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Why People Use Social Networking Sites

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One of the recent popular social media platforms is the social networking site (SNS). Thus far, few previous studies have empirically investigated people’s motivations for SNS usage, especially not outside the U.S. This study combines a large-scale quantitative and qualitative research design, by asking 1,200 SNS users an open question regarding their reasons for using SNSs. An important conclusion drawn from a preliminary content analysis is that people often report many motivational reasons for using SNSs. The most important reason is to get in contact with new people (31%). The second most valued was to keep in touch with their friends (21%), whereas the third was general socializing (14%). A total of 11 different reasons and several sub-reasons were identified; that all give insight into the personal incentives that drive people to use SNSs and thus contribute to our understanding of how to develop successful social networking online.
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A.A. Ozok and P. Zaphiris (Eds.): Online Communities, LNCS 5621, pp. 143–152, 2009.
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
Why People Use Social Networking Sites
Petter Bae Brandtzæg and Jan Heim
SINTEF, Forskningsveien. 1,
0314 OSLO, Norway
pbb@sintef.no
Abstract. One of the recent popular social media platforms is the social net-
working site (SNS). Thus far, few previous studies have empirically investi-
gated people’s motivations for SNS usage, especially not outside the U.S. This
study combines a large-scale quantitative and qualitative research design, by
asking 1,200 SNS users an open question regarding their reasons for using
SNSs. An important conclusion drawn from a preliminary content analysis is
that people often report many motivational reasons for using SNSs. The most
important reason is to get in contact with new people (31%). The second most
valued was to keep in touch with their friends (21%), whereas the third was
general socializing (14%). A total of 11 different reasons and several sub-
reasons were identified; that all give insight into the personal incentives that
drive people to use SNSs and thus contribute to our understanding of how to
develop successful social networking online.
Keywords: Social networking sites, user participation, friends, user motivation.
1 Introduction
Every day, thousands of new accounts are created on social networking sites (SNSs),
though many have a very short lifespan [1]. SNS are also one type of online commu-
nity that relies on user contributions. This raises the question of how user motivation
and participation can be inspired for continued use. What makes an SNS successful in
terms of both end-user loyalty and highly motivated users is still unknown [2]; yet,
this is critical knowledge for designers and human factor engineers who build SNSs.
Therefore, on a general level, it is necessary to understand the people who will use
the service, as well as the goals and personal incentives they have for doing so. Simi-
larly, Preece [3] points out that the developing online communities require a deep
understanding of social interaction and the mediating affects of technology.
Some few attempts have been made to understand why people participate [4] or do
not participate in SNSs or online communities [2, 5]. These attempts have mainly de-
veloped theoretical frameworks or featured an empirical focus towards a certain type
of user (e.g., lurkers). Results from other studies on similar social media platforms
such as blogs show that bloggers ranked pouring out feelings and connecting with
people as the two most valued rewards for blogging [6]. Research done in previous
online communities has stressed the following motivational factors: 1) people with
shared interests, 2) experiences and needs, 3) supportive and sociable relationships, 4)
strong social feelings of belonging, and 5) a sense of shared identity [7] [8] [9]. Other
144 P.B. Brandtzæg and J. Heim
suggestions include 1) user visibility, 2) feedback channels, 3) a large user population,
4) low barriers for entering the community, and 5) accessibility and usability for
end-products [10] [11].
New forms of online communities, understood in this paper as SNSs, that target the
majority of the user population (e.g., Facebook and MySpace) provoke a revision of
understanding the social interaction and the kinds of activities people want to engage
in on such sites [2]. SNSs is defined according to Boyd and Ellison as a “web-based
services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a
bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connec-
tion, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others
within the system” [12]. A recent special issue section of the Journal of Computer-
Mediated Communication [12], collected studies of a variety of topics ranging from
the history to the development of SNSs. However, none of the studies explained user
motivations in social networking or how users themselves determine their motiva-
tions. Thus, in a section discussing future research, the editors, Boyd and Ellison,
pinpointed the limited understanding of who uses SNSs and their purposes for doing
so, especially outside the U.S.
With this in mind, we investigated people’s subjective motivational reasons for us-
ing SNSs by performing a quantitative content analysis of 1,200 qualitative responses
from social networking site users. The location of this study, Norway, is particularly
interesting for an investigation of these issues from a European point of view. In addi-
tion, it is interesting an interesting context investigating SNS usage because Norway
is characterized with high use of information and communication technologies in
general and SNS services in particular [13].
1.1 Theory
Several attempts have been made to understand the choice, use, diffusion, adoption,
and acceptance of media technology in the user population. Among the most central
of these attempts are the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) [14], the Unified
Theory of Use and Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) [15] and the Uses and Grati-
fications (U&G) theory. When it comes to user motivations, the U&G theory has been
the most common approach, explaining “why” certain media behaviour occurs. Users
are seen as goal-oriented, with rationales for their use (and non-use) of various media.
According to McQuail [16], there are four main motivational needs: 1) information,
2) entertainment, 3) social interaction, and 4) personal identity. How and in what way
these motivational needs also can explain SNS behaviour as well is not for certain.
One reason might be that previous studies of online communities have tended to de-
scribe the workings of the community for an external audience without addressing the
needs of the communities or their participants themselves [17].
1.2 Objective and Research Question
The objective of this study is to investigate end-user motivations to SNSs, in regard to
why people use online SNSs, analysing how users themselves determine their motiva-
tions for using an SNS. This knowledge will help us identify the personal incentives
behind the usage of SNS. We will further discuss if these are consistent with the four
motivational needs proposed by McQuail [16]. Our research question (RQ) is the
following: What motivates people to use online SNSs?
Why People Use Social Networking Sites 145
2 Method
An online questionnaire study took place over a three-week period in March 2007
among the users of four different SNSs in Norway. A total of 5,233 people responded
to the questionnaire, and the mean ages for the respondents in the four different SNSs
1) Underskog.no (mean age, 29 years), 2) Nettby.no (mean age, 22 years), 3) Hama-
rUngdom.no (mean age, 17 years), and 4) Biip.no (mean age, 16 years).
The above SNSs were chosen because, at the time of the investigation, they were
the most popular SNSs in Norway; consequently, they should provide a good picture
of what typical SNS members sought regarding their user motivation in popular sites.
The frequent usage and popularity of these sites are documented in a recent report for
The Ministry of Government Administration and Reform in Norway [13] which pro-
vides a detailed overview of the most popular SNSs in Norway. Nettby.no is the big-
gest SNS service in Norway with 800,000 users, and Biip.no is the most popular
among teenagers (350,000 users). HamarUngdom.no was one of the five leading
SNSs in Norway until 2007 (when we did this study), but has since been discontin-
ued. Underskog.no is the most popular SNS for users older than 25 years. The four
SNSs chosen represent typical SNSs similar to better-known services such as
MySpace and Facebook and fit well into the definition of SNSs provided by Boyd and
Ellison, as described in the introduction [12]. The nature and nomenclature of these
connections may vary from site to site. MySpace and Facebook were not included in
this study because they were in little use among Norwegians at the time of the inves-
tigation when the market was still dominated by national or more locally bounded
SNSs.
To collect user data, we used online user surveys distributed by banner ads on all
four SNS portals. This afforded the opportunity to access a large number of users
while they were actually using the sites. In order to motivate as many users as possi-
ble to take part in the survey, participants were entered in a raffle with the possibility
of winning a travel gift coupon worth US$1,750.
2.1 Content Analysis
The SNS users were requested to respond to the open-ended question, “What is your
most important reason for using social networking sites?” This question was designed
to encourage a full, meaningful answer using the subject's own personal descriptions
of why they participate in an SNS. The main goal was to reveal the motivations and
meanings of social relations and practices in a diverse SNS population.
We decided to approach the data using content analysis to be able to identify the
reasons people use such sites, using the same approach documented in another study
by Brandtzæg and Heim [2]. Content analysis is proven to be useful in describing and
making inferences about the characteristics of communications and patterns of usage,
as well as making inferences about the consequences of communications [18].
With more than 4,700 responses, it was necessary to reduce the comprehensive
content of qualitative information into a manageable portion of user statements. To
avoid user statements that lacked meaning or had low information value, we decided
to select the 1,200 longest user statements in terms of number of characters. This was
based on the assumption that longer statements were given by users who had taken
146 P.B. Brandtzæg and J. Heim
time to reflect on the questions. The qualitative material (N 1200) was manually
coded and quantified by one researcher using an Excel sheet. The coding categories
was based on an in-depth analyze of the 150 first user statements, which ended up
with all the 12 categories reflected different reasons (see results). Some users reported
more than one reason; we counted only the two first reported reasons for each user.
Thus reported reasons are therefore more than the number for respondents. To ensure
reliability of this analysis, another researcher repeated analysis of a sub-sample of 100
randomized user statements. To test the inter-rater reliability between the two ana-
lysts, the differences and similarities in their ratings and interpretations of the
different content categories in the quantitative content analysis were measured and
compared to be an inter-rater reliability of 89%.
From the responses to the open-ended question, several typical statements related
to user motivation were selected for a further in-depth qualitative analysis. This was
done to assess the respondents’ incentives for use, beyond analyzing the mere fre-
quency of responses. Thus the quantitative information is not used fully and the
analysis most therefore be regarded as preliminary.
3 Results
The following section gives a description of the different categories and some exam-
ples and quotations from the survey participants typical of the most important pur-
poses they have for using SNSs, derived from the content analysis. These purposes
are shown in ranked order, with the most frequent reasons listed first. As shown in
Figure 1 below, a total of 12 categories were identified, reflecting the most important
reasons for using an SNS. In total 1200 participants, reported 1518 reasons1, indicat-
ing that several participants had more than one single reason. However, a notable
finding is that people often have multiple reasons or personal incentives to use SNSs.
Therefore, identifying a single reason as the most important gives the wrong picture;
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Other
Family
Profile surfing
Unspecified fun
Sharing/cons uming content
Time-killing
Free SMS
Debating
Infor m at io n
Socializing
Friends
New relations
Fig. 1. Overview over the user motivations in SNSs in % , NC = 1518 (N 1200)
1 Number of reasons is from know referred to a number of counts (NC).
Why People Use Social Networking Sites 147
the different reasons should be seen in connection with each other. Thus, the most
reported reasons provide a good picture of what the users find most attractive when
using an SNS.
In the following, frequency is reported both in percentage and in number of counts
(NC).
1. New relations (31%/NC = 668): These users reporting the motivation of seeking
new relations and the opportunity to meet new people. Easy and cheap opportuni-
ties for contact with new people are seen as the main incentive. Several of the us-
ers are aware of the danger of “risky contacts,” but find it both more convenient
and more exciting to meet new friends in an online situation like this than to be
concerned about potential risk. Further, an SNS makes it possible to verify the
person and his or her profile (e.g., interests, look, friends) and to see if he or she
is interesting or “safe,” as opposed to ordinary open chat rooms without any pub-
lic profiles. In addition, through SNSs, people meet each other in ways that might
be more truthful and open than offline meetings; in that sense, SNSs have the po-
tential to facilitate communication between people who might be prejudiced
against one another in the “real world.” Further, these findings imply that several
relationships that begin online migrate to other settings. According to one user,
“It is easy to get in touch with new people, but also to limit or to cut off contact if
the person is getting too eager or aggressive or because of other reasons. There is
also other fun aspect with those sites, such as free SMS on www.biip.no”.
Subcategories include:
a. People with new girlfriends or boyfriends;
b. People who like the opportunity to make friends in new areas after
moving to another town/city;
c. People at school or university who have not dared to approach others in
real life and find it easier to do online;
d. People searching for new friends with common interests;
e. People living in rural areas seeking new friendships with likeminded
people: “I meet funnier people online than in my home district” ;
f. People that are lonely and searching for new friendships online;
g. People seeking new relations with users from a different cultural
background;
h. People tracing and getting in touch with people they have only “met out
in the city.”
2. Friends (21%/NC = 460): Users reporting contact with both close friends and
acquaintances. Often, people refer to their friends and classmates. They also often
report that they are part of a community just because their friends are, too. Those
who stress contact with friends describe the use of SNSs as an efficient tool to
keep in contact with several friends at the same time. They also regard SNSs as a
cheap and efficient way to keep in contact with friends and to follow what their
friends are doing and who their friends are in contact with. This category might
also comprise several subcategories, which help deepen our understanding of
what the different users actually mean by “friends”:
148 P.B. Brandtzæg and J. Heim
a. Meet “old” friends: people they have not been in touch with for a while,
often friends they had at school.
b. Keep in touch with other students/friends around the world after moving
away abroad to go to school or after graduating, or with other students
they know who have chosen to study in a college or university in
another part of the world.
c. Easy way to have contact with friends when living in a rural area and to
keep in touch with long-distance friends; “It is difficult to keep in touch
when you live in a small rural area and are ‘shielded from the world.”
(female 16, Nettby).
d. Keep in touch with friends on a new level, e.g., by sharing stories, news,
pictures, guest books, etc.
e. Keep in touch with acquaintances or friends not seen very often.
3. Socializing (14%/NC = 298): Users reporting the sharing of experiences in gen-
eral, reporting activities such as making small-talk and commenting in each oth-
ers’ guest books, but also social support on different issues. A girl 14 years old
from Biip is saying it like this: I have something to do in my spare time (…). I
have contact with friends, write in friends’. guest books, comment on peoples’
pictures, send SMS, and submit pictures of myself and things.” While a social ac-
tivity, the prime motivation here is the social aspect in itself, not necessarily the
making of new contacts. In terms of social support, one participant mentions the
SNS was a place to get a kind of support when she is depressed and wants to
commit suicide. Others pinpoint a kind of verbal ping-pong, which they find in-
teresting. Others mention self-confirmation as a reason for chit-chat, which also
gives them a feeling of being a part of something, of a community. People also
mention humor and the opportunity to be unserious as reasons to participate.
4. Information (10%/NC = 220): Users reporting access to information, including
about fashion, music, literature, cultural events, current happenings in their
neighborhood and access to new and shared knowledge regarding people’s opin-
ions related to everything from politics and to more tedious matters. Information
updates are related to: a) Friends; b)Neighborhood; c) City events; d) Fashion; e)
Music; f) Happenings; g) Help with homework at school f) interests/hobbies; g)
Other and more customized forms of information than on TV and radio. A typical
user statement that highlights both this and the debating motivations is: “I get in-
formed about events, publications, and net experiences; at the same time I am
making bonds and having discussions with other people. (Male 42 years, Under-
skog).
5. Debating (6.5%/N = 143): Users highlighting debate and discussions inside the
SNS. This category might be difficult to separate from “information” (see table
1) because debating often takes place in order to gain access to new information
through a collaborative discussion process. The ability to discuss different things
with people that you do not know or do not discuss things with regularly was also
stressed, as a means of making the discussion more open and thus more interest-
ing, as identified by the participants. Others point out the opportunity to discuss
with people their contradictory viewpoints on matters, as described in the follow-
ing quote: “It’s the differences between the people that make the discussions, and
that’s what I like” (Male, 23, Underskog).
Why People Use Social Networking Sites 149
6. Free SMS (3.5%/NC 78): Users reporting access to free SMS (short messaging
service) while a member of the SNS.
7. Time-killing (3.5%/NC = 78): Users reporting passing time as a main reason.
8. Sharing/consuming content (3%/N = 66): Users reporting the sharing and view-
ing pictures and videos as an incentive. They report in particular the excitement
of checking their profile to see if anyone has commented on their posted content.
9. Unspecified fun (2%/NC = 43): Users reporting fun, without describing any
particular reason. Includes only those reporting SNS usage “for fun.”
10. Profile surfing (1.5%/NC = 34): Users reporting the opportunity to surf other
users’ profiles as a main reason. This reason is related to the information cate-
gory, as people often search other profiles for information updates related to
different people. Several people who do this are motivated by pure curiosity.
11. Family (1%/NC = 26): Users reporting family contacts is almost absent as an
important reason for visiting an SNS. Only a limited number of respondents,
mostly girls reported this as an important reason. As the following quotation
show, the few respondents who actually mention contact with family members all
bring up “contact with friends” as their most important reason for visiting the
SNS. A young female typically mentions friends first, followed by family. “I
keep in touch with friends and family. I think it is fun to participate in discussions
(…). Beyond that, it is maybe to find some people that I have met once in order
to know them better.” (Female 16, Nettby.no)
12. Other (3%/NC = 72): Related to other motivations users reported for using an
SNS. Includes everything from using SNSs because they are curious about other
cultures and users to more goal-oriented activities such as promoting their own
work. For example, musicians, artists, and photographers are able to show and
promote their work.
4 Discussion
One of the main challenges for user research in this domain is the rapid change that is
taking place in both technological developments and user preferences. Thus, some of
the major motivations or preferences may be stable over time because they connect to
some basic needs among people, for instance, the need for social interaction. None-
theless, how these “stable” needs are satisfied, and through what types of channels or
communication modus, may change over time and between generations. In this study,
meeting new people was found to be the most important reason for using SNSs,
whereas maintaining contact with friends was the second most important reason. The
results presented herein is surprisingly in accordance with research on older virtual
communities; suggesting a promiscuity in “friending‘ behavior online. Typically we
should expect that people use networking sites to connect to others with whom they
share an off line connections, but our finding does not agree with the notion that
online social networks principally are coupled with geographically bounded relations
such as family, friends or students. However, the excitement of meeting new people
and making new friends is still a key incentive in the use of modern SNSs. Therefore,
SNSs seem to be an environment where the users easily foster the formation of weak
ties because of the availability of cheap and easy many-to-many communication [19].
It is no wonder that it is younger people in particular who use SNSs to become
150 P.B. Brandtzæg and J. Heim
acquainted with new people and to maintain relationships with their peers, despite an
awareness of the possibilities for unwanted contact with “risky” strangers. A study on
Facebook also found that usage of this SNS supported both bridging and bonding
social capital among students [20]. This indicates that SNSs are complex systems that
facilitate numerous forms of motivations related to different forms of social interac-
tions, which our study also suggests. Several of the users statements describe the
difficulties separating different motivations from each other, and many users also
document several different purposes for their participation.
Thus, these motivational needs may be classified to a higher level of understanding
in order to gain a better overview. As mentioned in the introduction, there are four
main motivational needs, according to U&G theory: 1) information, 2) entertainment,
3) social interaction, and 4) personal identity. Our finding of why people get involved
in SNS usage and how; fit this U&G framework quite well, as suggested by Table 1
below. Categories shown in parentheses are done because it is unclear how precisely
the category fits to the U&G theory.
Table 1. U&G theory related to this study’s results
U&G theory Our findings
Information Information, sharing and con-
suming content, debating
Entertainment Unspecified fun, time-killing,
(profile surfing)
Social interaction Socializing, friends, family,
New relations, free SMS
Personal identity (profile surfing)
However, it is interesting to note that self-presentations or identity not are men-
tioned as a key personal driver for participating in SNSs, despite the fact that re-
searchers name SNSs as a technology for personal branding and narcissism [21].
Thus, contact with friends may be linked to a strong social feeling of belonging and a
sense of shared or social identity. Further, the interests of looking at other user pro-
files (profile surfing) and the sharing of pictures clearly indicate an interest in how
other people choose to present themselves on these sites. Thus, personal self-
representation might be too abstract a notion for most users, who might not be aware
of its presence as a motivational incentive if not directly asked about its role. The
method used in this study may therefore have its limitations in grasping the personal
identity issues.
It should further be noted that this study only involves preliminary analysis of the
data set presented. The researcher plans to expand the results of this study with addi-
tional analysis using statistical methods to identify how different motivational pat-
terns are linked to age, gender, education, and different user types. To achieve a more
holistic picture of user motivations, this study’s analysis should be extended with
analysis about other aspects related to motivations and end-user loyalty, such as why
people decrease or stop their use of SNSs. Another limitation is that the SNS mem-
bers that participated in this study were self-selected directly for the study and are
therefore not representative. However, the strength of the present study is that the
sample was large and included users from four different SNSs. A quantitative content
Why People Use Social Networking Sites 151
analysis does include a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data which
contributes to the reliability of this study in terms of richer data. Thus, future studies
should include a larger sample and cross-national samples of representative online
users.
Despite several limitations, the present study documents to large degree users’ mo-
tivations for frequenting SNSs. From these finding it is clear that there are many ways
to improve SNS usage experiences by increasing the sociability. Better tools for sup-
porting different levels of social interactions and different forms of information ex-
change and sharing is a key conclusion. Consequently, encouragements to support
close social ties as well as weak ties and easy facilities for discussion and sharing of
information opportunities will produce improvements and. As pin pointed by Preece,
the people and the interaction among them is the pulse of any community [9].
5 Conclusions
The main motivation behind engaging in SNSs is to make, maintain and foster social
relationships. The most important reason was to get in contact with new people
(31%). The second most valued reason was to keep in touch with friends (21%), and
the third was general socializing (14%). Thus, a key conclusion drawn from the
analysis is that people often have multiple reasons for using SNSs. In total, 12 differ-
ent reasons (defined as important purposes for using an SNS) were identified; how-
ever, several of these reasons contain important subcategories of motivations that give
insight into the personal incentives that drive people to use SNSs and thus contribute
to our understanding of how to develop successful SNSs.
Acknowledgments. This research received funding from the CITIZEN MEDIA pro-
ject (038312) in the European Community's Sixth Framework Programme (FP6-2005-
IST), and the RECORD-project, supported by the Research Council of Norway and
the VERDIKT-program.
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... To identify such motives, the majority of existing research draws on the Uses and Gratifications Theory (Katz et al., 1974), which positions media users as active agents who selectively choose and use media to fulfill specific, personally salient needs. Therefore, from this view, individuals' motives are linked to what they hope to obtain from media use, and, in the realm of social media, they will take advantage of certain platform features and engage in some behaviors over others in pursuit of gratifying contemporaneous needs and goals (Brandtzaeg & Heim, 2009). Many such motives have been observed in the literature. ...
Chapter
Social media use is almost ubiquitous among adolescents and emerging adults. Although much has been studied about the psychological implications of social media use, there is currently no integrative model in which multiple dimensions of social media are considered. The goal of this theoretical article is to introduce the Multidimensional Model of Social Media Use (MMSMU), which aims to provide a useful framework for researchers and practitioners to study and understand young people’s social media use in relation to their psychological well-being. The model attends to three major dimensions: activities performed on social media, motives for social media use, and communication partners connected through social media. We present empirical evidence showing whether each dimension is associated with better or poorer well-being and identify or propose mechanisms explaining the associations. Before concluding the article, we discuss clinical implications and possible ways to further expand the proposed model.KeywordsSocial mediaCommunication technologiesWell-beingMental healthAdolescentsEmerging adults
... The most attractive function of SNS is a channel that it provides for users to showcase themselves to the public. That is, everyone wants to be noticed and share their thoughts and opinions (Brandtzaeg and Heim 2009;Shin 2010;Yang et al. 2011). However, delivering your message to others in offline spaces has many restrictions. ...
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This study empirically analyzed how ‘SNS-perceived playfulness, tendency of self-display, and information sharing’ affect ‘SNS addiction and exhaustion’ based on four major base theories, i.e. uses and gratifications, motivation, self-control, and motivational balancing theories. Furthermore, this study comparatively analyzed the influences of nationality on SNS addiction and exhaustion (fatigue syndrome) in six countries. The sample comprised a total of 1,198 people from six countries. Three statistics programmes (SmartPLS, GSCA Pro, and JASP) were used to approve the research hypotheses. (1) The SNS tendency of self-display and SNS information sharing had a positive effect on SNS addiction. (2) SNS perceived playfulness had a negative effect on SNS exhaustion, and SNS tendency of self-display had a positive effect. (3) SNS addiction had a positive effect on SNS exhaustion. (4) In the comparative country analysis, SNS tendency of self-display was the most influential factor on SNS addiction and exhaustion. SNS are highly convenient and practical, provide users with sensational entertainment, and enable exhibitionism (e.g. self-display, information sharing), thus potentially leading to SNS addiction, which in turn results in SNS exhaustion. Therefore, it identifies the appropriate antecedents, identifies country-specific differences, and proposes practical guidelines for users to prevent SNS addiction and exhaustion.
... Hal tersebut menjadi pilihan penelitian karena selama ini belum ada penelitian yang secara khusus membahas tentang tingkat partisipasi masyarakat terhadap akun media sosial milik instansi pemerintah khususnya di Indonesia. Penelitian-penelitian atau teori terdahulu digunakan sebagai rujukan dan pada penelitian ini antara lain adalah kemudahan penggunaan dalam teori TAM (Galletta, 1999) , kebutuhan informasi dalam teori U&G (Brandtzaeg & Heim, 2009a) , persepsi kegunaan dalam teori TAM (Rauniar, Rawski, Yang, & Johnson, 2013) (Zheng & Zheng, 2014) , kepercayaan pada pemerintah pada penelitian e-government (Carter & Bélanger, 2005) , rekomendasi dari orang lain dalam teori UTAUT dan penelitian sebelumnya (Setiawati & Pratiwi, 2015) serta penyebaran kembali konten pada penelitian sebelumnya (Boyd, Golder, & Lotan, 2010) (Xu & Yang, 2012) . Media sosial Twitter dipilih menjadi objek kajian karena berdasarkan hasil pengamatan yang telah dilakukan, media sosial tersebut yang banyak dipakai oleh instansi pemerintah di Indonesia. ...
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The presence of social media has a huge impact on life today. Social media get a special place on internet usage in Indonesia. As much as 87.4% of internet usage in Indonesia is used by the community to access social media. Government agencies in Indonesia have slowly utilized social media as a means of communication with the community. The concern is that social media users in Indonesia are very large, but public participation on government social media accounts is still low. This study aims to find out the causes or factors that influence public participation on government social media accounts that have never been studied previously. The study is based on literature studies and empirical studies to find the factors that influence public participation on government social media accounts. This research proposed a research model with six variables that represent factors influencing public participation to participate with government social media. Furthermore, the relationship between variables will be validated using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) -PLS method. The object of this research is the community that has become a participant on the government's social media account.The results of this study state that five out of six variables have proven to influence community participation to participate with the social media of the government. Keywords: social media, government, participation
... A social network is where new friends meet, and the newest knowledge, photos, films, and events are shared [33]. For three primary purposes, people use social networks: i) to make new friends, ii) to keep in touch with friends, and (iii) to organize social activities [34]. People are intensely engrossed in social networks since they allow people to become friends. ...
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span lang="EN-US">The purpose of this study was to gather, analyze, and elaborate big data on Facebook’s essential information, with a specific focus on the information obtained from Korean-popular (K-Pop) fan pages on the social networking site. For this analysis, a total of 3,531,736 comments by Korean-pop fans were gathered from various K-pop Facebook pages. In order to interpret how 11 extremely popular Facebook pages shape Thai fans’ enthusiasm for the South Korean music industry, descriptive statistics and visualization analysis were employed. Finally, data analytics and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the essential understanding of the Facebook pages. The research revealed three key findings: i) K-pop fan pages provide more opportunities for Thai fans to express their support for K-pop artists and advocate for causes, ii) K-pop fan pages provide more opportunities for Thai fans to communicate with K-pop artists, and iii) K-pop fan pages build opportunities for Thai fans to establish a more glamorous online presence despite limitations concerning financial resources, foreign language skills, and opportunities. In the future, the research outcomes may be valuable for academic studies and practice.</span
... Early research has focused on digital platforms that exhibit similar characteristics for unraveling types of user behaviors. For example, Brandtzaeg and Heim [7] highlighted that people who choose to use blogs as a medium of immediate social interaction have as a commonality the desire to pour out their feelings. Also, they feel a sense of connection with new and old friends. ...
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Purpose of Review The rapid development of social networking sites (SNSs) has affected adolescents’ well-being with great impact on social experience. In this scoping review, we aimed to map out what is known from the most recent literature about adolescents’ emotional well-being and the role of emotional regulation skills in preventing problematic SNS use. We used the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework, and we based the study selection procedure on the PRISMA process. Then, we selected 52 English and peer-reviewed papers from PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Wiley Online Library, and Web of Science. Recent Findings We found both positive and negative effects of SNS use on adolescents’ emotions with online self-presentation and social comparison as key mechanisms to explain differences in subjective well-being. The risk of developing problematic use of SNSs is influenced by time spent on SNSs, active or passive use, and adolescents’ social and emotional skills. Summary This review suggested the importance of emotional experiences and social support in both in-person and online interactions. Future research is needed to provide the basis for a better forthcoming classification of problematic SNS use.
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The significant rise in technology and the application of social media during the last one and half decade has changed the concept of communication and relationship among masses. Both social media & contemporary technology is increasingly becoming part of individual's lives in modern society; nevertheless, It has considerably persuaded student community (Raghavendra, P et al. 2018). They use social media for seeking online help via communication, preparing assignments and many other projects. Using the Uses and Gratification Model the current project tends to probe, the frequency of social media uses among the University students in Pakistan along with the level of needs gratification(general/basic & academic) of these students through their favorite social media site. It also aims to discover the correlation between different variables like age with social media use and level of needs satisfaction. The data concludes that 50.8% of the total respondents frequently use social media sites and were found constantly log on to their favourite social site. 36.1% being majority, visit their favourite social site more than 2 times a day & 13.1% visited 1-2 times a day. The study also concludes that 48.9%respondentsuse 2-4 hrs daily. The researchers also found that respondents were highly satisfied as their favourite social media site gratified their General/Basic and Academic needs to a high extent. For the general needs, 38.6% of the total respondents agreed to a "High Extent" satisfaction through their favourite social sites for information need, 32% for Entertainment, 32% for Surveillance, 36.4% for companionship, 31.3% for Relaxation, 40.2% for Excitement and Enjoyment need. On the other hand, only two out of the six academic needs i.e. 7048 | Dr. Bin Yamin Khan Uses Of Social Media And Needs Gratification Of University Students In Pakistan Pursuing course relating quizzes, exams & tests need and Communication with course teachers need were found gratified to a "High Extent", 36% and 33.4% respectively, while the rest viewing course schedule, accessing course notes, searching subject topics,& Preparing assignments were found fulfilled to a "Normal Extent".
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Today, recommendations that suggest possibly interesting contents to users using recommender systems have become a prevalent feature in various services. In the social network service (SNS) feed, one of the most active services that use recommendations, users now face the posts from the accounts that they do not follow. However, although the expected user experience with recommendations in the SNS differs from other domains due to a unique aspect of social connections, many parts of interaction with recommendations still have not been explored in the social network context. The aim of our study is to understand user experience with recommendations in the SNS feed and to explore possible design opportunities of the recommendations in the context of social interplay. Under this research goal, we conducted a qualitative survey composed of open-ended questions with 70 SNS users. The results show how SNS users interact with recommendations along with their expectations and obstacles regarding recommendations in their feed. Furthermore, we discuss implications for designing the interaction with the recommendations in the SNS feed.KeywordsRecommender systemSocial network serviceInteraction design
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INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF FAMILY BUSINESSES AND CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
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İnternetin yaygın olarak kullanılması ve kullanıcılarının sosyal ağlara ilgisi, işletmelerin pazarlama yaklaşımlarını, geleneksel yöntemlerden çevrimiçi yöntemlere doğru yöneltmiş ve sosyal medya pazarlamasının doğmasına neden olmuştur. Sosyal medya, içeriğe katkıda bulunmaya, içeriği paylaşmaya ve iki yönlü iletişime imkân sağlayarak, müşterileri pasif izleyicilerden aktif katılımcılara dönüştürmüş ve müşterilerin ürün/hizmetleri arama, seçme ve satın alma davranışlarında büyük değişimler yaratmıştır. Sosyal medya pazarlaması, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn vb. sosyal medya siteleri aracılığıyla işletmelerin yaptığı tüm pazarlama faaliyetlerine odaklanmaktadır ve işletmelere marka bağlılığı, marka bilinirliği, satışları arttırma ve en uygun maliyetle daha fazla müşteriye ulaşma gibi birçok fayda sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışma, sosyal medya pazarlamayla ilgili geniş bir kavramsal çerçeve oluşturmaya odaklanmaktadır. Ayrıca çalışma, perakende sektöründe sosyal medya pazarlamasının avantajlarını, zorluklarını ve stratejilerini inceleyerek ilgili pazarlama kararlarını alırken işletme yöneticilerine ve pazarlama uzmanlarına yardımcı olmayı amaçlamaktadır. The widespread use of the Internet and the interest of its users in social networks have led the marketing approaches of businesses from traditional methods to online methods and led to the emergence of social media marketing. Social media has transformed customers from passive viewers to active participants by enabling content sharing, content sharing and two-way communication, and has created great changes in customers' search, selection and purchase behaviors for products/services. Social media marketing focuses on all the marketing activities that businesses do through social media sites such as Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and provides businesses with many benefits such as brand loyalty, brand awareness, increasing sales and reaching more customers at the most affordable cost. This study focuses on creating a broad conceptual framework for social media marketing. In addition, the study aims to assist business managers and marketing professionals in making relevant marketing decisions by examining the advantages, challenges and strategies of social media marketing in the retail industry
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This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
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A study developed and validated new scales for perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which were hypothesized to be fundamental determinants of user acceptance. The definitions of the 2 variables were used to develop scale items that were pretested for content validity. The items were then tested for reliability and construct validity in 2 studies involving a total of 152 users and 4 application programs. After refining and streamlining the measures, the resulting 2 scales of 6 items each demonstrated reliabilities of .98 for usefulness and .94 for ease of use. The scales also exhibited high convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity. In both studies, usefulness had a greater correlation with usage behavior than did ease of use, though both were significantly correlated with current usage and future usage. Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a casual antecedent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a direct determinant of system usage.
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Participants in social network sites create self-descriptive profiles that include their links to other members, creating a visible network of connections — the ostensible purpose of these sites is to use this network to make friends, dates, and business connections. In this paper we explore the social implications of the public display of one's social network. Why do people display their social connections in everyday life, and why do they do so in these networking sites? What do people learn about another's identity through the signal of network display? How does this display facilitate connections, and how does it change the costs and benefits of making and brokering such connections compared to traditional means? The paper includes several design recommendations for future networking sites.
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The evolution of Internet offers new tools allowing ordinary people to become content creators. One of the latest popular tools is the Internet-based blog. Few previous studies explored and examined user motivations of blogging. In this study, expectancy theory is applied to construct a conceptual framework as well as a measurable model on bloggers' motivation to blogging. Expert interviews and survey instrument were used in this study. Interviews with bloggers were first performed to verify the questionnaire items of the attractiveness of possible outcomes resulting from blogging. After the construction of the questionnaire, a survey was conducted and 177 bloggers were asked to respond the questionnaire. From the 10 motivations examined in this study, bloggers ranked pouring out feelings and connecting with people respectively, as their two most valued rewards. They also assigned the highest probabilities to these rewards. The collected data shows that bloggers with high (both intrinsic and extrinsic) motivation for rewards have higher level of blogging intention. A blogger with higher blogging intention is willing to take more time to maintain their blog and post more articles on the blog.
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The subject of how to encourage people to share their knowledge has long been a theme within the domain of knowledge management. Early studies showed that company employees, for example, are often reluctant to share their knowledge (e.g., Ciborra & Patriota, 1998). A number of possible reasons exist for why this takes place, including: lack of personal incentives to share expertise; an organizational culture that does not reward or encourage sharing; and lack of trust that shared knowledge will be put to good use (e.g., fear of exploitation). Research identifying these types of barriers to effective knowledge management is well established (e.g., Brown & Duguid, 2000); however, within the context of online communities it is more recent. The term “online community” tends to be applied in a general sense to refer to large-scale groups that regularly exchange information through mechanisms such as e-mail, weblogs, discussion lists and Wikis. These types of communities can take a variety of forms, some of which mix face-to-face contact with computer-mediated interaction (e.g., some types of “communities of practice,” CoPs), while others are more likely to be wholly online and involve people who have never met (e.g., “networks of Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 4 pages > The World Wide Web (WWW) is a global, ubiquitous, and fundamentally dynamic environment for information exchange and processing. By connecting vast...