goal specification languages such as i* [10] and EKD [29] advocate a top-down method. EM languages such as ArchiMate, MEMO, and 4EM [30] advocate a top-down method and a globalized view of the system to represent the Goal, Structure and Behaviour of organisation in an integrated manner. ...
... An event driven architecture is introduced for reactive behaviour. The concept of intentional modelling [10] is adopted to enable specification of goals. The behavioural classification and uncertainty is defined from the notion of uncertainty defined by Donald Rumsfeld [20]. ...
Chapter
Current state-of-the-practice and state-of-the-art of decision-making aids are inadequate for modern organisations that deal with significant uncertainty and business dynamism. This paper highlights the limitations of prevalent decision-making aids and proposes a model-based approach that advances the modelling abstraction and analysis machinery for complex dynamic decision-making. In particular, this paper proposes a meta-model to comprehensively represent organisation, establishes the relevance of model-based simulation technique as analysis means, introduces the advancements over actor technology to address analysis needs, and proposes a method to utilise proposed modelling abstraction, analysis technique, and analysis machinery in an effective and convenient manner. The proposed approach is illustrated using a near real-life case-study from a business process outsourcing organisation.
... Enterprise Modeling (EM) attempts to address the organisational decision-making problem from this very perspective. However, EM languages capable of specifying all relevant aspects are found inadequate in terms of analysis capabilities (Iacob et al. 2012, Krogstie 2008, Vernadat 2002, and EM languages capable of sophisticated analysis can cater to specification of only a subset of relevant aspects (Yu et al. 2006, Meadows and Wright 2008, OMG 2011. Therefore, multiple candidate lines of attack emerge. ...
... As each tool supports modeling only a partial view, the separately specified views need to be integrated to ensure consistent and well-formed enterprise model. Paradigmatically diverse nature of languages such as goal modeling (Yu et al. 2006), Stock-and-Flow (SnF) (Meadows and Wright 2008), and business process modeling (OMG 2011) means it is hard to come up with a single metalanguage in terms of which the modeling languages can be expressed. As a result, mappings between goal-and strategy-modeling languages (i.e. ...
Conference Paper
Industry practice follows a refinement-based iterative method for organisational decision-making. Current industry practice relies heavily on human expertise in realising decision-making method. We propose a conceptual model for this method and discuss possible realisations. Our explorations to support the latter using existing enterprise modeling technology are shared along with early lessons learnt
... Such activities have limited technology support and are often undertaken using spreadsheets. There is some evidence that suggests platform-based approaches such as simulation-aided scenario playing [2,13]. We present a model-based approach to improve the decision making based on Enterprise Modeling (EM) [2,13,14] using actors [4] to produce executable models of socio-technical systems. ...
... There is some evidence that suggests platform-based approaches such as simulation-aided scenario playing [2,13]. We present a model-based approach to improve the decision making based on Enterprise Modeling (EM) [2,13,14] using actors [4] to produce executable models of socio-technical systems. The principles are presented as a UML-based conceptual model, simulations are modelled and then implemented in an actor-based language called ESL. 1 http://tonyclark.github.io/ESL/ ...
Conference Paper
Effective organizational decision-making often requires deep understanding of various aspects of an organisation such as goals, structure, business-as-usual, operational processes etc. The large size of an organisation, its socio-technical characteristics, and fast business dynamics make this a challenging endeavor. This tutorial presents a model-based simulation approach to organisational decision-making. We introduce a new technology that supports the approach and illustrate how it is applied to real life problems using real world case studies.
... The existing enterprise modeling and actor technologies are cognizant of these dichotomies at a varying degree. For example, the goal specification languages such as i* [18] advocate a top-down method for goal modelling. The EM languages, such as ArchiMate [9], MEMO [7] and 4EM [14], advocate a top-down method, decomposition abstraction, and globalized view of the system to represent the Goal, Structure and Behaviour of organisation in an integrated manner. ...
... These sub-steps allow for identifying and specifying: a top-down goal decomposition; Measures for all leaf goals of the constructed goal model; and the set of Levers that may impact identified Measures. The i* notation is used as a methodological device for these concepts [18] (see Fig. 3 (a)). The Lever set is augmented by a decision table comprising a cross-tabulation of Levers and Measures as shown in Fig. 3 (b). ...
Conference Paper
Effective organisational decision-making requires information pertaining to various organisational aspects, precise analysis capabilities, and a systematic method to capture and interpret the required information. The existing Enterprise Modelling (EM) and actor technologies together seem suitable for the specification and analysis needs of decision making. However, in absence of a method to capture required information and perform analyses, the decision-making remains a complex endeavour. This paper presents a method that captures required information in the form of models and performs what-if calculations in a systematic manner.
... The challenges analysis is performed based on a set of existing methods that enable organisational structure and strategy, business processes, and information systems modelling: i* [14], Communication Analysis (CA) [15] and the OO-Method (OOM) [16], respectively. We consider these methods because i* supports the jointly modelling of organisational structure, strategy, and goals, and it has been applied for adding intentionality to organisational levels [17]- [19]. On the other hand, OOM supporting tool allows the generation of working code from the model of the information system [20]. ...
... • Organisational level business strategy representation: the framework for representing organisational goals must be useful for representing business strategy. i* is one of the most used frameworks for business goals modelling for strategic alignment [17]- [19]. We choose i* based on this fact; however, it is worth noting that strategic concepts such as strategy, influence, motivation, and tactics are not present in i* but have been mostly covered by enterprise architecture frameworks such as Archimate [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Model-Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional development of information systems, given its ability to integrate different stakeholders into the information system engineering process. Currently, longtime researched MDD methods and modern no-code and low-code platforms support the generation of the working code of the information system and services. However, in today’s continuously changing environment, organisations need to align the information systems and services with the business structure, strategy, and processes they support. This article shows the design challenges for integrating business strategy information into a model-driven development method. We applied a set of mechanism experiments on an MDD method composed of three modelling frameworks with demonstrated semantic consistency, that covers the organisational, business process, and information system levels to identify information loss and transformation coverage issues that prevent the generation of information systems and services that are strategically aligned. The challenges were discussed with experts, confirming the relevance of avoiding the overlapping between the strategic and business process concepts, providing organisational-level constructs to express strategic ends and means, and considering the organisational structure in the modular design of business process and information systems and services.
... Information System (IS) research recommends that information should be amenable for computational analysis and technology-aided analysis for better sense-making, understanding and prediction [200,219,134]. In congruence to this viewpoint, this research explores the possibility of utilising the technology-aided analysis to perform the decision-making steps depicted in This research also focuses on an effective methodological rigour to identify the relevant information, capture them using machine interpretable form, and perform required analyses in a way that conforms to the management viewpoints. ...
... Flow (SnF) [78]. An experimentation using multi-modelling and co-simulation that uses three prominent top-down EM techniques: i* [219], BPMN [209] and Stock and Flow (SnF) [78] is conducted on SSPO. The detailed experiment, models and simulation results are described in Appendix F. The goals of SSPO (as presented in Figure 7. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Decision-making is a critical activity for most of the modern organizations to stay competitive in rapidly changing business environment. Effective organisational decision-making requires deep understanding of various organisational aspects such as its goals, structure, business-as-usual operational processes, environment where it operates, and inherent characteristics of the change drivers that may impact the organisation. The size of a modern organisation, its socio-technical characteristics, inherent uncertainty, volatile operating environment, and prohibitively high cost of the incorrect decisions make decision-making a challenging endeavor. While the enterprise modelling and simulation technologies have evolved into a mature discipline for understanding a range of engineering, defense and control systems, their application in organisational decision-making is considerably low. Current organisational decision-making approaches that are prevalent in practice are largely qualitative. Moreover, they mostly rely on human experts who are often aided with the primitive technologies such as spreadsheets and visual diagrams. This thesis argues that the existing modelling and simulation technologies are neither suitable to represent organisation and decision artifacts in a comprehensive and machine-interpretable form nor do they comprehensively address the analysis needs. An approach that advances the modelling abstraction and analysis machinery for organisational decision-making is proposed. In particular, this thesis proposes a domain specific language to represent relevant aspects of an organisation for decision-making, establishes the relevance of a bottom-up simulation technique as a means for analysis, and introduces a method to utilise the proposed modelling abstraction, analysis technique, and analysis machinery in an effective and convenient manner.
... However, many of the RE approaches do not capture strategic goals, and thus undermines the "completeness" of requirements specification (Bleistein 2006). The serious lack with the majority of the RE approaches is that they do not recognise the importance of highlighting competencies of BAs involved in the collection of requirements, particularly the strategic business goals (Yu, Strohmaier et al. 2006;Samavi, Yu et al. 2009; Barone, Yu et al. 2010). Chan et al. (1992) argue that strategic goals do not just exist in the organization. ...
... By approaching maximum number of available stakeholders, senior BAs appear to be well aware of the source of strategic as well as technical requirements of the system whereas the intermediate and junior BAs appear to be focused on middle and lower level staff for the collection of mainly technical requirements. This may well be a reason explaining why a majority of the existing RE approaches develop requirements models that may not properly capture strategic goals driven from the vision and mission of an organisations Yu, Strohmaier et al. 2006). ...
Article
Competency of a business analyst plays a crucial role in requirements elicitation, particularly now when the information systems are developed to support strategic business goals. However, as yet, there has been little research into the relationship between competencies of business analysts and requirements elicitation. In this study, a scenario-based approach has been used for the collection and documentation of requirements from the perspective of ten stakeholders of a business system with the emphasis on strategic goals. The 30 business analysts having senior, intermediate and junior level of competencies were recruited for this purpose. The results indicate that senior business analysts, overall, perform better than intermediate and junior business analysts in relation to pursing key stakeholders for the collection of holistic view of the organisation. Senior business analysts tend to approach senior management of the enterprise to collect strategic business goals whereas the intermediate and junior business analysts appear more focused on middle and operational level management for the collection of technical requirements. The results conclude that the senior business analysts are important to be involved in the crucial activity of requirements elicitation if we want to develop an information system that is supportive to the strategic direction of the organisation.
... The complexities of some information systems, their enablers, and supporting technologies are the primary reason why many organizations employ EA. The emphasis on EA is mainly because of the premise that the concept can assist organizations to develop strategies and as well incorporate them within existing processes, IT infrastructure, and other organizational modules [37]. However, in achieving the anticipated benefits of EA, an organization needs to be committed to strict mechanisms during analysis and planning in the development, implementation, and practice. ...
... Enterprise architecture domains[37]. ...
Article
Even though the interest in enterprise architecture (EA) has in recent years tremendously increased across industries, many organizations continue to encounter challenges, which affects the development, implementation, and practice. As a result, different approaches have been employed to ascertain the challenges, yet they persist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a framework, which can be used to examine and understand how various events and factors manifest in their natural settings to cause complexities, during development and implementation of EA in organizations. The qualitative research methods were employed, within which qualitative data were gathered. The interpretive approach was followed, using the Structuration Theory as a lens, to guide the analysis of the data. Based on the analysis, organizational structure, technology, social context, and process-oriented factors were found to be of critical and significant influence in the complexity of EA, from which a framework was developed.
... The mathematical models, such as linear programming [12], work well for mechanistic and monolithic systems that are not adaptive in nature. The enterprise models, such as ArchiMate [19,23], i* [30], and BPMN [29], are found to be inappropriate for the systems that exhibit significant uncertainty and emergentism [9]. Whereas the actor technologies [1] and agent-based systems [22] fall short of expressing the complex organisational structure and uncertainty (see Chapter 4 in [7]). ...
... An event driven architecture [26] is adopted to introduce reactive behaviour. The concept of intentional modelling [30] is adopted to enable goals. The complex event is traced to [27]. ...
Chapter
Effective decision-making based on precise understanding of an organisation is critical for modern organisations to stay competitive in a dynamic and uncertain business environment. However, the state-of-the-art technologies that are relevant in this context are not adequate to capture and quantitatively analyse complex organisations. This paper discerns the necessary information for an organisational decision-making from management viewpoint, discusses inadequacy of the existing enterprise modelling and specification techniques, proposes a domain specific language to capture the necessary information in machine processable form, and demonstrates how the collected information can be used for a simulation-based evidence-driven organisational decision-making.
... Third, other research focuses on the role of EA and the management of change within complex organizations. This is done through a focus on the role of motivation within EA (Yu, Strohmaier and Deng, 2006), and is further linked to privacy and security. As EA is meant to extensively depict the core components and relationships in a given enterprise, it is essential for change management (Yu, Strohmaier and Deng, 2006). ...
... This is done through a focus on the role of motivation within EA (Yu, Strohmaier and Deng, 2006), and is further linked to privacy and security. As EA is meant to extensively depict the core components and relationships in a given enterprise, it is essential for change management (Yu, Strohmaier and Deng, 2006). Currently, most EA modelling does not place the necessary focus on motivation, and Yu and colleagues suggest two intentional modelling languages -Entity Relationship (ER) and Unified Modelling Language (UML) -as means to address this shortcoming in the EA construction processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Big data analytics provide valuable information allowing organizations to gain insights that grant them a competitive advantage in the market. However, it also provides access to data that compromise people's privacy. The development of sophisticated technologies for data analysis has resulted in a growing concern around privacy management in big data. While many sites (e.g. Facebook) require the user to provide personal information to access their services, others (e.g. Google search) can automatically capture or trace user activities and use that data to acquire personal demographic information. Therefore, Internet users are – willingly or unwillingly – constantly disclosing sensitive personal information. In addition, users do not get a complete picture of how their personal information is disseminated online. In this paper, we investigate information privacy through an experiment using large‐scale disclosure of personal web activity data to track fragments of personal information released over a period of time. This experiment gives a clear picture of the potential privacy losses of individual users based on released personal information and activities at different websites. By devising an enterprise architecture using a privacy‐by‐design framework, this study provides a useful guide to addressing the managerial challenges of privacy management.
... In particular, we found the EM techniques that support necessary aspects of CDDM (such as Zachman Framework and ArchiMate) are not machine interpretable and thus not amenable for rigorous analyses. In contrast, specification approaches such as BPMN (OMG, 2011), i* (Yu, 2006) and Stock-n-Flow (SnF) (Meadows and Wright, 2008) are capable of sophisticated analyses and simulation. For example, the process aspect can be analysed and simulated using BPMN based tool, the high level goals and objectives can be evaluated using i*, and high level system dynamics can be simulated using Stock-and-Flow (SnF) tools such as iThink. ...
... Defining states in terms of a type model is borrowed from UML. An event driven architecture is introduced for reactive behaviour and the concept of intentional modelling (Yu, 2006) is adopted to enable specification of goals. ...
Conference Paper
Effective decision-making of modern organisation requires deep understanding of various aspects of organisation such as its goals, structure, business-as-usual operational processes etc. The large size and complex structure of organisations, socio-technical characteristics, and fast business dynamics make this decision-making a challenging endeavour. The state-of-practice of decision-making that relies heavily on human experts is often reported as ineffective, imprecise and lacking in agility. This paper evaluates a set of candidate technologies and makes a case for using actor based simulation techniques as an aid for complex dynamic decision-making. The approach is justified by enumeration of basic requirements of complex dynamic decision-making and the conducting a suitability of analysis of state-of-the-art enterprise modelling techniques. The research contributes a conceptual meta-model that represents necessary aspects of organisation for complex dynamic decision-making together with a realisation in terms of a meta model that extends Actor model of computation. The proposed approach is illustrated using a real life case study from business process outsourcing industry
... For example, the Zachman framework [5] is capable of representing enterprises in a structured form by visualising them along six interrogative aspects namely what, where, when, why, who and how ; the ArchiMate [6] and tool Archi 1 enable comprehensive specification and visualisation support along structural, behavioural and information aspects of the organisation. As regards the analysis capabilities, the specification such as BPMN [7], i* [8] and stock-n-flow (SnF) [9] are amenable to sophisticated analysis. For example, the process aspect can be analysed and simulated using BPMN, the high level goals and objectives can be evaluated using i*, and high level system dynamics can be simulated using Stock-and-Flow (SnF) tools such as iThink 2 . ...
Conference Paper
Context: An essential part of conducting software engineering (SE) research is the ability to identify extant research on tools, technologies, concepts and methods in order to evaluate and make rational and scientific decisions. The domain from which such knowledge is extracted is typically existing research literature found in journals, conference proceedings, books and gray literature. Empirical approaches that include various systematic review (SR) methodologies such as systematic literature review (SLR) and systematic mapping study (SMS) are found to be effective in this context. They adopt rigorous planning, follow repeatable and well-defined processes, and produce unbiased and evidence-based outcomes. Despite these significant benefits, the general trend on using these systematic review (SR) methodologies is not encouraging in SE research. The primary reasons emerging are twofold - a) SR methodologies are largely cited as time-consuming activities and b) lack of guidance to conduct systematic reviews. This tutorial discusses these concerns and describes an effective way of using SR methodologies for SE research. Objectives: Attendees will be introduced to the key concepts, methods and processes for conducting systematic literature reviews (SLR) and systematic mapping studies (SMS). The benefits, limitations, guidelines for using SR methodologies in an effective manner will discussed in the session. Attendees will be guided on the appropriate formulation of a research question and sub questions; the development of a review protocol such as inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, quality criteria and classification structures; and execution of review protocol using digital libraries and syntheses of review data. A web based software tool1, for supporting the systematic literature review process will be demonstrated and attendees will get the opportunity to use the tool to conduct the review to help in identification of relevant research and extraction and synthesis of data. Method: We will use a blend of information presentation, interactive hands-on session and knowledge sharing session. The presentation will introduce the key concepts, benefits, limitations and how to overcome the limitations; hands on session will illustrate a review process with a case study, and finally the knowledge sharing session will discuss the experiences, best practices and the lesson learnt.
... On the other hand, there are interesting works such as Yu et al. (2006); Cravero et al. (2009);and Cravero, (2012) illustrating the potential use of BMM together with i* supporting intentional modeling and Enterprise Architecture (EA) analysis under different perspectives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Enterprise Architecture (EA) has gained importance in recent years, mainly for its concept of “alignment” between the strategic andoperational levels of organizations. Such alignment occurs when Information Technology (IT) is applied correctly and timely, working in synergy and harmony with strategy and the operation to achieve mutually their own goals and satisfy the organizational needs.Both the strategic and operational levels have standards that help model elements necessary to obtain desired results. In this sense, BMM and BPMN were selected because both have the support of OMG and they are fairly well known for modelling the strategic level and operational level, respectively. In addition, i* modeling goal can be used for reducing the gap between these two standards. This proposal may help both the high-level design of the information system and to the appropriate identification of the business processes that will support it.This paper presents a methodology for aligning strategy and the operation based on standards and heuristics. We have made aclassification for elements of the models and, for some specific cases, an extension of the heuristics associated between them. This allows us to propose methodology, which uses above-mentioned standards and combines mappings, transformations and actions to be considered in the alignment process.
... BPMN [30], i* [32] and stock-n-flow (SnF) [22] are amenable to automated analysis. For example, the process aspect can be analysed and simulated using BPMN, the high level goals and objectives can be evaluated using i*, and high level system dynamics can be simulated using Stock-and-Flow (SnF) tools such as iThink 1 . ...
Conference Paper
Within a configuration of actors, each of which publishes a history, a monitor is an independent actor that triggers an action based on patterns occurring in the actor histories. This paper defines a model of monitors using features of an actor language called ESL including time, static types and higher-order functions. The model is implemented and evaluated in the context of a simple case study based on competitive bidding.
... For example, the Zachman framework [5] is capable of representing enterprises in a structured form by visualising them along six interrogative aspects namely what, where, when, why, who and how ; the ArchiMate [6] and tool Archi 1 enable comprehensive specification and visualisation support along structural, behavioural and information aspects of the organisation. As regards the analysis capabilities, the specification such as BPMN [7], i* [8] and stock-n-flow (SnF) [9] are amenable to sophisticated analysis. For example, the process aspect can be analysed and simulated using BPMN, the high level goals and objectives can be evaluated using i*, and high level system dynamics can be simulated using Stock-and-Flow (SnF) tools such as iThink 2 . ...
Conference Paper
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art enterprise modelling (EM) techniques with an objective to support decision-making. It describes a Systematic Mapping Study based on 173 publications chosen from 7622 EM related publications collated using five digital libraries: Scopus, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. The study identifies 29 EM techniques and critically analyses them for suitability as an effective aid to complex dynamic decision-making vis-a-vis a set of characteristics. The paper also reports EM publications trends and the challenges aimed at providing effective aids to complex dynamic decision making.
... Most of the modeling relies on existing modeling methods, with static and dynamic ontologies. The use of i* as intentional social models for EA is suggested in [33], [34], and [35]. This research will use the notation and model type of i* in proposed EAIM. ...
... The current state-of-the-art of enterprise specification can be broadly classified as: those focusing on the 'what' and 'how' aspects [1,2,3] and those focusing on the 'why' aspects [4,5,6]. Supporting infrastructure for the former, with the exception of (http://www.visual-paradigm.com/) to an extent, is best seen as a means to create high level descriptions that are meant for human experts to interpret in the light of synthesis of their past experience. ...
Conference Paper
Modern enterprises are complex systems operating in highly dynamic environments. The time to respond to the various change drivers is short and the cost of incorrect decisions is prohibitively high. Modern enterprises tend to exist in silos leading to fragmented knowledge with little support available for composing the fragments. Current practice places a heavy burden on experts by requiring a quick and comprehensive solution. This paper proposes a model based approach to this problem in terms of a language to be used for enterprise simulation and analysis that is capable of integrating the ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ aspects of an enterprise. Possible implementation is also hinted.
... The standard notation CMMN (CMM, 2013) as depicted in Figure 7(b), allows us to deal with the aforementioned limits. As discussed in (Yu et al., 2006), the importance to introduce intentional modeling in enterprise architecture entails potential benefits and pitfalls. In learning context, it is of crucial relevance to model intentionality providing a scheme for developing, communicating and managing business plans in an organized manner. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern organizations are challenged to understand and put in action latest procedures and rules in order to constantly improve their service quality while coping with quickly changing contexts and decreasing resources. Such are defined by means of several kind of models that are in general quite interrelated. In this paper, we propose a Learning Architecture using Zachman Framework that allows us to define relations among these models and permits us to handle with huge amount of informations and resources in an organized way. Furthermore, the architecture enables process-driven learning and improvement through enriched models with contextual knowledge in terms of documentation and resources.
... Where process models are used to describe the processes within a particular enterprise, goal modeling covers a completely different but yet very important aspect: it captures the motivation and strategy behind organizational practices (Yu et al. 2006). Goal-oriented modeling became increasingly popular among requirements engineering techniques (Matulevičius et al. 2007). ...
Thesis
Within an enterprise, different conceptual models, such as process, data, and goal models, are created by various stakeholders. These models are fundamentally based on similar underlying enterprise (domain) concepts, but they have a different focus, are represented using different modeling languages, take different viewpoints, utilize different terminology, and are used to develop different enterprise artefacts (such as documents, software, databases, etc.); therefore, they typically lack consistency and alignment. Another issue is that modelers have different vocabulary selections and different modeling styles. As a result, the enterprise can find itself accumulating a pile of models which cover similar aspects in different manners. Those models are not machine-readable and cannot be processed automatically. Enterprise-Specific Ontologies (ESOs) aim to solve this problem by serving as a reference during the conceptual model creation. Using such a shared semantic repository makes conceptual models semantically aligned and facilitates model integration. However, managing those ontologies is complicated; an enterprise is an evolving entity, and as it changes, the ESO might become outdated. During the years of research dedicated to this dissertation, the Recommendation-Based Conceptual Modeling and Ontology Evolution (CMOE+) framework was developed. This framework establishes a symbiotic relationship between the Ontology engineering and the Conceptual modeling fields. CMOE+ consists of two cycles: the Ontology Evolution cycle and the Conceptual Modeling cycle. The Ontology Evolution cycle is responsible for setting up the initial version of the ESO and updating it as the knowledge within the enterprise evolves. Additionally, this cycle encapsulates recommendation services to perform ontology look-up and to present the most relevant ESO concepts in support of the modeler. The Conceptual Modeling cycle is responsible for the creation of conceptual models in different modeling languages based on the ESO. This cycle is also concerned with the quality evaluation of the created models. CMOE+ was developed based on requirements identified as a result of a literature review and a case study. The development process follows the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM). After the initial version of CMOE+ was put forward, our focus was narrowed towards the recommendation-based conceptual modeling part of CMOE+, and we continued to gradually improve the framework in iterations until it reached its current state. The Ontology Evolution Cycle is not fully addressed within the scope of this dissertation. In order to demonstrate the performance and usability of CMOE+, it was exemplified for process modeling using BPMN and goal modeling using i*. This thesis presents a detailed instantiation, and explains steps to be performed in order to instantiate CMOE+ for other modeling languages. In order to evaluate the process modeling instance of CMOE+, a CMOE+BPMN tool was implemented. This tool incorporates a BPMN modeler, facilitates storage and access of the ESO, and includes all algorithms functioning within CMOE+ for the BPMN modeling language (as some of the algorithms are language dependent). Next, CMOE+ was exemplified using the i* goal modeling language. Finally, we demonstrated the ability of CMOE+ to perform alignment between i* and BPMN models, in order to show that CMOE+ is indeed beneficial in achieving interoperability among models created in different modeling languages and covering distinct aspects of the enterprise.
... Other researchers as (OMG, 2008), (Almeida and Guizzardi, 2008), (Kavakli and Loucopoulos, 2006), (Yu et al., 2006), (Bresciani et al., 2004), (Liu and Yu, 2004), (Cysneiros et al., 2003), (Guizzardi et al., 2003), (Yu, 1996), (Davenport, 1993), have shown the representation of intentionality in the process models as a possible solution in order to guarantee the alignment between goals and business processes. The explicitness of intentionality seeks to represent the dependencies between processes and the actors' needs and desires. ...
... This section introduces the method's steps and principles to use and build the GRL model. Most of the ideas are adapted from Yu et al. [129]. Their proposal uses the organization's intentional concepts to support an EA (Enterprise architecture) construction and evolution. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The gap between Business and IT strategy development and analysis, in practice and literature, affects how IT uses strategies to define and prioritize resources for IT projects, initiatives, and operations. Closing this gap helps to support future developments better, changes in operation, and new projects and initiatives within the business and IT units, ensuring an analytical base for decision-making. We present a Business/IT goal/early requirements management model that supports i) the prioritization and definition of requirements related to both Business and IT strategies, ii) analyze how these requirements can be associated with new and old systems, and iii) the internal operations of IT/IS. The proposed model and process allow to build a Business and IT/IS Strategic Goals Model that can be analyzed and applied in IT Governance to support Business/IT Functional Alignment. The model was built while performing a case study in a Colombian university applying Design Science Research. The model was later evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods, with experts within the case study organization and external practitioners from the academy and industry. The evaluation results indicate that the model is helpful within the desired context. Interviewees also highlight that the model facilitates a better decision-making process based on parameters and indicators that are hard to negotiate with stakeholders. Such a feature is of utmost importance for strategists. Finally, they point out that the model improves strategy management and could positively impact tactical and operational strategies.
... Such proposals only emphasize on representing, defining, and analyzing the organizational objectives, but they disregard the inclusion of KPIs and objective-KPI relationships. Some of such proposals are presented by Kavakli [24], Engelsman et al. [25], Yu et al. [26], de la Vara et al. [27], Gröner et al. [28], and Giannoulis et al. [29]. The latter formalize the strategy maps [30] by using a metamodel. ...
Article
Organizational strategic alignment implies consistency among the organizational elements. Organizational objectives act as essential elements for leading such alignment. In addition, key performance indicators (KPIs) have demonstrated usefulness for assisting the strategic alignment allowing for a holistic control of the organization. Some approaches emphasizing objective-KPI relationships have been proposed; however, they lack of a fully appropriate method for treating organizational objectives, KPIs, and objective-KPI relationships. They exhibit some drawbacks in terms of ambiguity, stakeholder understandability, and subjectivity. In this paper, we propose a method for overcoming such drawbacks, by using pre-conceptual-schema-based organizational patterns as a way to operationalize organizational objectives in terms of the KPIs. So, a systematic method for deriving a set of candidate KPIs from a specific organizational objective is provided. In addition, we present a lab study in order to illustrate the main aspects of this proposal.
... The requirements were analyzed and integrated to develop core components of the framework. The conceptual framework was drafted using the i* model to approve the components [14]. The blueprint of Thailand's medical tourism framework was then finalized. ...
Article
Presently, medical tourism is a rapidly growing business in Thailand, while sustainable medicine is still being widely used as the basis for health policies. To improve the quality of life of people through holistic management, Enterprise Architecture (EA) is used as the strategic management concept in accordance with digital disruption. EAcombines both business and technology to align policies and establish governance. This paper presents a medical tourism framework based on the EA concept for sustainable development in Thailand. This novel framework has been developed both through comprehensive literature review as well as requirement analysis based on the i* model consisting of five layers including leadership, business, application, data, and technology. Moreover, the i* model is used to prove a relationship between the entities, especially the key stakeholders, the standards, and the compliance for each layer. The content validity and the kappa statistic were used for quantitative evaluation. This framework demonstrates that technology would contribute to enhance the medical tourism industry through the layers of data and application. Furthermore, the interoperability standard for health services, preventive medicine, and wellness activities are important for business layers. The proposed framework would generate advantages for the government in terms of good governance, transparency as well as process improvement.
... De acuerdo con [19] la racionalidad es el conocimiento que se encuentra alojado en la mente de las personas. Es la lógica de pensamiento y de actuación de los individuos en función de sus motivaciones, objetivos, intenciones, deseos, creencias, intereses, valores, vulnerabilidades y oportunidades [20]. La racionalidad es un fenómeno que se encuentra intrínsecamente relacionado con la manera de pensar, de percibir y de apropiarse de las situaciones entre las que se desenvuelve un individuo, y la forma en la que este convierte esas vivencias en conocimiento [21]. ...
Conference Paper
Ante los serios cambios que sufre el entorno organizacional debido a la inclusión y desarrollo de tecnologías de la información aplicables a la mejora de los procesos de negocios, se erige para las universidades un nuevo reto en cuanto a la formación de sus estudiantes. En particular, los ingenieros industriales son los profesionales que por excelencia se forman con el enfoque requerido para concebir, controlar y mejorar el funcionamiento de los procesos de negocios. Por ello, la asignatura Tecnologías de la Información impartida en la facultad de Ingeniería Industrial, dota a los futuros ingenieros de una serie de herramientas para la gestión de procesos de negocios con enfoque de tecnologías. Especialmente, se trabaja el tema de la modelación de procesos de negocios bajo el estándar BPMN. Sin embargo, ha sido determinado que existe un conjunto de elementos que dicha notación tiene la capacidad de representar a pesar de no estar formalizados como elementos gráficos de la notación. Por ello, se realiza un estudio de los elementos que componen los procesos de negocios que pueden ser representados mediante esta notación con el fin de incorporarlos a la racionalidad de los estudiantes de la asignatura para la realización de las tareas de modelación. RATIONALITY IN THE MODELING OF BUSINESS PROCESSES WITH BPMN IN THE COURSE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ABSTRACT. A new challenge for universities students training emerged, given the serious changes in the organizational environment, due to information technologies development for improving business processes. In particular, industrial engineers work in the improvement of business processes. Therefore, the subject of Information Technologies taught at the Faculty of Industrial Engineering, provide a set of tools for managing business processes with a focus on technology. BPMN as standard notation in used for that purpose. This notation has the capability of expressing much more business process meaning that those formalised in its graphic artefact. Therefore, a study of the elements of business processes that can be represented by this notation is needed, in order to incorporate them into the students rationale.
... ZF same as others EAF such TOGAF, IAF, FEAF, DoDAF within the primary principal consists of conceptual modeling language, that provides modelling platform and analysis list of the EA included strategy, process and dimensions of the application, as well as support various aspects of the structure and behavior of software artifacts [4]. In generally each EAF has different focus in providing architectural solutions. ...
Article
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Zachman Framework (ZF) is the framework of enterprise architechture that most widely adopted in the Enterprise Information System (EIS) development. In this study, has been developed Colaborated Architechture Framework (CAF) to collaborate ZF with Unified Modeling Language (UML) 2.0 modeling. The CAF provides the composition of ZF matrix that each cell is consist of the Model Driven architechture (MDA) from the various UML models and many Software Requirement Specification (SRS) documents. Implementation of this modeling is used to develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Because ERP have a coverage of applications in large numbers and complexly relations, it is necessary to use Agile Model Driven Design (AMDD) approach as an advanced method to transforms MDA into components of application modules with efficiently and accurately. Finally, through the using of the CAF, give good achievement in fullfilment the needs from all stakeholders that are involved in the overall process stage of Rational Unified Process (RUP), and also obtaining a high satisfaction to fullfiled the functionality features of the ERP software in PT. Iglas (Persero) Gresik.
... Thus it can be argued that a complete specification of an enterprise is possible using the Zachman framework, however, there exists no support for automated analysis as the information is captured typically in the form of texts and pictures. It can be observed of the existing EM languages that: the languages capable of specifying all the relevant aspects of an enterprise for organisational decision-making lack support [4,5,6], and the languages capable of automated analysis can only address a subset of the aspects required for decision-making [7,8,9]. Moreover, the system of systems nature and the large size of modern enterprises means that an understanding of an enterprisestructural and behaviouralis available only locally, from which the overall behaviour needs to be derived. ...
... Dataflows aim at representing how information flows and is processed through process execution (Aguilar-Saven, 2004). Role interaction models depict communication among process actors (Phalp & Shepperd, 2000) (Aguilar-Saven, 2004 (Yu et al., 2006). Finally, processes can be described using formal logic (Barjis, 2008) (Van Der Aalst et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
This chapter draws out the challenge of how to provide information to citizens with respect to organizational business processes, particularly public service processes. The aim is to discuss the issues concerning organizations' disclosure to citizens, particularly in describing how services are performed in these organizations. It relies on the idea that an urgent step to improve citizen participation in public matters, especially in public service delivery, is to provide citizens with ways to understand how and why internal processes must be conducted. The chapter reports on how business process models can be used for organizational communication and describes proposals to extend this communication to external actors. The conclusion presents remarks on challenges and future work.
... Thus it can be argued that a complete specification of an enterprise is possible using the Zachman framework, however, there exists no support for analysis as the information is captured typically in the form of texts and pictures. It can be observed of the existing Enterprise Modelling (EM) languages that: the languages capable of specifying all the relevant aspects of an enterprise for organisational decision-making lack support for automated analysis (Zachman 1987, Krogstie 2008, Jonkers et al. 2004, and the languages capable of automated analysis can only address a subset of the aspects required for decision-making (Yu et al. 2006, Meadows and Wright 2008, White 2004. Moreover, the system of systems nature and the large size of modern enterprises means that an understanding of an enterprisestructural and behaviouralis available only locally, from which the overall behaviour needs to be derived. ...
... Yu, et al. [26] conducted a survey to explore the potential challenges in context of business transformation and demonstration of Enterprise Applications (EA) practices. Further, it aligns to the business and IT architectures according to Government policies. ...
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An increase in business growth and revenue is the main objective of any business. There are various tactics to answer the problems i.e., about the growth of business and revenue. For example, one has also to answer for revising the company policies, motivational sessions for the employees, increment in salaries, and migration of business to a new place. The difference between a good and great business depends on the place of business. The purpose of migration is to expand the business where infrastructure cost is less, easily achieving business goals and need a comfortable market accordingly. The challenges occurs while migrating a business. Businesspersons can face various issues and problems. For example, how to identify the business challenges and know the basic legal rights to invest in a foreign country? To answer the problem, we have constructed a Business Migration Ontology (BMO) model to integrate information on the web accordingly. Therefore, three training sets used to construct the BMO. The training sets are semantically classified to find similarities and differences during the construction of BMO. The BMO facilitates the businesspersons to select an appropriate jurisdiction for migrating business, according to their requirements and possibilities. The BMO has semantically classified the legal acts defined by a jurisdiction, accordingly. The BMO facilitates to identify the required fields that have significance for businesspersons. The businesspersons can than determine to invest at a certain jurisdiction, accordingly. The BMO provides a complete view of different legal aspects according to various jurisdictions, which is helpful for businesspersons in the better decision while migrating their business.
... Enterprise modeling practice views an enterprise on three related planes namely Strategy plane, Process plane and Systems plane as shown in Fig 1. The strategy plane focuses on goals, strategies, and policies that are expressed using modeling languages such as i* (Yu, Strohmaier, & Deng, 2006), KAOS (Dardenne, Lamsweerde, & Fickas, 1993), and TROPOS (Bresciani, Perini, Giorgini, Giunchiglia, & Mylopoulos, 2004). The process plane focuses on realizing these strategies and policies to achieve the stated goals using modeling languages such as BPMN 1 , System Dynamic models (Meadows & Wright, 2008), and Event-Driven Process Chains (Mendling, 2008). ...
Chapter
Modern enterprises are large complex systems operating in dynamic environments and are therefore required to respond quickly to a variety of change drivers. Moreover, they are systems of systems wherein understanding is only available in localized contexts and is partial and uncertain. Given that the overall system behaviour is hard to know a-priori and that conventional techniques for systemwide analysis either lack rigour or are defeated by the scale of the problem, the current practice often exclusively relies on human expertise for adaptation. This chapter outlines the concept of model-driven adaptive enterprise that leverages principles from modeling, artificial intelligence, control theory, and information systems design leading to a knowledge-guided simulation-aided data-driven model-based evidence-backed approach to impart adaptability to enterprises. At the heart of a model-driven adaptive enterprise lies a digital twin (i.e., a simulatable digital replica of the enterprise). The authors discuss how the digital twin can be used to analyze, control, adapt, transform, and design enterprises.
... O foco principal é a orientação do planejamento estratégico no contexto do portfólio e mudanças diretas para os objetivos da organização geral. AE vislumbra entregar as mudanças certas na forma certa [7,12,24,25]. ...
Technical Report
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O Gerenciamento do Conhecimento (GC) emergiu como uma ferramenta que permite a criação, uso, distribuição e transferência de conhecimento eficiente nas organizações. No núcleo da GC existem três dimensões de análise: pessoas, processos e tecnologia. A Arquitetura Empresarial permite que as empresas visualizem objetos organizacionais em diferentes áreas (negócios, dados, aplicações e tecnologia) através do uso de modelos. Este trabalho pretende ser um recurso para empresas ou indivíduos que desejam implementar uma iniciativa GC associada a Arquitetura Empresarial.
... Dataflows aim at representing how information flows and is processed through process execution (Aguilar-Saven, 2004). Role interaction models depict communication among process actors (Phalp andShepperd, 2000) (Aguilar-Saven, 2004) (Yu, Strohmaier and Deng, 2006). Finally, processes can be described using formal logic (Barjis, 2008) (Van Der Aalst, Pesic andSchonenberg, 2009). ...
Chapter
This chapter draws out the challenge of how to provide information to citizens with respect to organizational business processes, particularly public service processes. The aim is to discuss the issues concerning organizations' disclosure to citizens, particularly in describing how services are performed in these organizations. It relies on the idea that an urgent step to improve citizen participation in public matters, especially in public service delivery, is to provide citizens with ways to understand how and why internal processes must be conducted. The chapter reports on how business process models can be used for organizational communication and describes proposals to extend this communication to external actors. The conclusion presents remarks on challenges and future work
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Management of the enterprise architecture has become increasingly recognized as a crucial part of both business and IT management. Still, a common understanding and methodological consistency seems far from being developed. Acknowledging the significant role of research in moving the development process along, this article employs different bibliometric methods, complemented by an extensive qualitative interpretation of the research field, to provide a unique overview of the enterprise architecture literature. After answering our research questions about the collaboration via co-authorships, the intellectual structure of the research field and its most influential works, and the principal themes of research, we propose an agenda for future research based on the findings from the above analyses and their comparison to empirical insights from the literature. In particular, our study finds a considerable degree of co-authorship clustering and a positive impact of the extent of co-authorship on the diffusion of works on enterprise architecture. In addition, this article identifies three major research streams and shows that research to date has revolved around specific themes, while some of high practical relevance receive minor attention. Hence, the contribution of our study is manifold and offers support for researchers and practitioners alike.
Conference Paper
This paper describes a modeling approach that helps to represent necessary aspects of complex socio-technical systems, such as organization, in an integrated form and provides a simulation technique for analyzing these organisations. An actor-based language is introduced and compared to a conventional simulation approach (Stock-and-Flow) by simulating aspects of a software services company.
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Architecture description can be modeled as a set of alternative choices and decisions, where the rationale and tradeoffs for each decision are documented and understood as needed to inform subsequent decisions. Each decision, based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010, pertains to one or more stakeholder concerns. These concerns combined with the system environment and scenarios provide architecture design context that clarifies the motivation for decisions. Subsequent authors have introduced the notion of an influencing decision force, using a many-to-many relationship with concern, to provide further context for decisions. For both concerns and forces it is left to the architect to identify the nature of this context. This paper proposes a systematic process for identifying and documenting design context in support of architectural decisions. For our work decision force is used as a central unifying aspect of the architecture framework metamodel. We extend the decision Forces Viewpoint to capture detailed design context descriptions, and add features for tagging the architecture description elements to facilitate identification of commonality, classification, and specialization. Initial feedback from industry stakeholders indicates this approach should be explored further.
Thesis
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In recent years, security in Information Systems (IS) has become an important issue that needs to be taken into account in all stages of IS development, including the early phase of Requirement Engineering (RE). Considering security during early stages of IS development allows IS developers to envisage threats, their consequences and countermeasures before a system is in place. Security requirements are known to be “the most difficult of requirements types”, and potentially the ones causing the greatest risk if they are not correct. Moreover, requirements engineers are not primarily interested in, or knowledgeable about, security. Their tacit knowledge about security and their primitive knowledge about the domain for which they elicit security requirements make the resulting security requirements poor and too generic. This thesis explores the approach of eliciting requirements based on the reuse of explicit knowledge. First, the thesis proposes an extensive systematic mapping study of the literature on the reuse of knowledge in security requirements engineering identifying the diferent knowledge forms. This is followed by a review and classification of security ontologies as the main reuse form. In the second part, AMAN-DA is presented. AMAN-DA is the method developed in this thesis. It allows the elicitation of domain-specific security requirements of an information system by reusing knowledge encapsulated in domain and security ontologies. Besides that, the thesis presents the different elements of AMANDA: (i) a core security ontology, (ii) a multi-level domain ontology, (iii) security goals and requirements’s syntactic models, (iv) a set of rules and mechanisms necessary to explore and reuse the encapsulated knowledge of the ontologies and produce security requirements specifications. The last part reports the evaluation of the method. AMAN-DA was implemented in a prototype tool. Its feasibility was evaluated and applied in case studies of three different domains (maritime, web applications, and sales). The ease of use and the usability of the method and its tool were also evaluated in a controlled experiment. The experiment revealed that the method is beneficial for the elicitation of domain specific security requirements, and that the tool is friendly and easy to use.
Chapter
Business Analytics and Intelligence tools (BAI) are spreading across all industries. As the amount of business data exponentially grows everyday, it is critical to have appropriate tools that make it possible to consume and take profit of this digital universe. Even though BAI tools have positively evolved in this direction, meaningful and productive use of data still remains a major obstacle for most organizations. Of drowning in data, they have moved to drown in reports, dashboards and data summaries. We believe that BAI technologies should evolve towards a more holistic approach in which business users can focus on business concepts and questions, without wasting time in lower levels of cumbersome data manipulation. We propose the Business Analytics Architecture (BAA) as the infrastructure supporting ‘smart’ and enterprise BAI operations. It enables users to define the business concepts they want to focus on, as well as connecting them with data at storage level. Analytical and data-mining algorithms are intensively exploited, all guided by the ‘semantic layer’ previously depicted by business users. BAA integrating up-to-date data mining and artificial intelligence techniques as well as some well-known business practices such as Balanced Scorecard and Strategy Maps.
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The entrepreneurial environment with an intensive use of information technology has need of a transdisciplinarity, as it is shown in this paper. In correspondence, an analysis of information processes and Industrial Engineering are required, as well as the design of a core competence identification model for the profession in such scenarios.
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i* models have been used for requirements specification in many domains, such as healthcare, telecommunication, and air traffic control. Managing the scalability and the complexity of such models is an important challenge in Requirements Engineering (RE). Scalability is also one of the most intractable issues in the design of visual notations in general: a well-known problem with visual representations is that they do not scale well. This issue has led us to investigate scalability in i* models and its variants by means of a systematic mapping study. This paper is an extended version of a previous paper on the scalability of i* including papers indicated by specialists. Moreover, we also discuss the challenges and open issues regarding scalability of i* models and its variants. A total of 126 papers were analyzed in order to understand: how the RE community perceives scalability; and which proposals have considered this topic. We found that scalability issues are indeed perceived as relevant and that further work is still required, even though many potential solutions have already been proposed. This study can be a starting point for researchers aiming to further advance the treatment of scalability in i* models.
Chapter
The city is a highly complex complicated and multi-dimensional organism that can be viewed as a system and as a network. By adopting this perspective, it is feasible to achieve deep conversion (transformation) and build a so-called smart city. The present article discusses an enterprise architecture-based model of management for smart cities, defining its main components and outlining directions for future improvements.
Conference Paper
To improve their service quality modern organization employees have to understand and put in action latest procedures and rules while coping with quickly changing contexts and decreasing resources. To this end a model-based architecture with interrelated enriched models is required in order to fosters an informative learning approach in the learning-by-doing paradigm. Such architecture enables organization employees to learn by accessing and studying enriched business process models and related material in a process-driven learning approach. Zachman Framework is used to organize all the models through the definition of the relations among them.
Conference Paper
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Enterprise Architecture (EA) plays a dominant role in today's organizations by providing a holistic view of business, information, systems, and technology. Unfortunately, designing an EA is a very challenging and sophisticated task such that 40% of EA projects usually fail mainly due to either an inconsistent evaluation process or ignoring the planning aspect of evaluation. In this paper, we present a complete survey of various published papers on recent advancements in EA evaluation techniques and discuss the Pros and Cons of each of which. We finally present a set of novel evaluation criteria as well as a Cross-layer Evaluation (CLE) approach, which can consider all the EA layers from the strategy and business architecture to technology architecture. The proposed approach offers tremendous insights into EA and can be easily incorporated into every enterprise with a moderate cost.
Chapter
In this paper, the authors put forward an intermediary model that can support the transition between a business model and an IT infrastructure, then provide an example of how the approach can be used. The model is based on a combination of existing models: enterprise architecture and the Business Model Canvas. The authors show how the proposed intermediary model, which has a strong focus on a business model strategy, can help IT alignment. The intermediary model can help alignment from either a business model focus or an IT infrastructure focus because of the correspondence between the two paradigms. The focus on visualization within the intermediary model aids in quickly illustrating the common ground held by the parties involved in the alignment.
Chapter
Enterprises constantly aim to maximise their objectives while operating in a competitive and dynamic environment. This necessitates an enterprise to be efficient, adaptive, and amenable for transformation. However, understanding a complex enterprise and identifying effective control measure, adaptation choice, or transformation option to realise specific objective is not a trivial task. The digital twin that imitates the real enterprise provides an environment to conduct the necessary interrogative and predictive analyses to evaluate various control measures, adaptation choices, and transformation options in a safe and cost-effective manner without compromising the analysis precision. This chapter reflects on the core concept of the digital twin, evaluates the state-of-the-art modelling and analysis technologies, and presents a pragmatic approach to develop high-fidelity digital twin for large complex enterprises.
Thesis
Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) is one mean to deal with the increasing complexity of today’s IT landscapes. Architectural models are used within EAM to describe the business processes, the used applications, the required infrastructure as well as the dependencies between them. The creation of those models is expensive, since the whole organization and therewith a large amount of data has to be considered. It is important to make use of these models and reuse them for planning purposes and decision making. The models are a solid foundation for various kinds of analyses that support the understanding, evaluation and comparisons of them. Analyses can approximate the effects of the retirement of an application or of a server failure. It is also possible to quantify the models using metrics like the IT coverage of business processes or the workload of a server. The generation of views sets the focus on a specific aspect of the model. An example is the limitation to the processes and applications of a specific organization unit. Architectural models can also be used for planning purposes. The development of a target architecture is supported by identifying weak points and evaluating planning scenarios. Current approaches for EAM analysis are typically isolated ones, addressing only a limited subset of the different analysis goals. An integrated approach that covers the different information demands of the stakeholders is missing. Additionally, the analysis approaches are highly dependent on the utilized meta model. This is a serious problem since the EAM domain is characterized by a large variety of frameworks and meta models. In this thesis, we propose a generic framework that supports the different analysis activities during EAM. We develop the required techniques for the specification and execution of analyses, independently from the utilized meta model. An analysis language is implemented for the definition and customization of the analyses according to the current needs of the stakeholder. Thereby, we focus on reuse and a generic definition. We utilize a generic representation format to be able to abstract from the great variety of used meta models in the EAM domain. The execution of the analyses is done with Semantic Web Technologies and data-flow based model analysis. The framework is applied for the identification of weak points as well as the evaluation of planning scenarios regarding consistency of changes and goal fulfillment. Two methods are developed for these tasks, as well as respective analysis support is identified and implemented. These are, for example, a change impact analysis, specific metrics or the scoping of the architectural model according to different aspects. Finally, the coverage of the framework regarding existing EA analysis approaches is determined with a scenario-based evaluation. The applicability and relevance of the language and of the proposed methods is proved within three large case studies.
Thesis
We are living in a connected world. In line with this trend, more and more devices have to be connected and communicate automatically. Through these new requirements the IoT emerged. The usage in industry, smart cities and agriculture are only a few of the widely spread application fields. Next to these, the healthcare area is able to take advantage of this technology trend in form of the IoT-WD. The potential of IoT-WD is recognized by more and more stakeholders. Ambient assisted living (AAL), telecare including remote vital data monitoring and personalized wellbeing approaches, e.g. recommendations of fitness trackers, are only a couple of the possibilities for health-conscious people to take advantage of the IoT-WD. All these functions are made possible by the conjunction and cooperation of so-called things. However, next to above named advantages, IoT is endangered to include new safety and security risks since connected things bring hidden dependencies, and thus, possible dangerous impacts. Especially, IoT-WD has to deal with health-endangering vulnerabilities. Those range from manipulation of intimate data to life-imperiling endangerments of exactly those with a higher need of care, like infants or seniors. Thus, an identification and elimination of safety and security vulnerabilities as early as possible is essential. Since 50% of security flaws arise during the design phase, architecture approaches are needed to offer timely identification and prevention of negative impacts on human beings. IoT systems consist of many components, some of which are very small but nevertheless provide important functions, resulting in complex system models. A manual check for dangerous or harmful design decisions in these models is tedious and would include outdated data, because the monitoring process would be highly time-consuming. Since each IoT system is different, a unified and automated way to make review approaches universally applicable is needed. For this purpose, a unified IoT(-WD) meta model and an IoT layered architecture is developed with which IoT architectures can be modeled and analyzed on a reusable level. The meta model contains wellbeing specific components to optimally depict the critical areas, but focuses on modeling of safety and security relevant system aspects and is accordingly based on known IoT safety and security challenges. As mentioned above, weaknesses often arise in the design phase, in form of so-called design flaws, which could already be noticed at this point but often only become apparent in the fully implemented live system. Since expert knowledge is often not or only temporarily available during the system development lifecycle issues are not caught early on. For this challenge this dissertation develops a Pattern Recognition Framework (PRF) to present a by design approach for a structured and semi-automated flaw identification process which focuses on pattern respectively anti-pattern based expert knowledge preservation. Linked to this is the assessment of identified flaws, as without further analyses prevention or mitigation is not possible. Since impacts can be complex and ramified, the process has to be automated as well. An analysis cycle is presented to show the technical and quantitative impact of potential design flaws including wellbeing information for assessment. In addition, the cycle offers a design decision method to weigh up possible countermeasures and to plan an optimized architecture including the required new services. In order to benefit from already successful architecture analysis approaches, IoT usable analysis steps are abstracted and adapted for this purpose. Finally, the approach of this dissertation is undergoing a three-part evaluation: Related work-based, case study-based and scenario-based. It is evaluated whether the individual approach steps not only cover the current State-of-the-Art but also extend it. Accordingly, it is ensured that no aspects are omitted. An AAL use case, which includes a smart home for the elderly, applies the different steps of the approach by identifying and assessing design flaws to evaluate applicability. A generated performance use case is considered to demonstrate the scalability in large complex models. The scenario-based evaluation includes examination of quality characteristics adaptability, expandability, scalability and reusability.
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In this paper, the authors put forward an intermediary model that can support the transition between a business model and an IT infrastructure, then provide an example of how the approach can be used. The model is based on a combination of existing models: enterprise architecture and the Business Model Canvas. The authors show how the proposed intermediary model, which has a strong focus on a business model strategy, can help IT alignment. The intermediary model can help alignment from either a business model focus or an IT infrastructure focus because of the correspondence between the two paradigms. The focus on visualization within the intermediary model aids in quickly illustrating the common ground held by the parties involved in the alignment.
Book
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An enterprise architecture tries to describe and control an organisation?'s structure, processes, applications, systems and techniques in an integrated way. The unambiguous specification and description of components and their relationships in such an architecture requires a coherent architecture modelling language. Lankhorst and his co-authors present such an enterprise modelling language that captures the complexity of architectural domains and their relations and allows the construction of integrated enterprise architecture models. They provide architects with concrete instruments that improve their architectural practice. As this is not enough, they additionally present techniques and heuristics for communicating with all relevant stakeholders about these architectures. Since an architecture model is useful not only for providing insight into the current or future situation but can also be used to evaluate the transition from ?as-is? to ?to-be?, the authors also describe analysis methods for assessing both the qualitative impact of changes to an architecture and the quantitative aspects of architectures, such as performance and cost issues. The modelling language and the other techniques presented have been proven in practice in many real-life case studies. So this book is an ideal companion for enterprise IT or business architects in industry as well as for computer or management science students studying the field of enterprise architecture. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005. All rights are reserved.
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John Zachman introduced a framework for information systems architecture (ISA) that has been widely adopted by systems analysts and database designers. It provides a taxonomy for relating the concepts that describe the real work to the concepts that describe an information system and its implementation. The ISA framework has a simple elegance that makes it easy to remember, yet it draws attention to fundamental distinctions that are often overlooked in systems design. This paper presents the framework and its recent extensions and shows how it can be formalized in the notation of conceptual graphs.
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Alignment of application architecture to business architec- ture is a central problem in the design, acquisition and implementation of information systems in current large-scale information-processing organi- zations. Current research in architecture alignment is either too strategic or too software implementation-oriented to be of use to the practicing information systems architect. This paper presents a framework to an- alyze the alignment problem and operationalizes this as an approach to application architecture design given a business context. We summarize guidelines for application architecture design and illustrate our approach and guidelines with an example.
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Abstract Acoherent description of an enterprise architect ure provides insight, enables communication among stakeholders and guides complicated change processes. Unfortunately, so far no enterprise architecture description language exists that fully enables integrated enterprise modelling, because for each architectural domain, architects use their own modelling techniques and concepts, tool support, visualisation techniques, etc. In this paper we outline such an integrated language and we identify and study concepts that relate architectural domains. In our language concepts for describing the relationships between architecture descriptions at the business, appli cation, and technology levels play a central role, related to the ubiquitous problem of business–IT alignment, whereas for each architectural domain we conform to existing languages or standards such as UML. In particular, usage of services offered by one layer to another plays an important,role in relating the behaviour aspects of the layers. The structural aspects of the layers are linked through the in terface concept, and the in formation aspects through realisation relations. Concepts for Modelling Enterprise Architectures Abstract
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Requirements are usually understood as stating what a system is supposed to do, as apposed to how it should do it. However, understanding the organizational context and rationales (the “Whys”) that lead up to systems requirements can be just as important for the ongoing success of the system. Requirements modelling techniques can be used to help deal with the knowledge and reasoning needed in this earlier phase of requirements engineering. However most existing requirements techniques are intended more for the later phase of requirements engineering, which focuses on completeness, consistency, and automated verification of requirements. In contrast, the early phase aims to model and analyze stakeholder interests and how they might be addressed, or compromised, by various system-and-environment alternatives. This paper argues, therefore, that a different kind of modelling and reasoning support is needed for the early phase. An outline of the i* framework is given as an example of a step in this direction. Meeting scheduling is used as a domain example
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. As information systems are increasingly being called upon to play vital roles in organizations, conceptual modelling techniques need to be extended to relate information structures and processes to business and organizational objectives. We propose a framework which focuses on the modelling of strategic actor relationships ("A-R") for a richer conceptual model of business processes in their organizational settings. Organizations are viewed as being madeup of social actors who are intentional -- have motivations, wants, and beliefs -- and strategic -- they evaluate their relationships to each other in terms of opportunities and vulnerabilities. The framework supports formal modelling of the network of dependency relationships among actors, and the systematic exploration and assessment of alternative process designs in reengineering. The semantics of the modelling concepts are axiomatically characterized. By embedding the framework in the Telos language, the framework can also potentia...
Book
An enterprise architecture tries to describe and control an organisation's structure, processes, applications, systems and techniques in an integrated way. The unambiguous specification and description of components and their relationships in such architecture requires a coherent architecture modelling language. Lankhorst and his co-authors present such an enterprise modelling language that captures the complexity of architectural domains and their relations and allows the construction of integrated enterprise architecture models. They provide architects with concrete instruments that improve their architectural practice. As this is not enough, they additionally present techniques and heuristics for communicating with all relevant stakeholders about these architectures. Since an architecture model is useful not only for providing insight into the current or future situation but can also be used to evaluate the transition from 'as-is' to 'to-be', the authors also describe analysis methods for assessing both the qualitative impact of changes to an architecture and the quantitative aspects of architectures, such as performance and cost issues. The modelling language and the other techniques presented have been proven in practice in many real-life case studies. So this book is an ideal companion for enterprise IT or business architects in industry as well as for computer or management science students studying the field of enterprise architecture.
Article
Information modeling is concerned with the construction of computer-based symbol structures which capture the meaning of information and organize it in ways that make it understandable and useful to people. Given that information is becoming an ubiquitous, abundant and precious resource, its modeling is serving as a core technology for information systems engineering.We present a brief history of information modeling techniques in Computer Science and briefly survey such techniques developed within Knowledge Representation (Artificial Intelligence), Data Modeling (Databases), and Requirements Analysis (Software Engineering and Information Systems). We then offer a characterization of information modeling techniques which classifies them according to their ontologies, i.e., the type of application for which they are intended, the set of abstraction mechanisms (or, structuring principles) they support, as well as the tools they provide for building, analyzing, and managing application models. The final component of the paper uses the proposed characterization to assess particular information modeling techniques and draw conclusions about the advances that have been achieved in the field.
Conference Paper
Requirements are usually understood as stating whata system is supposed to do, as opposed to how it shoulddo it. However, understanding the organizational contextand rationales (the "Whys") that lead up to systemsrequirements can be just as important for the ongoing successof the system. Requirements modelling techniquescan be used to help deal with the knowledge and reasoningneeded in this earlier phase of requirements engineering.However, most existing requirements techniques are...
Article
This paper presents a framework for architecture alignment that can be positioned between approaches for software architecture, which concern software artefacts only, and strategic alignment models, which have a business focus. The framework is currently applied in case study research to find alignment patterns used in practice. First results presented in this paper indicate that the framework might yield an operationalization of strategic architecture alignment models. We also present an alignment pattern found that shows a difference between how architectures are designed at the application level and the infrastructure level. We think this difference is significant for practical alignment models.
Article
Structured analysis (SA) combines blueprint-like graphic language with the nouns and verbs of any other language to provide a hierarchic, top-down, gradual exposition of detail in the form of an SA model. The things and happenings of a subject are expressed in a data decomposition and an activity decomposition, both of which employ the same graphic building block, the SA box, to represent a part of a whole. SA arrows, representing input, output, control, and mechanism, express the relation of each part to the whole. The paper describes the rationalization behind some 40 features of the SA language, and shows how they enable rigorous communication which results from disciplined, recursive application of the SA maxim: “Everything worth saying about anything worth saying something about must be expressed in six or fewer pieces.”
Article
Business Engineering bezeichnet die methoden- und modellbasierte Konstruktionslehre für Unternehmen des Informationszeitalters [vgl. Beitrag von Üsterle/Winter in diesem Band]. Methoden und Modelle sowie Werkzeuge, welche die Methoden- und Modellanwendung unterstützen, spielen damit im Business Engineering eine zentrale Rolle. Die Nutzung von Methoden und Modellen schafft Transparenz, erzeugt eine Kommunikationsgrundlage, unterstützt die Arbeitsteiligkeit und dokumentiert den Prozess des Business Engineerings. Durch Methoden- und Modellnutzung unterscheidet sich arbeitsteiliges, ingenieurmässiges „Konstruieren“ von individualistischem „Schaffen“.
Conference Paper
Requirements engineering (RE) is concerned with the identification of the goals to be achieved by the envisioned system, the operationalization of such goals into services and constraints, and the assignment of responsibilities for the resulting requirements to agents such as humans, devices, and software. The processes involved in RE include: domain analysis, elicitation, specification, assessment, negotiation, documentation, and evolution. Getting high quality requirements is difficult and critical. Recent surveys have confirmed the growing recognition of RE as an area of utmost importance in software engineering research and practice. The paper presents a brief history of the main concepts and techniques developed to date to support the RE task, with a special focus on modeling as a common denominator to all RE processes. The initial description of a complex safety-critical system is used to illustrate a number of current research trends in RE-specific areas such as goal oriented requirements elaboration, conflict management, and the handling of abnormal agent behaviors. Opportunities for goal based architecture derivation are also discussed together with research directions to let the field move towards more disciplined habits
Conference Paper
Requirements analysis includes an acquisition step where a global model for the specification of the system and its environment is elaborated. This model involves concepts that are usually not found in the final formal specification, such as goals to be achieved, agents and their responsibilities, etc. The authors present an approach for model acquisition which is driven by such goals. They describe a conceptual meta-model in terms of which requirements models are acquired. The acquisition strategy can be viewed as a systematic way to traversing this meta-model backwards from the goals. The goal-directed acquisition strategy and the use of the meta-model are illustrated with a case study, the specification of a simple elevator system
Article
Because most c-services involve multiple enterprises, creating a shared understanding of the service under development is ail issue. Such ail e-service is more difficult to understand than a proposition just consisting of goods because services have no easily observable physical properties. Consequently, software engineers must first understand the e-service itself before they can build effective systems and support for these services. Using i* modeling, the authors explore strategic goals; using e(3) value modeling, they consider how these goals might result in profitable services for enterprises. They demonstrate their approach using a case Study oil Internet radio.
Article
Structured analysis (SA) combines blueprint-like graphic language with the nouns and verbs of any other language to provide a hierarchic, top-down, gradual exposition of detail in the form of an SA model. The things and happenings of a subject are expressed in a data decomposition and an activity decomposition, both of which employ the same graphic building block, the SA box, to represent a part of a whole. SA arrows, representing input, output, control, and mechanism, express the relation of each part to the whole. The paper describes the rationalization behind some 40 features of the SA language, and shows how they enable rigorous communication which results frorn disciplined, recursive application of the SA maxim: "Everything worth saying about anything worth saying something about must be expressed in six or fewer pieces."
Article
Requirements engineering (RE) is concerned with the identification of the goals to be achieved by the envisioned system, the operationalization of such goals into services and constraints, and the assignment of responsibilities for the resulting requirements to agents such as humans, devices, and software. The processes involved in RE include domain analysis, elicitation, specification, assessment, negotiation, documentation, and evolution. Getting highquality requirements is difficult and critical. Recent surveys have confirmed the growing recognition of RE as an area of utmost importance in software engineering research and practice. The paper presents a brief history of the main concepts and techniques developed to date to support the RE task, with a special focus on modeling as a common denominator to all RE processes. The initial description of a complex safetycritical system is used to illustrate a number of current research trends in RE-specific areas such as go...
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Modelle, Techniken und Werkzeuge im Business Engineering